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Wa'Jter , y-oller ^ C?. Boston 

Massachusetts in the Rebellion. 



pisloriral ^position; of tjje Commontoealtj), 



CIYIL WAR OF 1861-65. 










Kntercd, according to Act of Congress, in the year IbOC, by 


In the Clerli's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 

Stereotyped and Printed by Geo. C. Rand & Avery. 

The People of Massachusetts, 





|:;0yaUy, ^ov« of ^iUi^i'ty, anil <^>lf-$actifia, 


TTwiSi ^MNSiC^g ©f? THE §TATi 






The historical position of Massachusetts, from her colo- 
nial days until now, is alone a sufficient reason for under- 
taking this work, offered to the public as a record of the 
part borne by the State in the suppression of the Great 

There is another consideration, of some importance, 
which was not overlooked. It must be from local records 
of the popular support of the General Government in the 
contest, mainly, that the future historian will gather his 
materials for authentic and complete annals of the conflict. 
While the author is not a son of Massachusetts, but of 
New York, he confesses to an enthusiastic admiration of 
the Bay State and of New England, strengthened by 
domestic ties whose genealogical lines run back to the 
'• Mayflower." He cannot be accused of the eflbrt to 
parade the virtues and extol the deeds of the people of 
his native State ; a consideration which may entitle him 
to some confidence in the impartiality and truthfulness of 
design in preparing a narrative necessarily incomplete in 
many of its details. 

To secure authentic materials, the request has been 
made, through the press and by correspondence, for in- 
formation from officers and others upon the topics pre- 
sented in these pages. In regard to the regiments and 
public men not heard from through officers and friends, 
the author was compelled to depend wholly upon the able 
reports of the Adjutant-General of the State, and such 


reliable fragments as were found in books or in the peri- 
odical press. 

This statement will explain, for the most part, the rea- 
son why the regimental histories differ much in length. 

Where a narrative has been furnished by a competent 
hand, he has not felt at liberty very materially to alter 
it, excepting personal sketches, whose condensation, with 
that of other contributions to the work, was demanded by 
the limited space and accumulating material, which, as it 
has come to him, has been impartially used. 

Unpleasant incidents in official relations and army ex- 
periences have not been introduced to any extent, be- 
cause it was no part of the design of this volume to 
discuss questions of demerit and incapacity, but to give 
the record of substantial service and honorable achieve- 

It was desired, and the effort accordingly made, to have 
portraits of all the general officers of Massachusetts ; but 
it was only partially successful. 

The author was indebted for valuable aid, during absence 
from the State, to Samuel Burnham, Esq., who prepared 
the chapter on the poets in the war ; to Chaplain Quint for 
the sketch of the Second Regiment, and a statement of 
the position of the churches and clergy in the war ; to 
Rev. F. Hendricks of Philadelphia, Penn., who condensed 
several of the regimental histories from the Adjutant- 
General's reports ; to Gov. Andrew, Gen. Schouler, and 
his efficient clerk, Mr. Wilson, Senator Wilson and RejD- 
resentative Rice, Assistant Secretary Fox, of the Navy 
Department, and Mr. Saxton, chief clerk, for valuable 
documents and statements ; and to Count L. B. Schwabe 
for pen and pencil portraits of fallen heroes, from his na- 
tional gallery, and many facts from his remarkable know- 
ledge of the war-record of the State. For the sake of 
uniformity, extracts from official reports, where the au- 
thorship was not known, have nothing to mark them as 


It is proper to state, that the selection of portraits of 
fallen heroes was governed by no personal partialities, 
but by circumstances bej'ond the author's control ; and 
was designed to represent different parts of the Com- 

Errors doubtless will be discovered by the reader ; and 
these, it is hoped, will be communicated to the author 
through the publishers, for correction in future editions, so 
far as practicable. 

The publishers have clearly done their part to make 
the volume acceptable to the people ; and it is committed 
to them in the hope that it will be. 

p. c. H. 
Boston, August, 1866. 














PART n. 

































































THE LIGHT BATTERIES — Continued 517 







THE WAR 559 




















FALLEN HEROES , . . C-,'9 


FALLEN HEROES — Continued 638 









This Country designed for Freedom. — The History of Massachusetts. — The Founders of 
the State. — Their Exile, first in Holland, then in America. — The Growth of the 
Colony. — The Progress of Free Principles. — Resistance to Oppressive Acts of the 
Mother-country. — The first Blood shed. — The Revolutionary Struggle. — Massachu- 
setts in the Republic. — The Opening of the Great Rebellion. 

GOD designed this country for free thought, and its highest 
expression in human society, — a republic. The history of 
Massachusetts is an imperishable record of this divine purpose, 
unfolding in national life and destiny. As, in a mountain-group, 
the beams of morning kindle first upon some solitary summit ; so 
the light of the sun of Liberty, rising on a new world, fell upon 
this ancient Commonwealth, and spread over the widening land- 
scape. In the advancing day, the single form of evil, admitted 
into the colonies, without a dream of its continuance, much less 
of its expansion into a system of oppression, whose " barbarism" 
would shock the civilized world, has yielded its life amid throes 
that imperilled the life of the nation itself. 

For a twofold reason, it is well to take a backward glance along 
the salient points of the history of Massachusetts, as introductory 
to her part in the late civil war. It will give, in her own progress 
and discipline, while educating the people at large for the tri- 
umphant vindication of nationality, and of the free principles that 
underlie its outward form through wiiich we have just passed, a 
sufficient answer to the unjust and repeated attacks, from certain 
quarters, upon New England. Wrote Hutchinson in 1674 : — 
1 1 


" The Massachusetts Colony may be considered as the parent 
of all the other colonies of New England. There was no impor- 
tation of planters from England to any part of the continent 
northward of Maryland, except to Massachusetts, for more tlian 
fifty years after the colony began. In the first two years, about 
twenty tliousand souls had arrived in Massachusetts. Since 
then, it is su])posed more have gone hence to England than 
have come thence hither. Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island, probably contain five hundred 
thousand souls ; a surprising increase of subjects of the British 


! " 

While it is not in accordance with the spirit of our institu- 
tions to raise the question of ancestral honor to that importance 
which it must always hold under the shadow of a throne, the 
Great Rebellion has forced upon us a just consideration and ap- 
preciation of our origin. 

The leaders in the revolt, thougli few in number, led and forced 
into its battle-field multitudes who had nothing to gain in the 
treasonable cause. In another part of the Republic was present- 
ed the spectacle of a free people paying their willing homage to 
government and law, and united by this single bond of loyalty 
running through all classes and conditions in life. 

It can be clearly shown, in opposition to the aristocratic asser- 
tion at the South and across the Atlantic that the unanimity 
among the enemies of the national flag arose from their common 
origin and superior blood, that it was, in fact, the unnatural 
agreement to which tyranny brings a people in its degrading and 
lawless service ; and the long-denied, incomprehensible union 
of the North was the normal state of the millions sprung from 
the same English stock, and pervaded by that intelligent devotion 
to freedom which inhered in them from the beginning of their 
colonial existence. 

Whittemore, in his " Cavalier Dismounted," has demonstrated 
by facts and figures " that very few of the early settlers of the 
Virginia and other Soutliern Atlantic colonies possessed any 
hereditary claim to the rank of gentlemen ; and even these were 
without the indispensable body of hereditary retainers, in whom 
a reverential submission was a matter of faith. In the true 
sense, in the signification yet attached to the word in Europe, 
they never did establish an aristocracy ; yet they founded an imi- 
tation which has yearly become more despicable. Instead of 
tenants, the new aristocrats peopled their lands with black slaves, 


or white convicts bound to them for a term of years. As a nat- 
ural consequence, their aristocracy became composed, not of those 
who had liereditary rank, not of gentry in the English sense, 
but of all those who could invest capital in flesh and blood. In 
Virginia and the Carolinas, the slave-owners usurped the name 
of gentlemen : they had a sufficient intermixture of that class to 
serve as a screen, and there were none to question their claims. 
The United States are essentially English to-day, despite the mil- 
lions of foreigners which have been absorbed into the population. 
TIic tendency of its citizens has been toward a democracy, and 
yet not toward anarchy and lawlessness. 

"When we inquire what controlling influence has impressed this 
form upon the national character, the enemies of the predomi- 
nant sentiment instinctively show that it is New England ; not 
the comparatively limited New England of 1863, but the New- 
England stock and influence which has invigorated nearly every 
State of the Union. In their ignorance of the past, these re- 
vilers of New England have been blindly attacking a greater fact 
than they were aware of. Not only is nearly a third part of our 
native-born population the offspring of the New England of the 
Revolution, but, long before that time, the intermixture had 
commenced. New England, colonized by Englishmen, homoge- 
neous in a remarkable degree, has been the only thoroughly pure 
nationality within our territories. The few stray Englishmen 
of education in the Southern Colonies, the much greater number 
of convicts, the increasing immigration of French, Irish, Scotch, 
and German settlers, have not only failed to overwhelm this com- 
pact and thoroughly alive minority, but have been formed and 
moulded into shape by it. In protesting against New England, 
the Vallandighams and Coxes are only proving the nullity of 
' expunging resolutions.' ' Can they make that not to be which 
has been ? ' Until they can recall the past, annihilate the past 
inhabitants of these States, and from stones raise up some other 
progenitors for the present generation, they cannot desti-oy the 
influence of New England." 

For the confinnation of these views, we may feai'lessly point to 
the unquestioned annals of the Commonwealth. 

In 1602, while Bartholomew Gosnold was making the first 
English voyage of discovery along the coast of Massachusetts, 
naming Cape Cod, and afterward visiting the mainland, de- 
lighted with the " fair fields," " fragrant flowers," " stately 
groves," " pleasant brooks," and " beauteous rivers ; " in the rural 


town of Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, and also in Gaiuesborough, 
" the choice and noble spirits who planted New England " were 
learning tlie lessons of truth and liberty under such teachers 
as Clifton and John Robinson. 

And when, in the spring of 1604, James I. declared, at the 
opening of the first parliament, that " his mother-church was 
that of Rome, and that the Puritans were a sect insufferable in a 
well-governed commonwealth," the blow was struck whose great 
issue would be the founding of a republic. 

Three months later, when the persecuting monarch demanded 
conformity or ejectment, upon no churches did the oppressive 
order fall with more severity than upon the Independents of 
Scrooby and Gaiuesborough. 

Two years of suffering and thwarted attempts to seek the more 
friendly shores of Holland passed before the exiles were united 
in a land, to them a " new world," because of its " uncouth 
language, different manners and customs, and strange fashions 
and attires." Among the Holland Pilgrims conspicuous in New 
England's early history was the scholarly and religious young 
Bradford, learning the art of silk-dyeing, although he had mas- 
tered tlie Hebrew, " because he would see with his own eyes the 
ancient oracles of God in their native beauty." Says the able 
and eloquent historian of Massachusetts, Barry, " Of other mem- 
bers of this Pilgrim Church, it is impossible, at the present day, 
to state with exactness how many were connected with this 
church, either in England or in Holland. No records have de- 
scended to us from which a list of their names, or an account of 
their proceedings, can be authentically drawn ; and, for the want 
of such knowledge, it is as absurd as it is unnecessary to " forge 
ancient archives to stretch their lineage back, and to deduce it from 
the most illustrious houses. Their proudest pedigree is Massa- 
chusetts and America. Si monumerUum quceris circiunspice.''^ 

Eight years' experience of toil and trial among a strange and 
uncongenial people convinced the Pilgrims that growth and free- 
dom could not be secured in Holland ; while they also shrank from 
the danger of assimilation to their neighbors by long-continued 
association, and intermarriages which would not unfrequently 
occur, until their distinctive character as a people was lost. They 
cast their eyes upon the sea, determined to seek a home some- 
where beyond its waters. The colonial lands of Virginia, which 
had for a dozen years been occupied, and Guiana, the El Dorado 
of the age, had each enthusiastic advocates ; but English asso- 


ciations and protection decided them " to live in a distinct body 
by themselves, under the general government of Virginia, and by 
tlieir agents to sue his Majesty to grant them free liberty, and 
freedom of religion." 

Three years later, in the year 1620, after prayers and tears, 
and counsel from Robinson worthy of the great crisis in their 
affairs, the exiles embarked for the English coast. " So they 


The voyage of the "Mayflower" followed, and the landing of 
the Pilgrims on a desolate coast, with a compact in their hands, 
which contained the true principles of republican equality, — an 
instrument whose dignified and reverent assertion of rights has 
no parallel in the history of colonial settlements. 

On Clark's IsJiind, Dec. 10 (O.S.), the Pilgrims observed the 
first Christian Sabbath kept in Massachusetts ; and, the succeed- 
ing day, went to the mainland, where, stepping upon Forefath- 
ers' Rock, they opened the first act in the " great drama," whose 
last " brought freedom to a wide-spread republic." 

Less than a decade of years had passed, when two great events 
in their formative influence upon New England occurred, — the 
founding of a new colony, as a distinct enterprise from that of 
the Pilgrims, with the speedy transfer of its charter from the 
company in England to the colony abroad, thus making them 
virtually one, and taking a decided step towards colonial self- 
government ; and the settlement at Shawmut, on account of its 
" excellent spring," by Mr. Johnson, followed by Gov. "Win- 
throp and others. . These gifted and educated men who laid the 
foundation of Boston were not Separatists, but Churchmen, who 
desired to escape from the corruptions at home, and, with their 
neighbors at Plymoutli, " lay some good foundation for religion " 
in the fresh, free air of the New World. 

Mr. Johnson, and his wife Lady Arbella, left " a paradise of 
plenty and pleasure in the family of a noble earldom " for " a 
wilderness of wants ; " and John Winthrop, the Christian ma- 
gistrate and gentleman, turned from the cherished associations 
which attend wealth and refinement to the same forest-home, 
leaving behind him his devoted and congenial companion. No 
loftier minds ever founded a city, a state, or an empire. 

Their sympathy with the Independents at Plymoutli in religious 


experience, and the passionate longing for freedom to work un- 
hindered for God and mankind, drew them toward each other ; 
and under the moulding influence of the Puritan ministry, 
which stands unrivalled in mental and spiritual power, they soon 
blended their fortunes, and harmonized in civil and ecclesiastical 

The church and schoolhouse, however humble, marked every 
clearing along the radiating lines of pioneering encroachment 
upon the boundless wilderness. 

The growing insecurity and danger of the colonies from In- 
dian conspiracies, and the jealousies of the French and Dutch, 
led them, in 1643, to make another stride in the unconscious 
progress toward a national independence. 

In the Preamble to the Articles of Confederation, they state, 
with the sublime calmness of a high and inflexible purpose, the 
law of a Union never to be dissolved : " We all came into these 
parts of America with one and the same end and aim ; viz., to 
advance the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to enjoy the 
liberties of the gospel in purity with peace." Then follows a 
summary of the causes which led to the " consociation," and the 
Twelve Articles that bound together "The United Colonies of New 
England," which was the " model and prototype of the North- 
American Confederacy of 1774." 

Just twenty eventful years of varied discussion of rights and 
privileges brought an open conflict of the colonists with trans- 
Atlantic intolerance. The king appointed four commissioners 
to hear and determine " all complaints and appeals in all causes 
and matters," civil and military, in the colonies, who, accom- 
panied by four hundred and fifty regular soldiers with their offi- 
cers, sailed for New England. Boston sent an eloquent and 
earnest protest against their interference ; and thwarted by the 
skilful and admirable management of her political leaders, whose 
plea first and last was the charter, the commissioners deter- 
mined to test their authority against that of the colony. May 
23, 1665, they ordered a merchant of Boston to appear the next 
day to answer to the charges of Thomas Deane and otliers. 
When the appointed hour on the 24th arrived, and the commis- 
sioners were prepared to proceed, a herald suddenly appeared, 
and with a trumpet-blast startled the royal representatives with 
the signal to listen to the governor's command, forbidding t!ie 
people to aid or countenance them in their invasion of charter 
rights. The astonished commissioners, after a fruitless attempt 


to revise the laws of the colony, and a further failure in their ef- 
forts in New Hampshire, which was then under the jurisdiction 
of Massachusetts, at length returned to England, to which the 
scene of negotiation was transferred. The machinations of the 
enemies of Massachusetts were eventually so far successful, that, 
in 1683-4, its charter was annulled. In May, 1686, his Majesty's 
commission of Gov. Dudley to be his royal vicegerent was " pub- 
lished by beat of drum, and sound of trumpet," and then 
transmitted to the several towns. Becoming unpopular, he was 
supplanted before the close of the year by Sir Edmond Andros, a 
" poor knight of Guernsey," who, flaunting the tinselled insignia 
of the office of Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of all 
New England, and attended by British troops, landed at Boston. 
His tyrannical hand was soon laid upon taxation, legislation, the 
press, and even upon matrimonial relations. To encourage the 
Church of England, and break down that of the colony, Andros 
sent for the key of the South Church, — a sanctuary which later 
became the very Temple of Liberty, eclioing its purest eloquence, 
— that " prayers might be said there." This was soon after fol- 
lowed by a proposition to tax the people for the support of the 
Church of England. As these despotic acts were multiplied, 
the question was indignantly asked, " What people that had the 
spirits of Englishmen would endure this, — that when they had, at 
vast charges of their own, conquered a wilderness, and been in 
possession of their estates forty, nay, sixty years, that now a 
parcel of strangers, some of them indigent enough, must come 
and inherit all that the people now in New England, and their 
fathers before them, had labored for ? " 

Increase Mather, the " great metropolitan clergyman of the 
country," who, Randolph said, was as " full of treason as an egg 
of meat," and the ministers of the colony generally, openly and 
boldly preached resistance to the oppression of their rulers. At 
this crisis, the Revolution of 1688 dethroned the Stuarts, and ele- 
vated to the throne the house of Hanover in the person of King 
William. This vindication of popular rights in the mother-coun- 
try was almost simultaneous with the outbreak of exasperated 
feeling in the colony. April 18, 1689, at eight o'clock in the 
morning, Boston wore the aspect of unwonted agitation. It was 
reported that Andros would fire the town at one end, and Capt. 
George, of the English frigate " Rose," apply the torch at the 
other, and then both make good their escape. Soon the people 
were in arms, the very boys l)randishing their clubs along the 


streets. At mid-day, a declaration was read from the balcony of 
the court-house, closing as follows : " We commit our cause 
unto the blessing of Him who hears the cry of the oppressed, 
and advise all our neighbors, for whom we have thus ventured 
ourselves, to join with us in prayers, and all just action for the 
defence of the land." A shout from the multitude rent the air ; 
colors floated on Beacon Hill, the signals of the opening strug- 
gle ; and, in obedience to the summons, the citizens and soldiery 
of the country came streaming into Boston. Before night, twenty 
military companies were formed in the streets. 

The next day, April 19, 1689, across Charlestown and Chelsea 
Ferries poured another throng, headed by a Lynn schoolmaster. 
The surrender of the castle was demanded, and reluctantly made 
with a storm of curses : that of the frigate soon followed. The 
government of And-ros was then overthrown, and a council of 
safety and peace was organized on its ruins. The royal governor 
was arrested, and, to secure him against violence, placed under 

In 1692, King William erected a new government in the Pil- 
grim colonies, to be called the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 
and include Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Maine ; inaugurating 
a new era in the history of New England, whose growth had been 
steady in numbers, wealth, and liberality of sentiment, along 
with a deepening love of freedom, and purpose of resistance to 

And, in our estimate of the character of these colonists, the 
question is not, indeed, " What were the errors of the past ? 
but What loere its aims ? " And while " industry, frugality, and 
exemplary integrity, were characteristics of the people," it was 
not possible " to stifle the conviction which had sprung up, that 
freedom was the inalienable right of man, not to be parted with 
on any account whatever." 

In regard to the participation of the Massachusetts Colony in 
American slavery, it is enough to say, — 

" Slavery in general was so repugnant to the principles of the 
Puritans, it was viewed with abhorrence ; and, fortunately for 
New England, it never reached the dignity of a fixed ' institution ' 
to be cherished forever." 

The unhappy witchcraft delusion, of which some have spoken 
contemptuously, and others with unsparing denunciation, was 
only the outbreak of an epidemic infatuation, which had long 
prevailed with more frightful results in Old England, and which 


continued there long after the excitement and its tragedies had 
ceased in America. 

Through all moral and political changes among the people in 
the province of Massachusetts Bay, their struggles against the 
arrogant claims of the mother-country gathered strength. The 
"irrepressible conflict" was eloquently set forth in the words of 
James Otis in the old town-house of Boston, February, 1761 : " I 
am determined to my dying day to oppose, with all the powers and 
faculties God has given me, all such instruments of slavery on 
the one hand, and villany on the other, as this writ of assistance 
is. I argue in favor of British liberties, at a time when we hear 
the greatest monarch upon earth declaring from his throne that 
he glories in the name of Briton, and that the privileges of his 
people are dearer to him than the most valuable prerogatives of 
his crown. I oppose the kind of power, the exercise of which, in 
former periods of English history, cost one King of England his 
head, and another his throne. Let the consequences be what 
they will, I am determined to proceed, and to the call of my 
country am ready to sacriiice estate, ease, health, applause, and 
even life. The patriot and the hero will ever do thus ; and, 
if brought to the trial, it will then be known how far I can 
reduce to practice principles which I know to be founded in 

John Adams declared that "American Independence was then 
and there born." 

The first victim of the Revolutionary period was the lad Snider, 
twelve years of age, killed by a shot from the house of Richard- 
son the " informer," fired into the indignant crowd the 22d of 
February, 1770. His funeral was attended by " all the friends 
of liberty ; " five hundred children walking in procession in front 
of the bier. 

The Boston Massacre followed on the 5th of March ; and, 
of the three killed on the spot by British troops, Attucks the 
mulatto, and Caldwell the " stranger," were borne to their graves 
from Faneuil Hall. 

The anniversary of the slaughter was observed with great 
solemnity upon its annual recurrence, fanning the rising flame 
of patriotism in the colonies. 

In the Representatives' Chamber at Boston, Nov. 3, 1772, when 
the committee of correspondence was appointed, — who subse- 
quently, through Samuel Adams and Joseph Warren, sent forth 
a statement of rights, and their violations, and, from the pen of 


Benjamin Church, a letter to the several towns of the province, — 
the foundation was laid of the American Union. 

The towns sent back in clear accents their readiness to stand 
by the committee and the proposed Union. As the uprising of the 
people increased in extent and ominous determination, " every eye 
was fixed upon Boston, once the seat of commerce and of plenty, 
and inhabited by an enterprising and hospitable people. The cause 
in which it suffered was regarded as the common cause of the 
country. A hostile fleet lay in its harbor ; hostile troops paraded 
its streets ; the tents of an army dotted its common ; cannon 
were planted in commanding positions ; its port was closed, its 
wharves were deserted, its commerce was paralyzed, its shops 
were shut, and many were reduced from affluence to poverty. 
Yet a resolute spirit inspired them still. The Sons of Liberty 
knew no despair ; and the " Liberty Song," set to the tune of 
" Smile, Brittania," bade the citizens of the beleaguered town — 

" Be not dismayed : 
Though tjTaats now oppress, 
Though fleets and troops invade, 
You soon will have redress. 
The resolution of the brave 
Will injured Massachusetts save." 

Such was the progi'ess made at the close of 1772 by the found- 
ers of New England. They believed not in the despotic cen- 
tralization of power, but in its consolidation. Freedom was not 
to them license to throw off wholesome restraints, but both civil 
and ecclesiastical tyranny, substituting in its place fixed, strong, 
and compact government, — the foundation for ages of progress 
in every direction of human development, under the acknowl- 
edged and welcome sovereignty of God. 

The cementing force in such representative authority was mu- 
tual confidence. And this very trust in eacli other sprang not 
alone from similarity of religious views and unselfish feeling, but 
from the conscious posssession of self-government, — that resolute 
self-control which fitted every man to be a ruler in society, be- 
cause he held all selfish, volcanic passions subordinate to the gen- 
eral good. 

Such intelligent estimate of human relations and duty led to 
another sublime peculiarity of character in their administration 
of power, — the transfer of the sentiment we call loyalty, the 
mind's homage to divinely appointed authority, from personal 


presence and external pageantry, to laio itself. It is true, the 
forefathers carried this supreme regard for the invisible soul of 
all just supremacy to the extreme of disdain for the tinsel of royal 
prerogatives and a mitred priesthood ; but there was still an intel- 
ligent appreciation of essential truth, tried in the fire of manifold 
and protracted persecution. 

March 5, 1773, in his oration on the Boston Massacre, Benja- 
min Church predicted that some future Congress would be the 
"glorious source of the salvation of America;" and, seven days 
later, Virginia, by her legislative resolves, advised a union of 
councils tliroughout the continent ; a measure urged with all 
the earnestness and eloquence of Samuel Adams. Then Phila- 
delphia spoke in behalf of Pennsylvania, denouncing the duty on 
tea, and branding him who countenanced its importation " an 
enemy to his country." 

Dec. 1(3, by the Boston Tea-party, at Griffin's Wharf, the " die 
was cast." Mothers and their daughters lent the inspiration of 
their affection to the fathers and sons, offering their highest sacrifice 
on the altar of Liberty. 

April 19, 1775, dawned upon Lexington, alive with preparation 
to meet the descent upon the military stores gathered there, of 
which the midnight couriers had forewarned the loyal people. 

Before the fire of Pitcairn's men fell eight martyrs of Liberty, 
and ten more were bleeding from the wounds which the arms of 
England had made. The War of the Revolution was opened 
on that day in the streets of Lexington. 

"What a glorious morning is this! " exclaimed Samuel Adams 
as he heard the sound of the guns borne to his ear from the scene 
of carnage. It is a suggestive fact, that Massachusetts then, and 
in 1861, gave the first blood of sacrifice to the country ; and Vir- 
ginia, the first to respond to her call in 1775, became the last 
great battle-field of ReI>ellion. The stirring events which followed, 
from Bunker Hill to Yorktown, make up the third grand period 
in the history of freedom on this continent. 

In 1776, Massachusetts had ten thousand troops in the Revolu- 
tionary army, whose entire number was forty thousand. She 
furnished more troops for the war than all the colonies south of 
Pennsylvania, three times as many as New York, and nearly the 
same excess over Pennsylvania. Amid the opening scenes of the 
struggle for Independence, the hideous anomaly in the Cliristiau 
colonies, African slavery, was not forgotten. 

In Worcester, where emancipation, as a measure indispensable to 


success in the recent war, was first advocated by Senator Sumner 
before the people in 1860, a convention of the citizens of the State, 
lately a colony, in 1775 declared their abhorrence of the enslaving 
of any of the human race, especially the negroes, in this country, 
and their purpose to use all means in their power to secure uni- 
versal freedom. About the same time, Massachusetts took the 
lead ill preparatory steps to a convention of the States, looking 
toward their confederation ; and, in 1787, her action received the 
approval of Congress. Meanwhile, in the Congress of the Thirteen 
States, March, 1784, Mr. Jefferson sat on a select committee to 
report a plan of government for the Western territory, including 
the extensive region which afterwards formed the States of 
Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi. The report presented to 
Congress an article fatal to the extension of slavery. It read : 
"T/m^, after the year 1800 of the Christian era, there shall he 
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any of the said States, 
otherwise than in punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted to have been personally guilty." 

A majority of the votes of all the States was required, and lost 
only by the absence of the member from New Jersey. New 
England, New York, and Pennsylvania were unanimous in their 
votes for the prohibition ; Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, 
against it ; and North Carolina divided. 

Thus the first great act of justice to the nation and a proscribed 
race, in Congress, after the dawn of peace, was defeated ; and the 
State solitary to-day at the North, by her position on national 
questions, and in neglecting to cast her vote for freedom, fastened 
upon the South the system which ruled the nation, and well-nigh 
ruined it.* 

In the Confederation of 1787, through whose action the States 
became a nationality, the first condition was the surrender at 
once and forever of a separate existence, reserving only that 
degree of local government which would be harmoniously subor- 
dinate to the life and sovereignty of the General Government . 

The honorable position of Massachusetts was recognized by the 
people in the selection of John Adams, in the first presidential 
election under the Constitution, to sit by the side of Washington 
in the administration of the power it conferred. 

Unfortunately, the objections of the Commonwealth, and of other 
States in the convention that adopted the instrument, to the 

* Since these pages were written, New Jersey has taken her position with her loyal 
sister States. 


legalizing of slavery, of the slave-trade for twenty years, and 
conceding the right of the slave States to demand the return of 
fugitives, were overruled by considerations of present expediency ; 
and the system of which Ellsworth said, " Slavery will not be a 
speck in our country," was destined to become the blackest storm- 
cloud that ever dropped its bolts upon a nation. 

In 1780, Massachusetts framed a constitution, which contained 
the declaration, that " all men are born free and equal, and have 
certain natural, essential, and inalienable rights, among which is 
the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties, and 
that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property." The 
Supreme Court of the State decided, that, by this pro^dsion, slavery 
was abolished. 

New Hampshire followed in the same manner in 1783, and 
Rhode Island in 1784. 

The general consistency of Massachusetts from her earliest 
existence, on the great questions of human rights, cannot be 
denied. It has made her the object of special dislike by the friends 
of oppression, and has given pre-eminence to her sons among those 
modern Nazarenes in the eyes of the " chivalry," — the "Yankees." 
Her citizens have not to any extent differed here. Party issues 
have divided her councils, and the extreme views of some re- 
formers have had the effect either to create silence, or draw forth 
an apology for the slave-power, whose claims were presented in 
the name of the Constitution. 

Those very reformers, among whom William Lloyd Garrison 
and Wendell Phillips are pre-eminent in talents, and the latter 
alone in the grace and splendor of his oratory, commanded ad- 
miring throngs, because, along with whatever of extravagance 
entered into their appeals, they reached and interpreted the 
popular conscience. Their moral courage entitles them to re- 
spect, which will be theirs when scorn has branded with eternal 
shame the last vestige of human bondage. 

In the broadening and deepening sweep of Massachusetts' ideas 
and sentiment, opposed by the sleepless propagandismof the South, 
and advocated so ably in Congress by John Quincy Adams, Hor- 
ace Mann, Charles Sumner, and Henry Wilson, political expe- 
diency and differences have been overborne, until her brow in the 
van of the world's progress is unclouded, and bright with unfading 

After South Carolina passed an act authorizing the imprison- 
ment of colored seamen, found on board of vessels in her ports, 


till they sailed again, this Commonwealth first appeared to ques- 
tion the right, and to protect her mariners. The Legislature 
resolved to test the constitutionality of the enactment. In 
conformity with the resolution, the lamented Gov. Briggs ap- 
pointed the Hon. Samuel Hoar to proceed to Charleston to pro- 
cure evidence, and institute legal proceedings. He arrived there 
November, 1844. His threatened life, and expulsion from the 
city with his daughter, is the brief history of his mission. 

The memorable Compromise of 18.30, followed by slave-hunt- 
ing at the North, was no less repugnant to the true heart of 
Massachusetts because her greatest statesman approved it on the 
ground of a constitutional demand not only, but that of concilia- 
tion and peace. The Nebraska Bill inaugurated a reign of terror in 
Kansas, among whose persecuted pioneers New-England emigrants 
were largely represented. But no event ripened more rapidly the 
general sentiment of the State than the trial and rendition of 
Anthony Burns in early June, 1854. The peaceful trial in the 
court-room, the armed soldiery escorting the victim to the United- 
States cutter "Morris" without molestation, while the Common- 
wealth throbbed to her extremities witli indignation over the 
mtended insult, illustrated, as nothing had done before, her 
hatred to the system that offered it, and hor indestructible love 
of order. The majesty of law awed the descendants of Revolu- 
tionary heroes into silence, wlillo, like the divine Friend of the 
poor, one of his disciples was led, as a lamb to the slaughter, from 
freedom to bloody bondage. 

May 22, 1856, the outrage upon Massachusetts and the nation, 
in its Capitol, was repeated by Senator Brooks in his cowardly and 
ruthless attack upon Cliarles Sumner. When he lay apparently 
near death from the wounds inflicted upon his liead, the State 
that sent him to the senate-chamber was moved with inexpressi- 
ble emotions of grief and horror. Tiie question was not, whether 
the remarkable speech on the Barbarism of Slavery was faultless 
in thought and delivery : it was enough to know that the mur- 
derous blows laid upon the brow of her senator were intended to 
express the domineering hate of the oppressor toward the Com- 
monwealth not only, but the liberty-loving North ; while it struck 
down the right of free discussion everywhere. 

The very next year, the Dred Scott decision was rendered by 
Chief Justice Taney, against whose inhumanity Justice Curtis, 
from Massachusetts, gave his decided opinion, although him- 
self a warm personal friend of Daniel Webster, and belonging to 
the conservative school. 


. The clergy and the chiirches, with comparatively few excep- 
tions, have always shown that fealty to the principles of righteous- 
ness in the State, which distinguished tlie days of colonial heroism 
m the pulpit and in the assemblies of the people. 

Thus nearly two hundred and fifty years of conflict with legal- 
ized wrongs, and of intelligent thought upon human rights and 
well-being, had prepared Mj.3sachusetts to meet bravely the 
second great life-struggle of Freedom on this continent. When 
the popular election of 1830 elevated to the presidency a man, 
who, in the minds of the people, will ever be associated with 
Washington, the trial-hour of Nationality came, and found her 
ready for it. 

It will be seen by reference to Congressional records, that of 
the score of antislavery measures, which, during the four years 
of war, swept away the defences of oppression reared by the 
national legislation during fifty years, more tlian half of them 
were introduced by members from the single State of Massachu- 
setts, whose prompt support of other bills was not unfrequently the 
influence that secured their passage. The abolition of slavery in 
the District of Columbia, the great work of national emancipa- 
tion, and the Bureau of Freedmen, are forever associated with the 
names of Massachusetts Congress-men. It is not an occasion for 
proud comparison with other States, but an historical fact to 
which we point the friends of freedom the world over, whenever 
the unfounded sneer is aimed at New England. 

The recognition of this providential position occasionally ap- 
pears in the record of public affairs made by the columns of the 
newspaper press. When the trinmphant vindication of the prin- 
ciples of our Government by the popular elections of 1865 was 
known, tlie leading papers of Philadelphia had expressions of 
congratulation like those we quote in this connection : — 

To commence with the extreme East, we find that the stanch old Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, whose consistency is as eternal as the waves of 
her bay, has, of course, rolled up her old majority in favor of the cause of free- 
dom. Small in size, small in population, when compared with her sisters, 
she is great in brain, and large of heart ; and her action yesterday was only 
what we had cause to expect from her record in the past, and her attitude 
throughout the darkest hour of our national life. 

Such a history suggests responsibilities corresponding with the 
greatness of the work committed to the Commonwealth in the 
training of her children for the duties before them, — not only to 


the South, but to the mighty West, throughout whose empire of , 
material resources they are to be no inconsiderable power in its 
progress and character. 

The influence of the State in the national covincils, the work 
done by her Congress-men there, and the action of the local gov- 
ernment at home, will appear more fully in the sketches of her 
leading statesmen when the Rebellion broke, like the storm upon 
the fisherman's bark of Galilee, on the Ship of State. No ship 
can go down with Him on board who guided the " Mayflower " 
over the wintry deep ; but it was well that we had skilful and 
faithful men to man our richly-freighted vessel when the tempest 
came, — an assurance that a kind Providence will continue to 
conduct it through the turbulent waters yet around it, onward in 
its course of glory and blessing. 



Influence of the Leading Minds of the State upon the Nation. — Gov. John A. Andrew. — 
. His Birthplace. — Enters College. — Graduates, and studies Law in Boston. — His 
Antislaverj' Position. — In the Legislature. — Governor of the State during the Civil 
War. — His Earnest and Active Loyalty. — Tributes to his Character. 

AMONG the inscriptions in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, 
not far from that of " The Nation's Birthplace," and be- 
tween two quaint, very high-backed chairs, each bearing the 
words, " Continental Congress, 1774," shine the golden letters 
which make this record of the past : — 

" Within these walls 

Henry, Hancock, and Adams 

Inspired the 

Delegates of the Colonies 

W^ith nerve and sinew for the 

Toils of war, 

Resulting in our National Independence." 

Hancock and Adams were Massachusetts statesmen ; and their 
names suggest again, by their association with the Virginia orator, 
the relation of the States to each other then and now. Side by 
side in the glorious pre-eminence of eloquent and influential 
statesmanship stood the Bay State and the Old Dominion in the 
Revolutionary War. In the civil conflict, the one was still first 
in active loyalty, and its expression in the character, and power 
to guide the people, of her political leaders ; wliile the other was 
both the first and the last great battle-field of Treason. 

We have already glanced at the history of Massachusetts from 
the voyage of the " Mayflower " (and even before that vessel set 
sail) to the establislunent of the Republic ; and this is not the 
place to dwell upon the illustrious names that link the early years 
of the nation's existence with those of attempted suicide by a 
portion of her vast empire. We must be content with brief 
sketches of the most conspicuous actors in the suppression of the 
terrible revolt ; and we begin fittingly this roll of honor with 

3 17 


bis Excellency John Albion Andrew, the twenty-first governor 
of Massachusetts since 1780. 

He was born in Windham, Me., May 31, 1818. His boyhood 
was free from vices, and of a cheerful, sprightly, and studious 
character. Graduating at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, in 1837, 
he removed to Boston, and entered upon the study of law. 

In 1840, lie was admitted to the bar. 

Thoroughly antislavery, he met every step of its aggressions 
with his protest, wherever his voice could speak for freedom. 

In 1850, the passage of the Fugitive-slave Law called forth his 
warmest opposition to the enactment, and its enforcement in 
Massachusetts. He felt then, what few will deny now, tliat the 
measure was an intended test of slave-power, and an insult to 
the Commonwealth. 

Ill 1858 he was elected to the Legislature, where his course 
was entirely consistent in the advocacy of human rights. 

He was a delegate, in 1860, to the Republican Convention 
which nominated Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency, and voted 
for him. 

The same year, he was elected Governor of Massachusetts by 
the largest popular vote ever cast for a candidate for that office. 

He foresaw, in the agitation at the South whicli followed the 
election of Mr. Lincoln, the beginning of a fearful conflict, and 
began to prepare for it. Tiie militia of the State was summoned 
to the armories and the drill, and nothing omitted necessary to 
place it on a footing of efficiency. The unequalled foresight and 
prompt action displayed by the Governor will necessarily further 
appear in the annals of " Massachusetts in the Field." 

Gov. Andrew was re-elected in 1861 with but feeble opposition, 
and successively in 1862, '63, and '61 ; and then declined to be 
again a candidate. His term of office expiring in January, 1866, 
he could rest from the herculean labor of carrying the State 
through the four years of war. He had given himself with untiring 
assiduity to the work of making the Commonwealth ever ready, 
as she was always willing, to stand in the front rank of the States, 
in cheerful sacrifice of all things, if required, to crush treason, 
and save the Republic by rescuing it from the grasp of a domi- 
neering tyranny, whose boast was that it took the fresh-moulded 
image of God from his hand, and stamped upon it, in the hour of 
its birth, '-^ Goods and chattels personal^ 

In the conference of loyal governors at Altoona, Penn., Septem- 
ber, 1862, he was conspicuous in hopeful, ardent patriotism, and 


prepared the address to the President, urging the issue of a call 
for three hundred thousand new troops to the field. 

His messages and addresses on special occasions, such as on the 
departure or return of regiments, the presentation of flags, and 
on other public occasions, are models of their kind ; and many of 
them, or extracts from them, will be given in appropriate places 
as we advance in the volume. 

His message of January, 1861, reads now like a prophetic 
oracle. Touching briefly, yet with marvellous compreliensive- 
ness and clearness, upon the disturbing elements abroad in the 
land, he vindicates the previous history of Massachusetts, and 
exonerates her from every charge of being in any way responsible 
for the unhappy dissensions. He shows her constant loyalty, 
especially through the years from 1850 to 1860, and her readi- 
ness to defend at any cost the national life. " Her people will 
forever stand by their country." Gov. Andrew then presents in 
a masterly manner the position held by the old Bay State to- 
ward the country by referring to the threatening condition of 
affairs, and with the following comprehensive question : " Shall a 
re-actionary spirit, unfriendly to liberty, be permitted to subvert 
democratic republican governmoit organized under constitutional 
forms ? " The whole tone of this portion of the message showed 
that he foresaw in a great measure the magnitude of the coming 
contest, and would prepare the people for it. But we then 
thought there was more of rhetoric than of fact in his weighty 
sentences. Time passed on, and we learned to be grateful for liis 

Gov. Andrew's keen appreciation of State and National affairs, 
and his promptness of action, are admirably shown in his mes- 
sage at the special session in May, 1831. It opens with the 
laconic words, " Tlie occasion demands action., and it shall not 
be delayed by speech ; " and then he points out ivhat is to be 
done, and hoiv it is to be done, in the tersest language. 

Want of space will not allow us to enter into detail; but' the 
reader is commended to all the messages of Gov. Andrew during 
the war. As State papers, they possess rare excellence, — practi- 
cal to the highest degree, comprehensive in their scope, far-reacli- 
ing in their grasp, yet adorned with a rhetorical l)cauty and 
a fervid eloquence that were magnetic in their effect upon the 
people. He never allowed the sparkle of enthusiasm to subside ; 
and, through all the long years of the war, lie, and through him 
the State, was the embodiment of true patriotism and high mili- 
tary zeal. 


Of course, in the war messages, there is much that was for 
immediate and temporary effect. Sudden emergencies were to 
be provided for, and the people were to be stirred in their emo- 
tional nature. Gov. Andrew's Valedictory Address, January, 
186(3, is of a different character. Closely argumentative, severely 
logical, with no superHuous words, it will stand as one of the 
ablest papers on reconstruction ever placed before the people ; 
and, by its strong contrast with previous documents, it shows in a 
striking light the versatile powers of the distinguished author. 

A few extracts from different State papers will indicate the 
tone of the whole. From his message to the Senate, January, 
1862, we quote : — 

Military education, both in the militia and in connection with the earlier 
trainino; of the seminaries of learniuo;, and the establishment of a school 
within the State taught by professors of military science, are all subjects 
deeply engaging the minds of the people. 

It is to be hoped that Congress at its present session will adopt some 
comprehensive national plan of militia organization, requiring all men within 
certain ages to make it a point of honor and duty to instruct, strengthen, 
and recreate themselves l)y that reasonable training desirable to prepare the 
citizen to shoulder the musket at any crisis of pubhc danger or disaster. 

I venture to recommend that our own militia should be brought to the high- 
est perfection possible by legislative encouragement. Can it be regarded as 
due to the momentous possibilities of the future, or just to the people, that 
less than twenty-five thousand men, fitted and furnished to be mobilized in a 
week, should constitute an active militia ? . . . 

The ultimate extinction of human slavery is inevitable. That this war, 
which is the revolt of slavery (checkmated by an election, and permanently 
subordinated by the census) not merely against the Union and the Consti- 
tution, but against popular government and democratic institutions, will deal 
it a mortal blow, is not less inevitable. 

I may not argue the proposition ; but it is true. And while the prin- 
ciples and opinions adopted in my earliest manhood, growing with every year 
in strength and intelligence of conviction, point always to the policy of ju.s- 
tice, the expediency of humanity, and the necessity of duty, to which the 
relations of our Government and people to the whole subject of slavery form 
no exception, — so that I have always believed that every constitutional power 
belonging to the Government, and every just influence of the people, ought 
to be used to limit and terminate this enormous wrong, which curses not only 
the bondman and his master, but blasts the very soil they stand upon, — I 
yet mean, as I have done since the beginning of the " secession," — I mean to 
continue to school myself to silence. I cannot suspect that my opinions, in 
view of the past, can be misconceived by any to whom they may be of the 
shghtest consequence or curiosity. Nor do I believe that the faith of Massa- 


eliusetts can be mistaken or misinterpreted. The record of her declared 
opinions is resplendent with instruction, and even with prophecy ; but she 
was treated for years as the Cassandra of the States, disliked because of her 
fidelity to the ancient faith, and avoided because of her warnings and her 
testimony. And now, when the Divine Providence is leading all the people 
in ways they had not imagined, I will not dare attempt to run before, and 
possibly imperil, the truth itself. Let him lead to whom the people have 
assigned the authority and the power. One great duty of absorbing, royal 
patriotism, which is the public duty of the occasion, demands us all to follow. 
Placed in no situation where it becomes me to discuss his policy, I do not 
stop even to consider it. The only question which I can entertain is what to 
do, and, when that question is answered, the other is what next to do, in 
the sphere of activity where it is given me to stand ; for by deeds, and not 
by words, is this people to accomplish their salvation. 

Let ours be the duty in this great emergency to furnish, in unstinted 
measure, the men and the money required of us for the common defence. 
Let Massachusetts ideas and Massachusetts principles go forth, with the in- 
dustrious, sturdy sons of the Commonwealth, to propagate and intensify, in 
every camp and upon every battle-field, that love of equal liberty, and those 
rights of universal humanity, which are the basis of our instituiions ; but 
let none of us who remain at home presume to direct the pilot or to seize 
the helm. To the civil head of the National State, to the military head of 
the National Army, our fidelity, our confidence, our constant, devoted, 
unwavering support, rendered in the spirit of intelligent freemen, of large- 
minded citizens, conscious of the difficulties of government, the responsibili- 
ties of power, the perils of distrust and division, are due without measure 
and without reservation. 

The Great Rebellion must be put down, and its promoters crushed be- 
neath the ruins of their own ambition. The greatest crime of history must 
receive a doom so swift and sure, that the enemies of popular government 
shall stand in awe while they contemplate the elastic energy and concentra- 
tive power of democratic institutions and a free people. 

Inspired by trust in God, and an immortal hate of wrong, let us conse- 
crate to-day every personal aspiration and every private hope in one united 
apostrophe to our country and her cause : " Where thou goest, I will go ; 
and where thou lodgest, I will lodge : thy people shall be my people, and 
thy God my God : where thou diest will I die, and there will I be buried." 

While we naturally glance first at the military features of Gov. 
Andrew's administration, it should be borne in mind that he 
looked after the interests of the State, in all directions, with his 
characteristic energy and ability. We point with pride to his 
message of January, 1863, in which he treats of the educational 
interests of the Commonwealth with a clearness of insight, and 
breadth of view, rarely equalled. President Hill, of Harvard Col- 


lege, who probably is better acquainted than any other man with 
Gov. Andrew's views on the subject of education, remarks, in a 
private letter, — 

Gov. Andrew has, during bis official career, shown a great interest in the 
cause of education, and an understanding of its needs far above that of states- 
men in general. I know of no man whose general views are wider in their 
grasp, or wiser in their details. His message to the Legislature, Jan. 10, 
1863, has been quoted with high ajtprobation in France and in Germany ; 
and, had the General Court that winter shown any thing of the same lofty 
spirit, Massachusetts would have placed herself, under his administration, in 
the same high rank in the work of education that she took in the work of up- 
holding the Federal Government. But he was in advance of his State, and 
the great opportunity failed. Yet how nobly he bore it ! and with what wis- 
dom set himself about accompUshing, in the best manner, the inferior ends to 
which the Legislature determined to apply the fund ! 

Perhaps, as a purely literary production, his address before the 
New-Eugland Agricultural Society, in September, 1864, is espe- 
cially creditable. It closed with this passage : — 

In behalf of such a Union and such a Government, a people like those 
of New England will continue in tlie future as they have done in the past, 
by the methods of peace and in the shock of arms, to struggle against every 
foe, unconscious of dismay, and despising temptation. For the preservation 
of our nationality, they have, like their brethren in other sections, accepted 
the dread appeal to arms. For the sake of maintaining government and 
order and public liberty, the loyal men of the Union have not shunned the 
arbitrament of war. Lovers of peace, and haters of discord, we of New 
England are slow to draw the blade ; but we are slower still to yield to the 
infamy which must blast a coward's name, or to that infirmity of purpose 
which grows tired of a grand and momentous duty because it tasks our 
manhood or our faith. To protect the printing-press, the plough, the anchor, 
the loom, the cradle, the fireside, and the altar, the rights of labor, the 
earnings of industry, the security and the peace of home, if it must be, we 
can wield the sword, nor return it hastily to its wonted scabbard ; for the 
brand of war becomes then the sacred emblem of every duty and every 

" The sword ! — a name of dread ; yet when 

Upon the freeman's thigh 'lis bound, 
While for his altar and his liearth, 
While for the land that gave him birth. 

The war-drums i-oli, the trumpets sound, 
How sacred is it then ! 

Whenever for the Truth and Right 

It flashes in the van of fight, — 

Whether in some wild mountain-pass, 

As that where fell Leonidas ; 


Or on some sterile plain, and stern, — 
A Marston or a Bannockburn ; 
Or 'mid fierce crags and bursting rills, 
The Switzer's Alps, gray Tyrol's hills ; 
Or, as when sunk the Armada's pride, 
It gleams above the stormy tide, — 
Still, still, whene'er the battle-word 
Is Liberty, when men do stand 
For justice and their native land. 
Then Heaven bless the swokd ! " 

The Governor's last words upon the militia of the State were 
spoken Jan. 3, 1866, He gave very clearly his views of its con- 
dition and wants ; saying, in regard to the latter, — 

I had hoped, during nearly five years, to have the satisfaction, on my 
relinquishing office, of leaving a strong body of active militia, well organized, 
well disciplined, thoroughly armed, uniformed, and equipped. With careful 
pains, the material needed for the purposes of such a body, ample in num- 
bers, has been accumulated ; and had it been in my power to district the 
Commonwealth, and draft soldiers up to the number of men of different aims 
limited by the act of 1865, with the right also to receive volunteers and 
substitutes instead of drafted men, and also to cause the uniforms to be served 
out both understandingly and with safety to the public property, it would 
have been easy at this moment to present rolls and rosters of a body of citi- 
zen-soldiers never surpassed. The proportion of active militia would have 
been about one-fifteenth of the whole body of men enrolled for duty. And, 
at a reasonable compensation for each day's training, it would be easy to 
keep on foot such a proportion. Militia service, Ukc service on the juries or 
other public duties, would be regarded as alike important and honorable. If 
the term for each man was limited to three years, no young man would deem 
it onerous ; and, with all our recent experiences fresh in mind, the people 
of Massachusetts could not be contented with the wasteful economy of leav- 
ing the State undefended, and unready for any defence. We have now in 
commission many officers, and on our rolls many soldiers, of the highest 
merit. It was my utmost pride to be completely identified with their final 
and successful organization ; but it was not fit for me, by anticipating 
events or acting in advance of needful legislation, to risk the great interests 
of the future strength and fame of the militia. Calling renewed attention 
to the reports referred to, I leave the subject to the wisdom of the Legis- 

Gov, Andrew's Message to the Legislature, April 17, 1865, on 
the death of Mr, Lincoln, was perhaps, for a brief document, one 
of his best efforts. We can quote no more than the opening and 
closing paragraphs, passing over his clear and accurate analysis 
of the President's character, which we have not seen equalled by 
any published estimates of his qualities of mind and heart : — 


Since the last adjournment of tlie General Court of Massachusetts, the 
people of the United States have been overtaken by a great and enduring 
sorrow. In the midst of the exultations of recent and repeated victory, in 
the midst of the highest hopes, of the most auspicious omens, in the hour of 
universal joy, the nation passed at once, by an inscrutable and mysterious 
Providence, into the valley of the shadow of death. Assembled while the 
cloud is yet thick upon our eyes, and the hearts of men are oppressed by the 
sense of a strange dismay, it has become my mournful duty to record, by 
formal and official announcement to the legislative department of the Com- 
monwealth, this calamitous and distressing event. 

But there now remains to us yet another and perhaps a greater labor. On 
the ruins of that social despotism, over the fallen altars of that barbarism, in 
whose despairing death-throe was planned and executed this dastardly assas- 
sination, by the side of the bleeding form of all that was mortal in that 
magnanimous father of his people, let us pronounce the vows of a new 

" Powers depart, 
Possessions vanish, and opinions change, 
And passions hold a fluctuating seat; 
But by the storms of circumstance unshaken, 
And subject neither to eclipse nor wane, 
Duty exists.'' 

Order, law, freedom, and true civilization, must rise into life all over the 
territory blasted by despotism, barbarism, and treason. The schemes of 
sentimental politicians, who neither learn nor forget, whose ideas of con- 
structive statesmanship are only imitative as are the mechanical ideas of the 
bee or the beaver; the plans of men who would rebuild on the sand, for 
the sake of adhering to a precedent, — must be utterly, promptly, and for- 
ever rejected. 

Let the Government and the people resolve to be brave, faithful, impar- 
tial, and just. With the blessing of God, let us determine to have a country 
the home of liberty and civilization. Let us deserve success, and we shall 
surmount every obstacle, we shall survive delays, we shall conquer defeat, 
we shall win a peaceful victory for the great ages of the future, and, for the 
cause of mankind, we shall requite these years of toil and war. The blood 
of all this noble army of the martyrs, from the soldiers of IMassachusetts 
who fell in Baltimore, to Abraham Lincoln the President, who has mmgled 
his own with theirs, — the blood of this noble army of martyrs shall be, as of 
old, the seed of the Church. 

Gov. Andrew's proclamations, especially those for Thanksgiv- 
ings, were remarkable productions, marked with religious fervor, 
full of Bible language, quoted with singular aptness, and remind- 
ing us of the days of the Puritans. They were celebrated and 
read all over the loyal States, and will ever remain as brilliant. 


and at the same time patriotic and Christian documents of re- 
markable beauty and power. 

We have neither space nor inclination to discuss questions of 
policy or personal appreciation which arose, and were sometimes 
attended with deep feeling, in the administration of civil and 
military power. It would not be strange if mistakes were made, 
unjust and injurious prejudices formed, and merit overlooked. 

The views- of Gov. Andrew upon the subject of capital punish- 
ment, his dissent from popular opinions in other matters, and 
his personal estimate of particular officers, will be criticised, and 
by many condemned ; but none can question his sincerity of de- 
votion to the great interests of the people and to the rights of 

The testimony of Rev. A. H. Quint, for three years the popular 
chaplain of the Second Regiment of Massachusetts Yolunteers, in 
his Election Sermon, January, 1866, is very just and emphatic ; 
and we give it at length : — 

Well was it for Massachusetts, that, when the clouds were lowering, she 
called to the chair of the Executive a man who could say, ' ' I know not what 
record of sin may await me in another world ; but this I know : I was never 
mean enough to despise any man because he was ignorant, nor because he 
was poor, nor because he was black." 

Massachusetts needed such a man in such a crisis. She wanted one who 
believed in man, yet not the less beheved in God ; one in whose nature was 
inborn her hereditary love of freedom, yet no more inflexible in his faith than 
determined in its development ; one to be not only the exponent, but the 
fearless leader, of her sentiment ; one to steady the heart of his State, and 
yet to stimulate the central Government in the path of justice. 

She wanted a man of experience in statesmanship ; one whose abihty to 
grasp the various interests of the public good should be equalled only by an 
energy which could accomplish the enormous work thrown upon him ; one 
who, in any exigency, would dare take responsibihty, yet with reverence for 
the rights of the people ; one who would bear in his heart her constant in- 
terests of agricultural and other industry, her great system of education, and 
her refomiatory or penal or charitable institutions ; one who could cai'ry 
her finances through an unprecedented strain ; and, added thereto, one who 
could, with firmness, energy, and delicacy, conduct those military measures 
which were to raise, equip, organize, and officer a force ten times as large as 
the then army of the United States. 

We recognize the hand of Providence in giving us such a man. We ap- 
preciate the able coadjutors in council and in the departments of the staff". 
We are grateful for the vast work done, and so well done. To have been 
the Governor of Massachusetts for five such years — caUed by the spon- 


taneous voice of the people, and continued by re-elections (these most mo- 
mentous years since those of the Revolution) — is enough for the patriotic 
ambition of any man. To have been such a governor, that the reader of the 
country's history inevitably turns to Massachusetts, and, turning to Massa- 
chusetts, inevitably sees foremost the name of its chief magistrate, ennobles 
a man in history. In such a term of service, there is a manifest complete- 
ness. It began when the clouds were lowering : it ends with the skies clear. 
The work accomplished was one work : it covers a great period in history. 

Sir, if I venture to address you directly, it is because I know peculiarly 
your care for Massachusetts soldiers. The camp where I first learned any 
thing of soldiery, in the dark spring of 1861, bore the name of Camp 
Andrew ; and, with some of the men who left that a solitude, I heard you 
welcome the flags home again. By your wise forethought, men were re- 
equipped for the midnight summons to the defence of the capital. When 
you asked that the bodies of her martyrs should be "tenderly" cared for, 
you touched the heart of Massachusetts. In all the struggle, the soldiers 
you sent into the field were equipped, I know, as none others were. Their 
wives and children were sheltered as none others. Their oflScers were se- 
lected with a care unequalled. In times of disaster, I saw the men and the 
helps which you sent. I met your agents in remote cities, faithful to our 
men. I saw the messengers you sent into the field itself to lighten their 
hardships. You were never weary in advancing their interests, and redress- 
ing their grievances. Year by year I read your words, stirring the soul like 
a blast from a Puritan trumpet, to our men, as we observed, in Virginia or 
Tennessee, the fast and festival days of our home. You welcomed back the 
soldiers ; you received with honor the flags, and promised that they should 
be faithfully guarded ; you remembered the dead. 

Su% the Massachusetts soldiers owe you a debt of thanks. Let me, as one 
who has shared with them in the way of his duty, pledge you, not only for 
the love you bore to them, but for the love you bore to that country which 
they love, their perpetual gratitude. 

You commit a prosperous commonwealth to the eminent citizen who suc- 
ceeds you ; to the new Lieutenant-Governor, whose patriotic history has 
identified him with the people's interests ; to a council whose names are a 
guaranty of wise advice ; to a legislature whose membership promises broad 
statesmanship and wise legislation. If these officials and this legislature ever 
need any new inspirations of patriotism, let them, as they daily enter the 
Capitol, pause before the flags. Let them read the names of battles lost and 
won inscribed thereon. Let them read the story of hard-fought fields, more 
eloquently written in the torn, scarred, and pierced remnants of the banners 
which once went out in their blight, fresh beauty. Let them remember the 
heroic dead and the maimed living. In any doubt, let them go to the silent 
flags, and as from an oracle drink in their inspiration, and in that inspira- 
tion learn to respect the rights, maintain the honor, and trust with confidence 
the principles, of a people who have heard the voice of God speaking out of 
the midst of fire, and live. 


A personal friend of Gov. Andrew, formerly a member of his 
staff, contributes a sketch, which, while it is strongly marked by 
the fervor of admiration, is yet just and appreciative. It is as 
follows : — 

A complete sketch of the late Governor would comprise a substantial history 
of Massachusetts in the Great Rebellion. The fointest likeness is difficult 
to obtain, for the same reason that it is impossible to condense sufficiently the 
vast mass of material. Glancing back to the early days of February, 1861, 
when, amid the flouts and jeers of the incredulous mass, he beo;an vi2;orous 
preparations for the war his clear vision saw impending, and hurrying at ut- 
most speed down to the day when the flags were redelivered to him upon 
the steps of the State House in December last, scarce a glimpse could be 
afforded, within moderate limits, of each of the many great departments of 
activity and labor which this remarkable man's assiduous energy illustrated 
during his official term. The military duties alone were overwhelming, nor 
had he the previous training to fit the emergency most easily : yet not only 
were they most faithfully and ably discharged, but thne was spared for the 
preparation of addresses on agriculture, redolent of the soil, and delightful to 
the soul of the farmer ; disquisitions on medical matters, which opposed them- 
selves to the learning of the profession ; arguments of profound research and 
sound logic upon disputed questions of constitutional law ; besides the less- 
studied but yet carefully considered utterances, some of considerable length 
and of very frequent occurrence, by which he so effectively and unceasingly 
preached at all seasons the great gospel of New-England ideas, and held up 
the heart, and inspired anew the soul, of the peojile of this Commonwealth 
during the dark days of our national tribulation. And no one who was so 
fortunate as to have listened to him at some of these wayside preachings will 
now underrate their value. Let any doubter have seen that vast multitude 
on the memorable Sunday, during the war, at the camp-meeting at Martha's 
Vineyard, when he arose, upon request, to address the people ; let him 
have watched how their faces glowed as he went on ; how his burning words 
of patriotic ardor fired their hearts, and actually swayed their bodies to and 
fro, as the blast of his earnest eloquence swept over them, — and the sceptic 
would have been convinced that it is hard to exaggerate the influence of 
those winged words, which, like the seeds of some of our native plants, were 
cast daily to the winds, to find lodgement in some Yankee heart. And here 
lay one secret of his power, — a most warm, poetical, and symjiathetic soul, 
which was continually aglow with beneficent and kindly thoughts, and gleam- 
ing with the loftiest patriotism. His speech was earnest, and, in his mo- 
ments of special exaltation, carried an audience away with him by his mag- 
netic sympathy more completely than any man I ever heard. But few regi- 
ments marched from the State that he did not inspire their parting moments 
with the teachings of purest loyalty, and devotion to their duty and their flag. 
Nor was his unquenchable vigor to be satisfied with such voluntary addition to 


the already intolerable load of daily official labor. Activity the most inces- 
sant was a leading characteristic of a man who was overworked if he never 
left his chair. Wherever his presence was needed, he was there ; and the 
extent of his official travel was to be computed by thousands of miles. Stern 
in the vindication of what he deemed essential principle, and immovable in 
defence of his assured convictions, he was the heartiest and kindest of friends, 
and inclined to indulge solicitation for his time to the very limits of his con- 
science. Utterly democratic in the fine sense, he never showed, nor pro])a- 
bly saw, any essential difference between one man or another, whether black 
or white. Everybody could see him who wished ; and he attended person- 
ally to their stories, often at an apparently fotal waste of time. No one ever 
was so poor or humble or degraded that he might not command this good 
magistrate to counsel, aid, or right him. 13ut perhaps the trait from which 
as much of characteristic good may be traced as from any other was the all- 
pervading philanthropy of his mind. This element of character may be 
traced in all directions. Imbued with the largest ideas of modern social 
science, he yet tempered tliem with shrewd connnon sense. Opposed to 
capital punishment as a system, he yet executed the laws. He was never 
weary in visiting prisons, penitentiaries, and poor-houses, to examine and 
care for the convicts. The down-trodden and oppressed, the poor woman 
and tender child, no matter how degraded or abandoned, found in him a con- 
stant friend. Indeed, it seemed to be in him an actual living recognition of 
the dignity of manhood, however abraded by hostile circumstance, — a 
hearty and practical belief in a true and universal brotherhood of man. 
Pressed by the same principle, his interest and ardor for the cause of good 
learning and general education never slumbered nor slept. The advance of 
pure science along the lofty paths of abstract speculation, and tho first efforts 
of the untaught or ignorant, were neither above his view nor beneath his 
notice. From the primary school to the university, his persistent purpose to 
aid their labors was felt. By his presence, by his speech, by recommenda- 
tions to the Legislature, and by never-failing interest in their welfare, he did 
as much as any man has done to promote the spread of intelligence and 
knowledge in the Commonwealth. He was thoroughly in grain a New-Eng- 
land man. He believed absolutely in our principles, our methods, training, 
and ideas. He had a wholesome smack of the soil of the region in his strong 
and shrewd talk, vivid sense of humor, and his liking, once in a while, for 
the racy anecdotes and peculiar wit, which, in their best form, are sometimes 
found scattered freely in New England. As a poUtician, he was truly br^e ; 
never fearing to trust himself to the highest convictions, good sense, and 
sober second-thought, of the people, even when they seemed determined for a 
time to lead bun from his plan of duty. 

Such was John A. Andrew, Governor of Massachusetts during 
the war of the Rebellion. 



The Birth and early Education of Charles Sumner. — Studies Law. — An Antislavery Man. 

— Congressional and Public Life. — Henry Wilson's early Life. — Sympathy with the 
Masses. — Antislavery Position. — His Prominence and Power in Congress. — War 
Measures. — Resolutions on the Rights of the Enfranchised and the Emancipation of 
the Enslaved. — Mr. Everetfs Family History. — Preparation for College. — Graduates. 

— Studies Divinity. — Accepts Professorship. — Residence in Europe. — Political Life 
and Services. — Patriotism in the Civil War. — His Death. 


CHARLES SUMNER is the son of Charles Pinkney Sumner, 
formerly High Sheriff of Suffolk County ; and was born in 
Boston, Jan, 6, 1811. 

His preparation for Harvard College was made in the Latin 
School of that city ; and he graduated in 1830, entering the Law 
School the next year. He contributed to the " American Jurist," 
and for some time was editor of that magazine. In 1831, he began 
practice in his profession, and was appointed reporter to the Cir- 
cuit Court. 

During the absence of Professors Greenleaf and Story from the 
Law Department of Harvard, Mr. Sumner gave lectures to the 
classes three winters, besides editing works on law. 

He sailed for Europe in 1837. While in Paris, at Mr. Cass's re- 
quest, he wrote a defence of the American claim to the North- 
eastern Boundary, — a discriminating and able effort. Again, in 
1843, he lectured in the Law School at Cambridge, and edited three 
years later an edition of Vesey's Reports, in twenty volumes. 

His political life may be said to have commenced in 1815, when 
he delivered a Fourth-of-July oration before the citizens of Boston, 
on " The True Grandeur of Nations," which attracted much at- 
tention, and led to much controversy. At this time, the relations 
of our Government and that of Mexico were very threatening in 
their nature ; and Mr. Sumner, with all the ardor of his soul, 
argued against the ordeal of Avar. This address made a profound 
sensation in England ; and Richard Cobden, a name dear to every 


true American heart, pronounced it to be " the most noble con- 
tribution made by any modern writer to the cause of peace." 

Mr. Sumner's career as the uncompromising champion of free- 
dom, the persistent foe of slavery, dates from the agitation of the 
question of tlie annexation of Texas. This he opposed on the 
ground of slavery ; and a speech of his in Faneuil Hall, Nov. 4, 
1845, was received with great enthusiasm. His strong and out- 
spoken course relative to what he considered the national sin and 
curse gradually led to liis separation from the Whig party, and 
in 1848 he earnestly supported Van Burcn as the Free-soil can- 
didate for the Presidential chair. 

In 1850, Daniel Webster left the United-States Senate for a seat 
in Mr. Fillmore's Cabinet, and was succeeded by Mr. Sumner, 
who was elected by a coalition of Free-soilcrs and Democrats 
in the Massachusetts Legislature, after an excited and protracted 
contest. His sentiments at this time may be learned from his 
letter of acceptance of the senatorial office. After alluding to 
the interest the election of a senator awakened, and his apprecia- 
tion of the " duties which eclipsed the honors " of the office, he 
added, — 

I accept it as the servant of Massachusetts, mindful of the sentiments sol- 
emnly uttered by her successive legislatures ; of the genius which inspires her 
history ; of the men, her perpetual pride and ornament, who breathed into 
her that breath of liberty which early made her an example to her sister 
States. In such a service, the way, though new to my footsteps, will be 
illumined by hghts which cannot be missed. 

I accept it as the servant of the Union, bound to study and maintain with 
equally patriotic care the interests of all parts of our country ; to discountenance 
every effort to loosen any of those bonds by which our fellowship as States is 
held in fraternal company ; and to oppose all sectionalism, whether it appear 
in unconstitutional eftbrts by the North to carry so great a boon as freeilom 
into the slave States, or in unconstitutional efforts by the South, aided by 
Northern allies, to carry the sectional evil of slavery into the free States ; 
or in whatsoever efforts it may make to extend the sectional domination of 
slavery over the National Government. 

From that time to this, Mr. Sumner has been the head and 
front of the antislavery sentiment of the country, not by any 
means, as is sometimes urged, as a visionary enthusiast, borne be- 
yond all practical grounds by devotion to one idea ; but his argu- 
ments have been based upon high moral and historical truths ; 
and the measures he has advocated, and almost uniformly tri- 


umpliantly carried, have always been found in strict accordance 
with the Constitution of the United States. 

His Congressional life opened with his speech in support of his 
motion for the repeal of the Fugitive-slave Law, Aug. 26, 1852 ; 
and since that time his efforts for the abolition of slavery, and 
for the elevation of the colored race, have been unwearied. This 
speech, whose theme was the then new one of " freedom national, 
slavery sectional," was mot by that bitter opposition which fol- 
lowed him in the Senate, till the Rebellion purged it of the irri- 
tating element of the slave-power. The spirit with which Mr. 
Sumner entered upon this great speech is well shown in a para- 
graph from his remarks, on presenting the memorial from the 
Friends, which gave him the opportunity to present his views : — 

I bespeak the clear and candid attention of the Senate while I undertake 
to set forth frankly and fully, and with entire respect for this body, convic- 
tions, deeply cherished in my own State, though disregarded here, to which 
I am bound by every sentiment of the heart, by every fibre of my being, by 
all my devotion to country, by my love of God and man. But upon these 
I do not now enter. Suffice it for the present to say, that, when I shall un- 
dertake that service, I believe I shall utter nothing which, in any just sense, 
can be called sectional, unless the Constitution is sectional, and unless the 
sentiments of the fathers were sectional. It is my happiness to believe, and 
my hope to be able to show, that according to the true spirit of the Constitu- 
tion, and according to the sentiments of the fathers, freedom, and not slave- 
ry, is NATIONAL ; while SLAVERY, and not freedom, is sectional. In duty 
to the petitioners, and with the hope of promoting their prayer, I move the 
reference of their petition to the Committee on the Judiciary. 

But, while liberty and equal rights lay nearest his heart, Mr. 
Sumner was alive to all the important measures before Congress ; 
and the record of no senator shows a more varied labor than his. 
Those were times when it required both moral and physical cour- 
age to speak and act boldly against the arrogant claims and as- 
sumptions of the slave-power. But he never shrank from duty ; 
and, when others quailed and faltered, he always stood firm, with 
his face to the foe, and armed with a wealth of learning, and a 
power of utterance, which made him, even single-handed, a fear- 
ful antagonist. 

The history of the Fugitive-slave Bill well illustrates Mr. Sum- 
ner's character. From the day, in August, 1852, when he moved 
its repeal, until the day when it was wiped from the records of 
the nation, he never lost sight of the end in view. •. Although 


never neglecting any important subject ^yhich seemed to require 
his attention, and in the mean time originating, and carrying to a 
successful issue, measures of vital interest to the nation, he 
worked persistently on until he saw the bill repealed ; his speech 
being the last one made upon it. He was emphatically the Alpha 
and Omega of the glorious work, which of itself, for one man, 
might be esteemed a sufficient honor. 

It is well to notice in this connection, that in his report on 
the fugitive-slave acts, submitted in March, 1864, he took the 
ground, that, in annulling these statutes, Congress simply with- 
drew an irrational support from slavery. It thus did nothing 
against slavery, but merely refused to do any thing for it. 

Mr. Sumner's last speech on the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise, which occupied two days in its delivery (May 19 and 
20, 1856), was a masterly effort. It was afterwards printed under 
the title of " The Crime against Kansas," had a wide circulation, 
and was very influential in moulding and consolidating public 
sentiment at the North. But, if it was a memorable speech for 
the cause of freedom, it was none the less so in relation to its dis- 
tinguished author. Preston S. Brooks, a member of Congress 
from South Carolina, whose name goes down to posterity covered 
with infamy, being greatly enraged at some passages in the speech, 
attacked Mr. Sumner with a cane, as he sat at his desk writing, 
and in a totally defenceless condition, and beat him upon the head 
till he fell to the floor insensible. It was four years before he 
recovered from the injuries and returned to the Senate. He was 
unable to attend to any public duties ; went to Europe twice by 
advice of physicians, and there submitted to very severe treat- 
ment, which ultimately resulted in his complete restoration to 
health. In the mean time, his term of office had expired ; l)ut he 
was re-elected (January, 1857) by a unanimous vote in the Sen- 
ate of Massachusetts, and only seven dissenting votes in the 

Nothing daunted by his bitter experiences, but only the more 
imbued with a sense of the utter corruption of the system of 
American slavery, his first great effort after resuming his seat in 
the Senate was the celebrated speech entitled " The Barbarism 
of Slavery," — one of the most elaborate and carefully fortified 
speeches ever made in Congress, and which had a truly terrific 
effect in that body, and shook tlie whole country to its centre. 

The truth had never before l)een clearly set forth by a fearless 
tongue ; a^jd, although at the time many thought the speech ill- 


advised and too. severe, the stern logic of events lias shown that 
the champion of liberty knew his position, and was making ready 
for a coming storm. He did his duty, and the verdict of all loyal 
men now sustains him. In an address delivered by him at a fes- 
tival in Plymouth, Mass., in commemoration of the embarkation 
of the Pilgrims, is an eloquent passage, which well illustrates his 
principles of action. He says, — 

All will confess the true grandeur of their example, while, in the vindica- 
tion of a cherished principle, they stood alone against the madness of men, 
against the law of their land, against their king. Better be the despised Pil- 
gi'im, a fugitive for freedom, than the halting politician, forgetful of principle, 
" with a Senate at his heels " ! 

Such is the voice of Plymouth Rock as it salutes my ears. Others may 
not hear it ; but to me it comes in tones which I cannot mistake, I catch 
its words of noble cheer : — 

"New occasions teach new duties: time makes ancient gooi uncouth. 
They must upward still and onwai-d who would keep abreast of Truth: 
Lo, before us gleam her camp-fires ! We ourselves must pilgrims be. 
Launch our ' Mayflower,' and steer boldlj' thi-ough the desperate winter sea." 

A single remark of Mr. Sumner's will also indicate the moving 
principles of his life, alas ! too rarely to be found among our great 
men. When the conflict over the Nebraska Bill in 1853-54 was 
waxing hot, one of its most eminent supporters said to him, " I 
would not go through all that you do on this nigger question 
for all the offices and honors of the country." Mr. Sumner 
replied, " Nor inould I for all the offices and honors of the 
country ! " 

No : he was, and is, actuated by higher motives than the honors 
and emoluments of office. He labors that justice may be vindi- 
cated, as a paragraph from a speech in New-York City (Nov. 27, 
1861) eloquently demonstrates. It is this : — 

Amidst all the perils which now surround us, there is one only which I 
dread. It is the peril which comes from some new surrender to slavery, 
some fresh recognition of its power, some present dalliance with its intolera- 
ble pretensions. Worse than any defeat, or even the flight of an army, 
would be such abandonment of principle. From all such peril, good Lord, 
deliver us ! And there is one way of safety, clear as sunlight, pleasant as 
the paths of peace. Over its broad and open gate is written simply, 
Justice. There is victory in that word. Do justice, and you will be 
twice blessed ; for so you will subdue the rebel master while you elevate the 
slave. Do justice frankly, generously, nobly, and you will find strength 


instead of weakness ; while all seeming responsibility will disappear in obedi- 
ence to God's everlasting law. Do justice, though the heavens fall; but 
they will not fall. Every act of justice becomes a new pillar of the universe, 
or, it may be, a new link of that 

" Golden, everlasting chain, 
Whose strong embrace holds heaven and earth and main." 

Mr. Sumner's great speech at Worcester, Oct. 1, 1861, was one 
of liis most effective efforts ; and the principles then advanced 
and sustained now seem to breathe of inspiration and prophecy. 
Here he first publicly urged emancipation as a war measure ; and 
let us bear in mind that to utter such sentiments then was a vastly 
different matter from what it was a few months later. To do it 
imperilled a man's political position ; but then, as always before, 
and ever since, Mr. Sumner held to his high moral standard, and 
never allowed questions of expediency to modify his words or his 
deeds. He is tlie inflexible foe of all compromises : he decides 
upon what is purely right, and acts accordingly. 

A few sentences from his speech at Worcester will indicate its 
character : — 

It is often said that the war will make an end of slavery. This is proba- 
ble ; but it is surer still, that the overthrow of slavery tvill at once make an 
end of the war. 

If I am correct in this statement, which I believe is beyond question, then 
do reason, justice, and policy all unite in declaring that the war must be 
brought to bear directly on the grand conspirator and omnipresent enemy. 
Not to do this is to take upon ourselves in the present contest all the weak- 
ness of slavery, while we leave to the rebels its boasted resources of military 
strength. Not to do this is to squander life and treasure in a vain masquerade 
of battle, which can have no practical result. Not to do this is blindly to 
neglect the plainest dictates of economy, humanity, and common sense, and, 
alas ! simply to let slip the dogs of war on a mad chase over the land, never 
to stop until spent with fatigue or sated with slaughter. Believe me, fellow- 
citizens, I know all the imagined difficulties and unquestioned responsibilities 
of this suggestion. But, if you are in earnest, the difficulties will at once dis- 
appear, and the responsibilities are such as you will gladly bear. This is not 
the first time that a knot hard to untie has been cut by the sword ; and we 
all know that danger flees before the brave man. Believe that you can, 
and you can. The will only is needed. Courage, now, is the highest 
prudence. It is not necessary even, according to a familiar phrase, to carry 
the war into Africa : it will be enough if we carry Africa into the war, — 
in any form, any quantity, any way. 

But there is another agency that may be invoked, which is at the same 


time under tbe Constitution, and above the Constitution : I . mean martial 
law. It is under the Constitution, because the war power to which it be- 
longs is positively recognized by the Constitution. It is above the Constitu- 
tion, be use, when set in motion, like necessity, it knows no other law. For 
the time, it is law and constitution. The civil power, in mass and in detail, 
is superseded, and all rights are held subordinate to this military magistracy. 
All other agencies, small and great, executive, legislative, and even judicial, 
are absorbed in this transcendent triune power, which, for the time, declares 
its absolute will, while it holds alike the scales of justice and the sword of the 
executioner. The existence of this power nobody questions. If it has been 
rarely exercised in our country, and never iu an extended manner, the power 
none the less has a fixed place in our political system. As well strike out 
the kindred law of self-defence which belongs alike to States and individuals. 
Martial law is only one form of self-defence. 

Massachusetts will be false to herself if she fails at this moment. And 
yet I would not be misunderstood. Feeling most profoundly that there is 
now an opportunity, such as rarely occurs in human annals, for incalculable 
good ; seeing clearly that there is one spot, like the heel of Achilles, where 
this great Kebellion may be wounded to death, — I calmly deliver the whole 
question to the judgment of those on whom the responsibility rests, con- 
tenting myself with reminding you that there are times when 7iot to act car- 
ries with it a greater responsibility than to act. It is enough for us to review 
the unquestioned powers of the Government, to handle for a moment its 
mighty weapons which are yet allowed to slumber, without assuming to de- 
clare that the hour has come when they shall flash against the sky. 

But may a good Providence save our Government from that everlasting 
regret which must ensue if a great opportunity is lost by which all the bleed- 
ing wounds of war shall be stanched, — by which prosperity shall be again 
established, and Peace be made immortal in the embrace of Liberty ! Saul 
was cursed for not hewing Agag in pieces when in his hands, and Ahab was 
cursed for not destroying Benhadad. Let no such curses ever descend upon us. 

Fellow-citizens, I have spoken frankly ; for such has always been my 
habit. And never was there greater need of frankness. Let patriots under- 
stand each other, and they cannot widely diflter. All will unite in whatever is 
required by the sovereign exigencies of self-defence ; all will unite in sus- 
taining the Grovernment, and in driving back the rebels. Jjut this cannot be 
done by any half-way measures or by any lukewarm conduct. Do not 
hearken to the voice of slavery, no matter what its tones of persuasion. It 
is the gigantic traitor, not for a moment to be trusted. Believe me, its 
friendship is more deadly than its enmity. If you are wise, prudent, eco- 
nomical, conservative, practical, you will strike quick and hard ; strike, too, 
where the blow will be most felt ; strike at the main-spring of the Rebellion ; 
strike in the name of the Union, which only in this way can be restored; 
in the name of Peace, which is vain without L^nion ; and in the name of Lib- 
erty also, sure to bring both Peace and Union in her glorious train. 


His speech at Worcester was followed by one on the 6th of the 
same month, in Faneuil Hall, on the policy and necessity of eman- 
cipation as a war measure. We cannot refrain from quoting a few 
passages : — 

If the instincts of patriotism did not prompt this support, I should find a 
sufficient motive in that duty which we all owe to the Supreme Ruler, God 
Almighty, whose visitations upon our country arc now so fearful. Not rashly 
would I make myself the interpreter of his will ; and yet I am not blind. 
According to a venerable maxim of jurisprudence, "Whoso would have equity 
must do equity ; ' ' and God plainly requires equity at our hands. We cannot 
expect success while we set at nought this requirement, proclaimed in his 
divine character, in the dictates of reason, and in the examples of history; 
proclaimed also in all the events of this protracted war. Great judgments 
have fallen upon the country, plagues have been let loose, rivers have been 
turned into blood ; and there is a great cry throughout the land, for there is 
not a house where there is not one dead ; and at each judgment we seem to 
hear that terrible voice which sounded in the ears of Pharaoh, " Thus 
saith the Lord God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve 
me." I know not how others are touched ; but I cannot listen to the fre- 
quent tidings of calamity to our arms, of a noble soldier lost to his country, 
of a bereavement in a family, of a youthful son brought home dead to his 
mother, without catching the warning, " Let my people go." Nay, every 
wound, every sorrow, every hardship, all that we are compelled to bear in 
taxation, in want, in derangement of business, has a voice, saying, " Let my 
people go." 

And now, thank God ! the word has been spoken : a gi-eater word was 
never spoken. Emancipation has begun, and our country is already elevated 
and glorified. The war in which we are now engaged has not changed in 
object ; but it has changed in character. Its object now, as at the beginning, 
is simply to put down the Rebellion ; but its character is derived from the new 
force at last enlisted, which must not only stamp itself upon all that is done, 
but absorb the whole war to itself, even as the rod of Aaron swallowed up all 
other rods. Vain will it be again to delude European nations into the foolish 
belief that slavery has nothing to do with the war ; that it is a war for empire 
on one side, and independence on the other ; and that all generous ideas are 
on the side of the Rebellion. And vain also will be that other European cry, 
whether from an intemperate press or the cautious lips of statesmen, that 
separation is inevitable, and that our Government is doomed to witness the 
dismemberment of the Republic. With this new alliance, all such forebod- 
ings will be falsified ; the wishes of the fathers will be fulfilled ; and those 
rights of human nature, which were the declared object of our Revolution, 
will be vindicated. Thus inspired, the sword of Washington — that sword, 
which, according to his last will and testament, was to be drawn only in self- 
defence, or in defence of country and its rights — will once more marshal our 


armies of victory ; while our flag, wherever it floats, will give freedom to all 
beneath its folds, and its proud inscription will be at last triumphantly veri- 
fied, " Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable." 

Ill this speech, in a few sentences of self-vindication, he made a 
quotation from Burke (and his speeches are peculiarly rich in 
English and classical allusions and quotations), but omitted a 
few closing words, which added nothing to the force of the sen- 
tence, nor afifected the sentiment. Some newspaper critic, being 
destitute either of the fairness, or perhaps ability, to detect the 
true force of the extract, and whose party prejudices were strong, 
thought he had caught the senator in a wilful misquotation ; and 
the accusation was echoed by partisans. In the pamphlet edition 
of the speech, afterward issued, the whole sentence is given, and Mr. 
Sumner's honesty clearly vindicated. Not long since, in familiar 
private conversation, the subject was alluded to ; and Mr. Sumner 
emphatically remarked, " Before God, I never knowingly sacri- 
ficed truth or honesty to carry any political ends ; let them fall 
first ; " and the gentleman to whom he spoke will never forget 
the expression of earnestness, solemnity, and of felt injustice, 
which marked his countenance. 

When the civil war commenced, Mr. Sumner saw the doom of 
slavery at hand, and devoted his energies to the work of hastening 
the removal of the cause of the Rebellion. There was perhaps no 
scene of more suggestive and exciting character during the early 
part of the Rebellion than that when Mr. Sumner read before the 
Senate, in the spring of 1861, the autograph letter of Andrew Jack- 
son, in which he declared that the next pretext for dissolving the 
Union by the South would be negro slavery. 

The Southern senators had not vacated their seats at that time ; 
and when Mr. Sumner held the document in his hand, and chal- 
lenged examination of its authenticity, there were frowns, silent 
handling of the precious manuscript, and a sensation so profound, 
that the venerable Mr. Blair remarked that secession could never 
recover from the deadly blow of Andrew Jackson's prophetic hand. 

Months l^efore the war began, Mr. Sumner remarked that slavery 
was near its end. He saw the clouds gathering whose bolts would 
destroy it forever : the abnormal condition of affairs in a republi- 
can government must cease ; and in Congress, private!}' with 
the President, and in public services, he labored assiduously, and 
with great effect, toward the accomplishment of the desired end, 


— the termination of slavery. The careful, or in fact the casual 
student of our country's history during the war will find Mr. 
Sumner a prominent and always efficient actor in every scheme 
which bore upon the true interests of the nation, and will be sur- 
prised to see how many of these important measures were origi- 
nated by him, and to a great extent dependent upon him for 
their final success. The public will always, and naturally, look 
with gratitude upon Mr. Sumner's herculean labors in Congress ; . 
but he regards his greatest usefulness in the late conflict to be 
that of which the country knows the least, — his constant hi- 
timacy with Mr. Lincoln, and constantly pressing upon him eman- 
cipation as the means for crushing the Rebellion. "He did not then 
press it on moral grounds at all. He first urged emancipation 
as a war measure upon the President the day after the battle of 
Bull Run, and ceased not till the proclamation was sounded over 
the land. The unrestrained intercourse ]\[r. Lincoln enjoyed with 
him declared very emphatically his confidence not only in Mr. 
Sumner's ability and honesty, but in his practical power. The 
President could not endure for a moment mere speculations or 
theories ; and yet he made the senator his most frequent and 
confidential adviser. 

Mr. Sumner once remarked in conversation with a friend, — 

I was always honest and very plain with Mr. Lincoln ; but he never 
allowed difference of opinion, or frankness, to interrupt our familiar and con- 
fidential intercourse. 

Li illustration, he referred to his defeat of the President's 
" pet proposition" for admitting Louisiana, when even his friends 
assured him that he had made a great mistake, and his enemies 
rejoiced over the prospect of alienation and separation between the 
noble friends. On the contrary, Mr. Lincoln soon after asked his 
attendance on the occasion of the inauguration-festivities, sending 
his own carriage for him, and taking pains to convince the mixed 
assemblage of political friends and foes that Mr. Sumner retained 
his undiminished confidence and regard. 

On the last week of Mr. Lincoln's life, he said to Mr. Sumner, 
" There is no person with whom I have more advised through- 
out my administration than with yourself," — a remark he re- 
peated to others. 

It is impossible, in the brief outline to which we are limited, to 
give any more than a glance at Mr. Sumner's Congressional labors. 

Among the measures originated and carried through by him 


was emancipation in the District of Columbia. Tlie repeal, which 
had been purposed, of the " Black Laws " (so called) of the Dis- 
trict, did not, in his mind, reach the evil. They were but the out- 
growth of slavery : destroy lY, and the source of mischief is eraili- 
cated. Upon this basis of action he successfully labored. Mr. 
Sumner's tact in dealing with difficult questions is well illustrated 
in the progress of this measure through Congress. An appropria- 
tion of money was necessary to affect the emancipation. The 
amount required was comparatively small : but the shrewd sena- 
tor was unwilling to establish a precedent for the purchase of 
slaves as the means of their emancipation, as it might embarrass 
the grand project of national freedom ; and besides, he felt that 
true justice would give such money to the slave, rather than to the 
master. This last idea was not, however, to be taken into con- 
sideration as any thing feasible. Mr. Sumner therefore termed 
the million dollars required ransom money, — money paid as the 
only means by which the desired end could be accomplished, but 
not a precedent, or right and title, to such action in future. It 
was ransom versus compensation ; and, in support of this posi- 
tion, he brought forward the case of the Algerinc captives, — 
Americans made white slaves in Algiers, — who were ransomed 
by our Government, not bought. His speech on this sulyect 
(March 31, 18G2) has points of great interest. 

Mr. Sumner's speech on confiscation and the liberation of 
slaves (May 19, 1862) was one of his ablest and most exhaustive 
efforts ; and so thorough and elaborate was its treatment of the 
difficult subject, that the Attorney-General of the United States 
remarked to him, that, for a long time, he carried it about with him 
in his pocket for study and reference. 

"We quote the closing paragraphs on emancipation to illustrate 
both his positions, and manner of presenting them : — 

Viittel says, that, in his day, a soldier would not dare to boast of having 
killed the enemy's king ; and there seems to be a simihir timidity on our part 
towards slavery, which is our enemy's king. If this king were removed, 
tranquillity would reign. Charles XII. of Sweden did not hesitate to say 
that the cannoneers were perfectly right in directing their shots at him ; for 
that the war would be at an instant end if they could kill him, whereas they 
would reap little from killing his principal otiicers. There is no sliot in this 
war so effective as one against slavery, which is king above all officers ; nor 
is there any better augury of complete success than tlie willingness, at last, 
to fire upon this wicked king. But there are illusions, through which slavery 
has become strong, that must be abandoned. 


The slaves of rebels cannot be regarded as property, real or personal. 
Though claimed as property by their masters, and thougli too often recog- 
nized as such by individuals in the Government, it is the glory of our Consti- 
tution that it treats slaves always as " persons." At home, beneath the lash 
and local laws, they may be chattels ; but they are known to our Constitu- 
tion only as men. In this simple and indisputable fact there is a distinction, 
clear as justice itself, between the pretended property in slaves and all other 
property, real or personal. Being men, they are bound to allegiance, and 
entitled to reciprocal protection. It only remains that a proper appeal should 
be made to their natural and instinctive loyalty ; nor can any pretended 
property of their masters supersede this claim, I will not say of eminent do- 
main, but of eminent power, inherent in the National Government, which, at 
all times, has a right to the services of all. In declaring the slaves free, you 
will at once do more than in any other way, whether to conquer, to pacify, to 
punish, or to bless. You will take from the Rebellion its mainspring of ac- 
tivity and strength ; you will stop its chief source of provisions and supplies ; 
you will remove a motive and temptation to prolonged resistance ; and you 
will destroy forever that disturbing influence, which, so long as it is allowed to 
exist, will keep this land a volcano, ever ready to break forth anew. But, 
while accomplishing this work, you will at the same time do an act of wise 
economy, giving now value to all the lands of slavery, and opening untold 
springs of wealth ; and you will also do an act of justice destined to raise our 
national name more than any triumph of war or any skill in peace. God in 
his beneficence offers, to nations as to individuals, opportunity, opportunity, 
OPPORTUNITY, which, of all things, is most to be desired. Never before in 
history has he offered such as is now ours. Do not fail to seize it. The 
blow with which we smite an accursed rebellion will at the same time enrich 
and bless ; nor is there any prosperity or happiness which it will not scatter 
abundantly throughout the land. And such an act will be an epoch mark- 
ing the change from barbarism to civilization. By the old rights of war, still 
prevalent in Africa, freemen were made slaves ; but, by the rights of war 
which I ask you to declare, slaves will be made freemen. 

Mr. President, if you seek indemnity for the past and security for the 
future, if you seek the national unity under the Constitution of the United 
States, here is the way in which all these can be surely obtained. Strike 
down the leaders o^ the Rebellion, and lift up the slaves. 

" To tame the proud, the fettered slave to free, 
These are imperial arts, and worthy thee." 

Then will there be an indemnity for the past such as no nation ever before 
was able to win, and there will be a security for the future such as no nation 
ever before enjoyed, while the Republic, glorified and strengthened, will be 
assured forever, one and indivisible. 

Mr. Sumner's instrumentality in securing equality before the law 
in the United-States courts, so that " there shall be no exclusion 


of any witness on account of color," and his bill abolishing for- 
ever the coastwise (inter -State) slave-trade, were important 
steps in the grand march of free principles ; and, by these and 
other measures touching salient points in the workings of sla- 
very, he hoped, to use his own expression, " to girdle the tree," 
and thus, if direct efforts failed, effect the downfall of the 

The securing the passage of a bill, that colored persons should 
not be excluded from the horse-cars in Washington, was impor- 
tant in paving the way to equal suffrage. Never was Mr. Sum- 
ner's persistency more clearly shown than on the passage of this 
bill. He was defeated six or eight times before he carried it. He 
lost it several times in its first stage, in the Senate, in the House ; 
and finally triumphed. It was in this connection that Senator 
Hendricks of Indiana, probably the best speaker on the Demo- 
cratic side of the Senate, made a brief but sharp and good- 
natured speech, setting forth the utter folly of attempting to 
thwart the Massachusetts senator when he had a point to carry ; 
for, in spite of all opposition, he was sure in some way to gain 
his ends. 

To Mr. Sumner the country is indebted for the Freedmen's 
Bureau Bill, which he justly considers as one of his most impor- 
tant national services : and well he may ; for, even while we write, 
it is the only protection vouchsafed to the freedmeu of the South, 
— the only thing which saves them from new oppressions and 

It is well to remember, that in February, 1865, Mr. Sum- 
ner introduced and triumphantly carried the following reso- 
lution : — 

Whereas certain persons have put in circulation the report, that, on the 
suppression of the llebellion, the rebel debt, or loan, may be recognized in 
whole or in part by the United States ; and whereas such report is calculated 
to give a false value to such debt, or loan : therefore 

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), 
That Congress hereliy declares that the rebel debt, or loan, is simply an 
agency of the RebelUon, which the United States can never, under any cir- 
cumstances, recognize in any part or in any way. 

This timely and pertinent bill had a great effect upon our 
finances abroad, and also depressed the rebel loan. Mr. Sum- 
ner's reasons for introducing this resolution at this particular 
time were based upon statements made by some of his foreign cor- 



respondents, to the effect that the Rebel Government was aiding 
its foreign loan by representing that it was the safest investment 
in the market, as, if the Confederacy succeeded in establishing 
itself, it would, of course, be paid ; and if, on the other hand, the 
Rebellion should fail, the United-States Government would assume 
the rebel debts. In his own words to a friend, in private conver- 
sation, " the resolution effectually pricked this bubble." 

Through the whole of Mr. Lincoln's administration, Mr. Sum- 
ner was Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, — the 
most honorable and important in the Senate ; and this position he 
still holds. His comprehensive and enlightened views, his inflexi- 
ble love of right, and the high respect in which he is held by the 
foreign governments, have enabled him to be mainly instrumental 
in establishing and maintaining a high tone of international in- 
tercourse, and to vindicate the policy of our Government in a tri- 
umphant manner. His peculiar fitness for this responsible situa- 
tion is acknowledged even by those politically opposed to him. A 
Democratic member of the committee once remarked during a 
session, after the chairman had set forth some matter of interest 
touching our foreign interco\irse, " Until our chairman gets upon 
the negro question, there is no gentleman to whom I listen with 
greater pleasure, or follow more willingly." 

When the mind recurs to the many intricate and delicate ques- 
tions affecting our relations to other governments, which were con- 
tinually arising during the war, the great difficulty and impor- 
tance of Mr. Sumner's position is easily seen. 

The co-operative labors of Lord Lyons (the English minister) 
and himself on the mutual right of search, and the suppression of 
the slave-trade, were a source of great pleasure to both parties : 
and, at the successful conclusion of tlie whole matter, Mr. Sum- 
ner remarked that he never saw Lord Lyons so exultant or in 
such high spirits ; and they dined together at the house of the 
English minister in honor of the occasion. To those who would 
learn of Mr. Sumner's intimate acquaintance with all points of 
international law, his speech on Our Foreign Relations (Sept. 10, 
1863) will be full of interest. Competent judges have pro- 
nounced it the most carefully elaborated speech ever made in the 
country. So important was it considered to be in England, that 
Lord John Russell publicly attempted to reply to it, — the only 
histance of the kind on the English hustings. Mr. Sumner's 
views on the Slidell and Mason case were very forcibly presented ; 
and even his friends were astonished at the knowledge he displayed 


of the laws of nations. His views differed from Mr. Seward's, 
and by many were considered to be clearer. 

The resolutions of Congress upon Foreign Mediation (passed 
March 3, 1863), which fixed the foreign policy of our Govern- 
ment, were drawn up, advanced, and carried by Mr. Sumner, and 
are in every way remarkable. His fame might rest upon them.* 
Dr. Leiber, the celebrated publicist, remarked, in reference to 
these resolutions, " I profess to be familiar with public papers ; 
but I have never met with any thing comparable to this." 

As a purely senatorial effort, Mr. Sumner's admirers point to 
his celebrated speech on Retaliation. He was much excited at 
the time ; and, though the subject was fully in mind, the speech 
was an off-hand effort, and was pronounced with a vigorous and 
earnest eloquence that was overpowering; and, at its conclusion, 
he received the personal congratulations of the majority of the 

Another important paper drawn by our distinguished senator 
was the notice of the termination of the Reciprocity Treaty ; but 
it is impossible even to touch upon his many national ser-vices, 
whether pertaining to the great desire of his life, — equal riglits 
for all, — or to other subjects of public interest and welfare. The 
way-marks of his untiring activity are so numerous as to astonish 
even those who are most ftimiliar with his unparalleled industry. 
It is safe to say, that Mr. Sumner seems almost equally at home 
upon all subjects affecting either our domestic or foreign rela- 
tions. Thus financial questions would, to one not familiar with 
his mental characteristics, seem to be wholly outside the range of 
his thouglits, being too material and business-like ; but he was on 
the most intimate terms with Mr. Chase while he was Secretary 
of the Treasury, and his opinions were sought with eagerness, 
while his speech on " legal tender " would have been an honor 
to the ablest professed financier, and " turned the vote " in Con- 
gress, — a very unusiial occurrence in a debate where men's 
minds are generally fully settled. 

An incident will illustrate Mr. Sumner's promptness to seize 
upon and fasten great points. On the morning after the passage, 
in the House of Representatives, of the constitutional amendment 
abolishing slavery (Fel)ruary, 18G5), he moved the admission of a 
colored lawyer to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
The speeches were brief on the occasion. Addressing the Chief 
Justice, the senator said, — 

* McPlierson's History of the Rebellion, pp. 346, 347. 


May it please your Honor, I present to the court John S. Rock, Esq., 
counsellor at law in the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, and move that 
he be admitted as a counsellor of the court. 

The Chief Justice, bowing, said, — 

Let liim come forward and take the usual oaths. 

The oaths were then administered. 

Several months afterward, Mr. Sumner remarked, — 

Then and there tumbled the Dred Scott decision. 

There is no space to prolong this imperfect sketch ; and the his- 
tory of the past few years must be studied minutely by those who 
would know fully the character and services of this eminent 
man. Such study will show him to be far from a mere theorist ; 
and the Congressional records are convincing evidence that his 
voice and vote have been ready upon almost every subject brought 
up for action. 

The reason why he has ever been called a theorist., witli such her- 
culean, intensely practical labors, we believe to be on account of 
the region of high moral principle to which he rises in his discus- 
sions. It must seem theoretical and out of place, to men who 
know no ethics in political life but expediency and party ends, 
when a senator appeals to the " higher law," and bases his re- 
solves and speeches upon the principles of eternal right and 

Mr. Sumner's influence in foreign lands is probably not sur- 
passed by that of any man in tlie nation. His culture, his elo- 
quence, and his consistent and powerful advocacy of human 
rights, have won for him the highest respect. At home, he is 
equally honored for his consistency and sincerity in all of his offi- 
cial duties and social relations. If he made mistakes on the 
floor of the Senate, they were the expression of feeling intensified 
by familiar contact with the enemies of freedom North and South. 
Dignified in personal presence, strong in argument, and with a 
moral sense which recoils from all compromises of principle for 
political ends, Charles Sumner will hold his rank in history fore- 
most among the great and good men of the nation appointed by 
God to stand up for imperilled right, and to smite bravely and 
fatally wrongs wliich long flourished under the protection of law. 




During the Great Civil TFar, few public men, if any, have ren- 
dered more important services to the country than Henry Wil- 
son. Alike in victory and defeat, his words have been utterances 
of faith and hope ; his acts have been deeds of patriotism and 
freedom, justice and humanity. His labors for the liberty and 
unity of the Republic have been unremitting and effective. His 
record is distinct and clear, reflecting honor upon the Common- 
wealth he represents, and placing his name among those entitled 
to receive the grateful remembrance of a regenerated nation. 

Senator Wilson was born in Farmington, in the State of New 
Hampshire, on the 16th of February, 1812. His parents were 
in very humble circumstances ; and, at ten years of age, he 
was apprenticed to a farmer till he was twenty-one. On attaining 
his majority, he went to Natick, Mass., and learned the trade of 
a shoemaker ; at which employment he worked for nearly three 
years, until he had earned money enough, as he supposed, to 
secure himself a liberal education. In his speech in the Senate 
in 1858, in reply to Gov. Hammond of South Carolina, who char- 
acterized working men as " mudsills," and asserted that the 
" hireling manual laborers " who lived by daily toil were " essen- 
tially slaves," he alluded to his humble origin in these words : — 

Sir, I am the son of a "hireling manual laborer," who, with the frosts 
of seventy winters on his brow, " hves by daily labor." I, too, have " lived 
by daily labor." I, too, have been a "hireling manual laborer." Poverty 
cast its dark and chilling shadow over the home of my childhood ; and want 
was sometimes there, — an unbidden guest. At the age of ten years, — to 
aid him who gave me being in keeping the gaunt spectre from the hearth of 
the mother who bore me, — I left the home of my boyhood, and went forth to 
earn my bread by " daily labor." 

In the spring of 1836, Mr. Wilson visited Washington ; listened 
to the exciting debates ; saw Pinckney's gag resolutions against the 
reception of antislavery petitions pass the House, and Calhoun's 
Incendiary Publication Bill pass the Senate by the casting vote of 
the Vice-President. He visited, too, Williams's slave-pen ; saw 
men and women manacled, and sent to the Par South-west ; and he 
returned home with the unalterable resolve ever to give voice and 
vote for the overthrow of slavery. This fixed purpose is the key 
to his whole political career, and by it his public course must be 


interpreted. To thef policy of antislavery, lie has ever, through 
the varied and shifting changes of political organizations, been 
steadfastly and consistently true. Returning to his native State, 
he entered Strafford Academy, and at the close of the term, at 
the public exhibition, maintained the affirmative of the question, 
" Ought Slavery to be abolished in the District of Columbia?" 
The word "abolitionist" was then a word of reproach. Little could 
he, or those who heard him, suppose that he would introduce the 
bill that abolished slavery in the capital of the nation. In 1837, 
the young men of New Hampshire held an antislavery State con- 
vention at Concord. Mr. Wilson, then at the academy at Con- 
cord, was a delegate to that convention, and took an active part 
in its deliberations. 

Losing, by the failure of a friend to whom he had intrusted it, 
the money he had earned for the purpose of securing a liberal 
education, Mr. Wilson returned to Natick, taught school for a 
time, and then engaged in the shoe-manufacturing business, which 
he continued for several years. 

Mr. Wilson was a member of the Massachusetts House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1841 and 1842, and a member of the State Senate 
in 1844 and 1845. He took an active part in favor of the admis- 
sion of colored children into the public schools, the protection of 
colored seamen in South Carolina, and in opposition to the an- 
nexation of Texas, In the autumn of 1845, he got up a conven- 
tion in the county of Middlesex, at which a committee was ap- 
pointed, which obtained nearly a hundred thousand signatures to 
petitions against the admission of Texas as a slave State ; and, 
with the poet Whittier, was appointed a committee to carry the 
petitions to Washington. In 1846, Mr. Wilson was again a mem- 
ber of the House of Representatives. He introduced the resolu- 
tion declaring the continued opposition of Massachusetts " to the 
farther extension and longer existence of slavery in America," 
and made an elaborate speech in its favor, which was pronounced 
by Mr. Garrison, in " The Liberator," to be the most comprehen- 
sive and exhaustive speech on slavery ever made in any legisla- 
tive body in the United States. 

Mr. Wilson was a delegate to the Whig National Convention at 
Philadelphia in 1848 ; and on the rejection, by the convention, of 
the Wilmot Proviso, and the nomination of Gen. Taylor, he de- 
nounced its action, retired from it, returned home, and issued an 
address to the people of his district, vindicating his action. He 
purchased " The Boston Republican," the organ of the Freesoil 


party in Massacliusetts, and edited it for more tlian two years. In 
1850, Mr. Wilson was again a member of the Massachusetts 
House of RejDresentatives, and tlie candidate of the Freesoil mem- 
bers for Speaker. He was the Chairman of the State Central 
Freesoil Committee ; was the originator and organizer of the cele- 
brated coalition between the Freesoil and Democratic parties 
which made Mr. Boutwell Governor in 1851 and 1852, and sent 
Mr. Rantoul and Mr. Sumner to the Senate of the United States. 
He was a member of the State Senate in 1851 and 1852, and 
President of that body in those years. In 1852, he was a delegate 
to the Freesoil National Convention at Pittsburg ; was made 
President of the Convention, and Chairman of the National Com- 
mittee. Mr. Wilson was the Freesoil candidate for Congress in 
1852 ; and tliougli his party was in a minority, in the district, of 
nearl}'' eight thousand, he was beaten by only ninety-three votes. 
Mr. Wilson was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional 
Convention in 1853, and took a leading part in its deliberations. 
In 1853 and 1854, Mr. Wilson was the candidate of the Freesoil 
party for Governor of Massachusetts ; and in 1855 he was elected 
to the Senate to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Mr. Everett. 

Mr. Wilson took his seat in tlie Senate on the 10th of Feb- 
ruary, 1855 ; and has been twice nearly unanimously re-elected. 
In that body, he ho/S been the inflexible opponent of slavery and 
the slave-power. In his first speech, made a few days after enter- 
ing the Senate, he announced the uncompromising position of 
himself and his autislavery friends to be, "We mean, sir, to place, 
in the councils of the nation, men who, in the words of Jefferson, 
' have sworn on the altar of God eternal hostility to every kind 
of oppression over the mind and body of man.' " Mr. Wilson 
was a member of the American National Council held at Phila- 
delpliia in 1855, and the acknowledged leader of the opponents 
of slavery. In response to the rude menace of one of the South- 
ern leaders, who left his seat, crossed the room, and, with his 
hand upon his revolver, took a seat beside him, while addressing 
the convention, Mr. Wilson said, " Threats have no terrors for 
freemen. I am ready to meet argument with argument, scorn 
with scorn, and, if need be, blow with blow. It is time the 
cliampions of slavery in the South should realize the fact, that the 
past is theirs, the future ours." Under his lead, the antislavery 
delegates issued a protest against the action of the National Coun- 
cil, seceded from it, disrupted the organization, and broke its 
power forever. 


When, in the spring of 1856, Mr. Sumner was assailed in the 
Senate Chamber by Preston S. Brooks, of South Carolina, for 
words spoken in debate, Mr. Wilson, on the floor of the Senate, 
characterized that act as " brutal, murderous, and cowardly." 
These words, uttered in the Senate Chamber, drew forth a chal- 
lenge from Brooks ; to which Mr. Wilson replied, in words which 
were enthusiastically applauded by the country, " I hav^e always 
regarded duelling as a lingering relic of a barbarous civilization, 
which the law of the country lias branded as a crime. While, 
therefore, I religiously believe in the right of self-defence in its 
broadest sense, the law of my country, and the matured convic- 
tions of my whole life, alike forbid me to meet you for the pur- 
pose indicated in your letter." This response, embodying the 
sentiment and feeling of the peoj)le of the North, was warmly 

When the opposition to the iron sway of the slave-masters 
triumphed in the election of Abraham Lincoln, he emphatically 
declared that the " slave-power was under the heel of the nation, 
and would be ground to atoms." 

When the irrepressible conflict of irreconcilable ideas and in- 
stitutions culminated in the slaveholders' Rebellion, the Senate 
assigned to Mr. Wilson the chairmanship of the Military Com- 
mittee. He brought to that position of high responsibility in- 
domitable energy, tireless industry, and an experience derived 
from four years' service upon the committee under the chairman- 
ship of Jefferson Davis, who knew, perhaps, bettor than any other 
public man, the condition of the arms and defences of the coun- 
try, and the state of the army and its officers. Vast responsibili- 
ties and labors were imposed upon the Military Committee of the 
Senate during the Rebellion. The important legislation for rais- 
ing, organizing, and governing the armies, originated in that com- 
mittee, or were passed upon by it ; and eleven thousand nomina- 
tions, from the second lieutenant to the lieutenant-general, were 
referred to it. The labors of Mr. Wilson as chairman of the com- 
mittee were immense. Important legislation affecting the armies, 
and the thousands of nominations, could not but excite the liveli- 
est interest of officers and their friends ; and they ever freely 
visited him, consulted with and wrote to him. Private soldiers, 
too, ever felt at liberty to visit him or write to him concerning 
their affairs. Thousands did so ; and so promptly did he attend 
to their needs, that they christened him the " Soldier's Friend." 

Having been for twenty-five years the unflinching foe of sla- 


very and all that belonged or pertained to it, comprehending 
the magnitude of the issues, and fully understanding the charac- 
ter of the secession leaders, Mr. Wilson believed that the conflict, 
whenever the appeal should be made to arms, would be one of 
gigantic proportions. Being in Washington when Fort Sumter 
fell, he was one among the few who advised that the call should 
be for three hundred thousand instead of seventy-five thousand 
men. On the day that call was made, he induced the Secretary 
of War to double the number of regiments apportioned to Massa- 

Returning to Massachusetts, he met the Sixth Regiment on its 
way to the protection of the capital. He had hardly reached Boston 
when the startling intelligence came that the regiment had been 
fired upon in the streets of Baltimore. Having passed that anxious 
night in the company of his friend Gen. Schouler, Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of the Commonwealth, discussing the future that darkly 
loomed up before them, he left the next day for Washington. He 
sailed from New York on the 21st of April with the forces leaving 
that day, and found Gen. Butler at Annapolis, and communication 
with the capital closed. At the request of Gen. Butler, he returned 
to New York, obtained from Gen. Wool several heavy cannon for 
the protection of Annapolis, and then went to Washington, where 
he remained most of the time until the meeting of Congress, 
franking letters for the soldiers, working in the hospitals, and 
preparing the needed military measures to be presented wiien 
Congress should meet on the 4th of July. On the second day 
of the session, Mr. Wilson introduced five bills and a joint reso- 
lution. The first bill was a measure authorizing the employment 
of five hundred thousand volunteers for three years to aid in en- 
forcing the laws ; the second was a measure increasing the regu- 
lar army by the addition of twenty-five thousand men ; the third 
was a measure providing for the " better organization of the mili- 
tary establishment," in twenty-five sections, embracing very im- 
portant provisions. These three measures were referred to the 
jMilitary Committee, promptly reported back by Mr. Wilson, 
slightly amended, and enacted into laws. The joint resolution 
to ratify and confirm certain acts of tlie President for the sup- 
pression of insurrection and rebellion was reported, debated at 
great length, but failed to pass, though its most important pro- 
visions were, on his motion, incorporated with another measure. 

Mr. Wilson, at the called session, introduced a bill in addition 
to the "Act to authorize the Employment of Volunteers," which 


autliorized the President to accept five liuiKlrcd tliousand more 
volunteers, and to appoint for the command of the vohuiteer 
forces such number of major and brigadier generals as in his 
judgment might be required ; and this measure was i)assed. He 
introduced bills " to authorize the President to appoint additional 
aides-de-camp," containing a provision abolishing flogging in the 
army; "to make a])propriations ;"" to provide for tlie piirchase 
of arms, ordnance, and ordnance-stores;" and "to increase the 
corps of engineers;" all of which were enacted. He introduced 
also a bill, which was passed, " to increase the pay of the pri- 
vates," which increased the soldiers' pay from eleven to thirteen 
dollars per month, and provided that all the acts of the Presi- 
dent respecting the army and navy should be approved, legalized, 
and made valid. 

The journals of the Senate, and the " Congressional Globe," 
bear ample evidence that Mr. Wilson's senatorial life was, at that 
period, one of ceaseless activity in originating and pressing for- 
ward the measures for increasing and organizing the armies to 
meet the varied exigencies of the tremendous conflict of civil 
war. At the close of the session, Gen. Scott emphatically de- 
clared that " Senator Wilson had done more work in that short 
session than all the chairmen of the Military Committees had 
done for the last twenty years." So al)ly and so well were his 
manifold duties fuKilled, that the veteran Lieutenant-General 
said, in an autograph letter of the 10th of August, — 

" In taking leave of you some days ago, I fear that 1 did not 
so emphatically express my thanks to you, as our late Chairman 
of the Senate Committee, as my feelings and those of my brother- 
officers of the army (with whom I have conversed) warranted, for 
your able and zealous efforts to give to the service the fullest war 
development and efficiency. It is pleasing to remember the pains 
you took to obtain accurate information, wherever it could be 
found, as a basis for wise legislation ; and we hope it may be long 
before the army loses your valuable services in the same ca- 

After the adjournment of Congress, Gen. Scott recommended 
to the President the appointment of Senator Wilson to the office 
of brigadier-general of volunteers ; but, as the acceptance of such 
a position would have required the resignation of his seat in the 
Senate, the subject was, after consideration, dropped. Anxious, 
however, to do something for the endangered country during the 
recess of Congress, Mr. Wilson made an arrangement with Gen. 


McClellan ^o go on his staff as a volunteer aide-de-camp, with the 
rank of colonel ; but at the pressing solicitation of Mr. Cameron, 
Mr. Seward, and Mr. Chase, who were most anxious to give a new 
impulse to volunteering, then somewhat checked by the defeat at 
Bull Run, he accepted authority to raise a regiment of infantry, 
a company of sharpshooters, and a battery of artillery. Return 
ing to Massachusetts, he issued a stirring appeal to the young 
men of the State, called and addressed several public meetings, 
and, m forty days, filled to overflowing the Twenty-second Regi 
ment, one company of sharpshooters, two batteries, and nine com- 
panies of the Twenty-third Regiment, in all numbering nearly two 
thousand three hundred men. Ho was commissioned colonel of 
the Twenty-second Regiment, with the distinct understanding 
that he would remain with the regiment but a brief period, and 
would arrange with the War Department to have an accomplished 
army officer for its commander. With the Twenty-second Regi- 
ment, a company of sharpshooters, and the Third Battery of 
Artillery, he went to Washington, and was assigned to Gen. Mar- 
tindale's brigade, in Fitz-John Porter's division, stationed at Hall's 
Hill, in Virginia. The passage of the regiment from their camp 
at Lynnficld to Washington was an ovation. On Boston Com- 
mon, a splendid flag was presented to the regiment by Robert C. 
Winthrop ; in New York, a flag was presented by James T. Brady, 
and a banquet given by the citizens, which was attended by emi- 
nent men of all parties. 

After a brief period. Gen. Wilson, at the solicitation of the Sec- 
retary of War, resigned his commission, put the accomplished 
Col. Gove of the regular army in command of his regiment, and 
took the position of volunteer aide, with the rank of colonel, on 
the staff of Gen. McClellan. The Secretary of War, in pressing 
Gen. Wilson to resign his commission asid take this position, ex- 
pressed the opinion that it would enable him, Ijy practical obser- 
vation of the condition and actual experience of the organization 
of the army, the better to prepare the proper legislation to give 
the highest development and efficiency to the military forces. He 
served on Gen. McClellan's staff until the 9th of January, 1862, 
when pressing duties in Congress forced him to tender his resigna- 
tion. In accepting it, Adjutant-Gen. Williams said, — 

" The major-general commanding desires me to acknowledge 
the receipt of your letter of the 9th instant, in which you tender 
your resignation of the appointment of aide-de-camp upon his staff. 
The reasons assigned in your letter are such, that the general is 


not permitted any other course than that of directing the ac- 
ceptance of your resignation. He wishes me to add, that it is with 
regret that he sees the termination of the pleasant official rela- 
tions which have existed hetween you and himself ; and that he 
yields with reluctance to the necessity created by the pressure 
upon you of otlier and more important public duties." 

During the second session of the Thirty-seventh Congress, Mr. 
Wilson originated, introduced, and carried through, several meas- 
ures of vital importance to the army and the interests of the coun- 
try. Among these measures were the bills " relating to courts- 
martial ; " "to provide for allotment-certificates ; " " for the bet- 
ter organization of the signal -department of the army;" "for 
the appointment of sutlers in the volunteer service, and defming 
their duties ; " " authorizing the President to assign the command 
of troops in the same field or department to officers of the same 
grade, without regard to seniority ; " " to increase the efficiency 
of the medical department of the army ; " " to facilitate the dis- 
charge of enlisted men for physical disability : " " to provide ad- 
ditional medical officers of the volunteer service ; " " to encour- 
age enlistments in the regular army and volunteer forces; " " for 
the presentation of medals of honor to enlisted men of the army 
and volunteer forces who have distinguished or who may distin- 
guish themselves in battle during the present Rebellion ; " " to 
define the pay and emoluments of certain officers of the army, and 
for other purposes," — a bill of twenty-two sections of important 
provisions ; and " to amend the act calling forth the militia to exe- 
cute the laws, suppress insurrection, and repel invasion." This 
last bill authorized for the first time the enrolment in the militia, 
and the drafting, of negroes ; and empowered the President to 
accept, organize, and arm colored men for military purposes. 
Military measures introduced by other senators, or originating in 
the House, and amendments made to Senate bills in the House, 
were referred to the Committee on Military Affairs, imposing 
upon Mr. Wilson much care and labor. 

During the session, Mr. Cameron, the Secretary of War, re- 
signed ; and, on leaving the department, he said in a letter to 
Senator Wilson, " No man, in ray opinion, in the whole coun- 
ry, has done more to aid the War Department in preparing 
the mighty army now under arms than yourself; and, before 
leaving this city, I tliink it my duty to offer to you my sincere 
thanks as its late head. As Chairman of the Military Committee 
of the Senate, your services were invaluable. At the first call 


for troops, you came here ; and up to the meeting of Congress, a 
period of more than six mouths, your labors were incessant. 
Sometimes in encouraging the Administration by assurances of 
support from Congress, by encouraging volunteering in your 
own State, by raising a regiment yourself when other men be- 
gan to fear that compulsory drafts might be necessary, and in 
the Senate by preparing the bills and assisting to get the neces- 
sary appropriations for organizing, clothing, arming, and supply- 
ing the army, you have been constantly and profitably employed 
in the great cause of putting down the unnatural rebellion." 

Mr. Cameron was succeeded by Mr. Stanton, who brought to 
the office tireless industry, indomitable energy, and an abrupt 
manner that often subjected him to harsh criticisms. The Secre- 
tary and the Chairman of the Military Committee of the Senate 
ever maintained the most friendly and confidential relations. Mr. 
Wilson was always ready to consider the wishes of the Secretary, 
and ever prompt in his defence. Mr. Stanton has often expressed 
his grateful sense of the public and personal support so readily 

In the last session of the Thirty-seventh Congress, and in the 
Thirty-eighth Congress, Mr. Wilson labored with the same vigor 
and persistency to organize and develop the military resources of 
the nation, to do justice to the officers, and to care for the sol- 
diers. During these sessions of Congress, he introduced many 
measures, and moved amendments to bills originated by other sen- 
ators and in the House of Representatives. Among the important 
measures originated and carried to enactment by him were the 
bills " to facilitate the discliarge of disabled soldiers, and the in- 
spection of convalescent camps and hospitals; " " to improve the 
organization of the cavalry forces ; " "to authorize an increase in 
the number of major and brigadier generals;" "for enrolling 
and calling out the national forces, and for other purposes," — a 
bill of thirty-eight sections, containing provisions of the highest im- 
portance ; " to amend an act entitled ' An Act for enrolling and 
calling out the National Forces,' " — a bill of tweiity-seven sections, 
in which it was provided that " colored persons should, on being 
mustered into the service, become free ; " a bill " to establish a 
uniform system of ambulances in the armies ; " "to increase the 
pay of soldiers in the United-States army, and for other pur- 
poses," — a measure that increased the pay to sixteen dollars per 
montli ; " to provide for the examination of certain officers of the 
army ; " a bill " to provide for the better organization of the Quar- 


termaster's department ; " a " bill in addition to the several acts 
for enrolling and calling ont the national forces ; " " to incorpo- 
rate a national military and naval asylum for the relief of totally 
disabled officers and men of the volunteer forces;" "to incor- 
porate the National Freedmen's Savings Bank ; " "to incorporate 
the National Academy of Sciences ; " "to encourage enlist- 
ments, and promote the efficiency of the military and naval forces, 
by making free the wives and children of colored soldiers ; " and 
a joint resolution " to encourage the employment of disabled and 
discharged soldiers." The important legislation securing to col- 
ored soldiers equality of pay from the 1st of January, 1864, and 
to officers in the field an increase in the commutation-price of the 
ration, and three months' extra pay to those who should continue 
in service to the close of the war, was moved by Mr. Wilson upon 

Mr. Wilson, while laboring wi:h cver-watcliful care for the in- 
terests of the army and the support of the Government in its 
gigantic efforts to suppress the Rebellion, did not lose sight, for a 
moment, of slavery, to the ultimate extinction of which he had 
consecrated his life more than a quarter of a century before slavery 
revolted against the authority of the nation. In that remarkable 
series of antislavery measures whicli culminated in the anti- 
slavery amendment of tlie Constitution, he bore no undistin- 
guished part. He introduced the bill abolishing slavery in the 
District of Columbia, which becajne a law on the Ibth of xVpril, 
1862, and by which more than throe thousand slaves were made 
forever free, and slavery made forever impossible in the nation's 
capital. He introduced a provision, Avhich became a law on the 
21st of May, 1862, providing that persons of color in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia should be subject to the same laws to which 
white persons were subject ; that they should be tried for offences 
against the laws in the same manner as white persons were tried, 
and, if convicted, be liable to the same penalty, and no other, as 
would be inflicted upon white persons for the same crime. (f\\ the 
12th of July, 1862, he introduced from the Military Committee 
the bill, which became the law on the 17t1i, to amend the act of 
1795, calling for the militia to execute the laws. This bill made ne- 
groes a part of the militia, authorized the President to receive into 
the military or naval service persons of African descent, and made 
free such persons, their mothers, wives, and children, if they owed 
service to any persons who gave aid to the Rebellion. When the 
amendment, on the 24th of February, 1864, to the Enrolment Act, 


was pending in the House, it was so amended as to make colored 
men. whether free or slave, part of the national forces ; and the 
masters of slaves were to receive the bounty when they should 
free their drafted slaves. On the Committee of Conference, Mr. 
Wilson moved that the slaves should be made free, not by the act 
of their masters, but by the authority of the Government, the mo- 
ment they entered the service of the United States. It was agreed 
to, and became the law of the land ; and Gen. Palmer reported, 
that, iii Kentucky alone, more than twenty thousand slaves had 
been made free by it. On his motion, the Army Appropriation Bill 
of June 15, 1864, was so amended as to provide that all persons 
of color who had been, or v.'ho might be, mustered into the mili- 
tary service, should receive the same uniform, clothing, arms, 
equipments, camp-equipage, rations, medical attendance, and pay, 
as other soldiers, from the first day of January, 1804. He made, 
too, earnest and persistent efforts to secure justice to the Fifty- 
fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts colored regiments, and regi- 
ments raised early in the war, and with partial success. He in- 
troduced, and, in face of a persistent opposition, carried through, 
the joint resolution making the wives and children of all colored 
soldiers forever free. Major-Gen. Palmer, commanding the forces 
of the United States in Kentucky, estimated in an official report, 
fcix months after its passage, that nearly seventy-five thousand 
women and children were made free by it in that State alone. He 
was made chairman, on the part of the Senate, of the Committee 
of Conference to whom was referred the bills relating to the 
Freedmen's Bureau ; and reported from the committee a new bill 
to establish in the AVar Department a bureau for the relief of 
freedmen and refugees, whicli became the law of the land. He 
introduced many other measures relating to slavery and the rights 
of persons of color, participated in the debates and the action on 
kindred propositions introduced by others, and made elaborate 
speeches in favor of the abolition of slavery in the District of 
Columbia and for the constitutional amendment. 

In addition to his vast labors in Congress during the Rebellion, 
Mr. Wilson travelled in several States thousands of miles, deliv- 
ered more than a hundred speeches in support of the war and in 
vindication of the antislavery policy of the Government, and pub- 
lished -'The History of Antislavery Measures in the Tiiirty-seventh 
and Thirty-eighth Congresses," in which the successive steps of 
national legislation pertaining to slavery are skilfully traced. 
This work has been most highly commended for its fairness, and 
clearness of statement. 


No public man ever brought to the high duties of a great occa- 
sion more sympathy for the toiling and the oppressed, or more 
faith in the people and the democratic institutions of his country, 
than Henry Wilson. Born in poverty, nursed in childhood in the 
lap of penury, trained to incessant toil in boyhood, accustomed 
in early manhood to the severe labors of the mechanic's sliop, he 
had learned from his own stern experiences the working-man's 
temptations and trials. Devoting, during the eleven years of his 
apprenticeship, the hours given to toil, to the study of his coun- 
try's history, he grew up in sympathy witli the poor and lowly, 
with faith in the people, and in love with the free institutions of 
his native land. Sympathizing with tlie toiling many, devoted to 
democratic institutions, he entered public life the uncompromis- 
ing enemy of intemperance and slavery. In the Legislature of 
Massachusetts eight years, and in the Senate of the United States, 
he has ever given voice and vote for the rights, the culture, and 
the elevation of all men, without distinction of color or race. For 
twenty-five years, he toiled with unflagging energy for the anni- 
hilation of the slave-power and the final extinction of slavery. 

Calling to mind the important measures he has introduced af- 
fecting the interests of the nation, and aided in shaping, advocating, 
and pushing through the Senate ; the incessant labors he has per- 
formed in and out of Congress for the overthrow of the Rebellion 
and the extirpation of slavery, — it is hardly too much to assert 
that few public men have contributed more to the suppression of 
the slave-masters' revolt, the restoration of the broken Union, and 
the utter extinction in America of an institution alike at variance 
with the dictates of humanity and the teachings of Christianity. 


Edward Everett was born in Dorchester, Mass., on the 11th of 
April, 1794. His father. Rev. Oliver Everett, upon his resigna- 
tion of the pastorate of the New South Church in Boston in 
1792, made this pleasant town his residence until his death. 
The family on both sides were of Puritan ancestry, dating back 
to the first emigration. In 1803, Mrs. Everett, with her large 
family, returned to Boston ; and from that time, until his sad and 
sudden decease, Jan. 15, 1865, Edward Everett was identified 
with the city and all her interests, and was the pride of all her 


He was educated in the free schools of Dorchester and Bos- 
ton ; and when, later, his regular preparation for college com- 
menced, he attended a private school taught by Ezekiel Webster, 
elder brother of Daniel, who was also his instructor during the ab- 
sence, for a week, of the principal. In this relation to each other, 
a friendship began between Edward Everett and Daniel Webster, 
which the latter, in 1852, compared to " a clear, blue, cerulean 
sky, without a cloud or mist or haze, stretching across the hea- 

He entered Harvard College in 1807, graduating in 1811. 
He was soon after appointed Latin tutor, and commenced the 
study of divhiity under President Kirkland. In 1813, he accepted 
a call to the Brattle-square Church, succeeding Dr. Buckminster, 
who had used his influence to induce the youthful graduate to 
turn his attention from the study of law to that of theology. In 
addition to his ministerial duties, he published a defence of Chris- 
tianity, against an attack, by G. B. English, on the New Testament. 

Rev. Dr. Lothrop remarks of this book, that, " at the time it 
was published, it was justly regarded as one of the most learned 
and important theological works that had then been written in 
America ; " and it is but just to say that the completeness and 
thorough mastery of the subject which marked this " Defence " 
were ever afterward characteristic of every thing which he under- 
took. Whatever he did, he did well. 

Accepting tlie chair of the Greek professorship in Harvard Col- 
lege in 1815, he embarked for Gottingen, by way of England, to 
prepare himself for his new duties by the study of the ancient 
German, and to enjoy the advantages, then rarely embraced by an 
American, of a German imivcrsity. 

The winter of 1817-18 was spent in Paris, studying modern 
Greek. In the spring, he returned to England. He again visited 
the Continent the same year, taking up his residence for brief pe- 
riods in Florence, Rome, Constantinople, Athens, and other inter- 
esting cities in Southern Europe. He returned to his native 
country in 1819, " the most finished and accomplished scholar 
that had been seen in Now England ; and it will be generally ad- 
mitted that he maintained this superiority to the last. From this 
year, down to the hour of his death, he was constantly before the 
public eye, and never without a marked and peculiar influence 
upon the community, especially upon students and scholars." * 

* George S. HiUard. 


In 1819, he addressed himself to the labors of his professorship 
in the university, and as the able editor of " The North-American 
Review." He was particularly known for his earnest vindication 
of America against English prejudice. 

Then followed a succession of masterly orations and addresses 
upon various topics during the rest of his life, none of which 
was more widely known than the oration on Washington, which 
brought a golden harvest for the Mount-Vernon Fund. It seemed 
the purchase of the shrine of a nation's homage to its father, on 
the eve of a civil war around its hallowed summit. 

In 1825, Mr. Everett took his seat in Congress, representing 
Middlesex for ten years. From 1835 to 1839, he was Governor of 
the State; and, in 1841, he was appointed minister to the court 
of St. James. 

Important questions were at that time pending between the two 
countries, including the North-eastern Boundary, the Fisheries, 
" The Caroline," "The Creole," the case of McLcod, and others ; 
but it is universally admitted that he discharged his difficult diplo- 
matic duties with great judgment, delicacy, and grace. During 
these years, as ever after, he was treated with the highest respect 
and cordiality in England ; and among tlie compliments bestowed 
upon him were honorary degrees from the Universities of Oxford, 
Cambridge, and Dublin. 

Upon his return home, in 1846, he was elected President of 
Harvard College, succeeding the venerable Josiah Quincy. This 
position he resigned in 1849, and remained in private life, until, 
upon Mr. Webster's death, in 1852, he was called to the Depart- 
ment of State by President Fillmore. While at Cambridge, and 
during the years immediately preceding his return to public life, 
he devoted himself to the establishment of a free puljlic library in 
Boston ; and in a letter to the then mayor of the city, Hon. John 
P. Bigelow, he prepared the plan which has been carried forward 
from that time, and which has resulted in an institution which is 
an honor to its originator and to the city. On account of a 
change in the administration, he served as Secretary of State but 
a few months, and, in 1853, took his seat in the United-States 
Senate, as successor of Hon. John Davis ; l)ut ill health com- 
pelled him to resign in 1854. During his brief term, he spoke 
against tlie repeal of the Missouri Compromise, a measure which 
he has termed " the Pandora's box, from which our ills have 
flowed," the fruitful cause of national troubles. 

It was during the four years immediately succeeding his retire- 


ment from strictly puljlic and official duties, and while suffering 
many bodily infirmities, that he devoted himself to raising money 
for the Mount-Vernon Fund. The proceeds of his remarkable 
address on Washington, which he generously gave to this worthy 
object, amounted to nearly one hundred thousand dollars. In 
one of his public speeches, he thus refers to his motives for under- 
taking the great work of securing to the nation the home of the 
" Father of his Country : " — 

After the sectional warfare of opinion and feeling reached a dangerous 
height, anxious, if possible, to bring a counteractive and conciliatory influ- 
ence into play ; feeling that there was just one golden chord of sympathy 
which ran throughout the land ; in the hope of contributing something, how- 
ever small, to preserve what remained, and restore what was lost, of kind 
feeling between the two sections of the country, — I devoted the greater part 
of my time for three years to the attempt to give new strength, in the hearts 
of my couutiymen, to the last patriotic feeling in which they seemed to beat 
in entire unison, — veneration and love for the name of Washington, and 
reverence for the place of his rest. AVith this object in view, I travelled thou- 
sands of miles, by night and day, in midwinter and midsuuimer, speaking 
three, four, and five times a week, in feeble health, and under a heavy burden 
of domestic care and sorrow, and inculcating the priceless value of the Union, 
in precisely the same terms, from Maine to Georgia, and from New York to 
St. Louis. 

Mr. Everett was candidate for the Presidency in 1860, on 
the ticket of the " Conservative party." When the Rebellion 
burst upon the country, he was still for compromise and peace : 
but as the struggle deepened, and ho saw its true character, 'he 
nobly evinced his true patriotism, while many of his intimate and 
dear friends flinched from apparent duty ; and took his place 
among tiie most loyal friends of the Government and decided ad- 
vocates of a vigoi'ous prosecution of the war. The effect upon 
certain classes, on account of his antecedents, of his eloquent 
defence of the Government, and condemnation of all treasonable 
acts, was very great. The confidence and admiration inspired by 
this magnanimous and patriotic course found expression in his 
being selected by the people of Massachusetts for their first presi- 
dential elector in 1864. 

In a spirit of the broadest patriotism, he had attempted to allay 
sectional prejudices, and unite all at the North and South in a 
common love and devotion to the Union. " But," in the words 
of one of his eulogists, " when this hope failed, and he found that 


treason had developed its plans ; that rebellion, unfurling its 
standard, had inaugurated civil war ; then the policy that had 
hitherto guided his life was instantly abandoned. He felt that 
there was no longer any room for concession and compromise, 
and so gave himself — time, talents, wisdom, strength, all that 
he had — in all ways to support the legitimate Government 
of the United States in all the action and policy by which 
that Government sought to maintain at all hazards, and at any 
cost, the integrity of the Union and country which that Govern- 
ment was instituted to preserve. But, in all this, he was under 
the inspiration of a patriotism that always dwelt in his heart ; 
thougl\, in these later years, he seems to have been raised to an 
energy, enthusiasm, and earnestness of effort, that indicate a 
deeper and stronger conviction that he was right than he exhib- 
ited, or perhaps ever experienced, before." 

In the minds of some not thoroughly acquainted with Mr. Ev^- 
erett's principles of action, there has sometimes been a lingering 
feeling that he was lacking in moral courage. On this point, 
Hon. John H. Clifford has well remarked, — 

There were occasions in his life when it would have required less courage, 
and have cost a smaller sacrifice, to escape this imputation, and secure to 
himself the popular favor, than it did to incite it. But his resolute adher- 
ence to his own conscientious convictions, his large and comprehensive 
patriotism, his unswerving nationality and love of the Union, and the knowl- 
edge whicli a scholar's studies and a statesman's observations had given him 
of the perils by which tliat Union was environed, closed many an avenue of 
popularity to him, which bolder, but not more courageous public men than 
he could consent to walk in. If timidity consists in an absence of all temer- 
ity and rashness, of entire freedom from that reckless spirit which so often 
leads "fools to rush in wliere angels fear to tread," let it ever be I'emem- 
bered to his honor tliat Mr. Everett was a timid statesman. But, if the 
virtue of moderation is still to be counted among the excellent qualities of a 
ruler or counsellor, ... let it also be remembered that our departed states- 
man, while he adhered inflexibly to his convictions of the right, was not 
" ashamed to let his moderation be known unto all men." 

Among the latest and noblest efforts of his life, before a popular 
assembly, was his oration, Nov. 19, 18'33, at the dedication of the 
national cemetery at Gettysburg, Penn. The scene is brought 
vividly before us in his own eloquent words : — 

Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now re- 
posing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghanies towering 


before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation 
that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. 

Wc can only quote further the closing paragraph of the review 
of the war, and the story of heroic deeds, which held in breathless 
silence the assembled thousands, among whom our lamented 
President was a tearful listener. ^Ele said, — 

And now, friends, fellow-citizens of Grettysburg and Pennsylvania, and you 
from the remoter States, let me again, as we part, invoke your benediction on 
these honored graves. You feel, though the occasion is mournful, that it is 
good to be here. You feel that it was greatly auspicious for the cause of the 
country that the men of the East and the men of the West, the men of nine- 
teen sister States, stood side by side on the perilous ridges of the battle. You 
now feel it a new bond of union, that they shall lie side by side till a clarion 
louder than that which marshalled them to the combat shall awake their 
slumbers. God bless the Union ! It is dearer to us for the blood of the 
brave men shed in its defence. The spots on which they stood and fell ; these 
pleasant heights ; the fertile plain beneath them ; the thriving village whose 
streets so lately rang with the strange din of war ; the fields beyond the ridge, 
where the noble Reynolds held the advancing foe at bay, and, while he gave 
up his own life, assured by his forethouglit and self-sacrifice the triumph of 
the two succeeding days; the little streams which wind through the hills, on 
whose banks, in after-times, the wondering ploughman will turn up, with the 
rude waapons of savage warfare, the fearful missiles of modern artillery ; the 
Seminary Ridge, the Peach-orchard, Cemetery, Gulp's and Wolf's Hills, 
Round Top, Little Round Top, — humble names, henceforward dear and fa- 
mous, — no lapse of time, no distance of space, shall cause you*to be* forgotten. 
" The whole earth," said Pericles, as he stood over the remains of his fellow- 
citizens who had fallen in the first year of the Peloponnesian War, — " the whole 
earth is the sepulchre of illustrious men." All time, he might have added, 
is the millennium of their glory. Surely I would do no injustice to the other 
noble achievements of the war, which have reflected such honor on both arms 
of the service, and have entitled the armies and the navy of the United States, 
their officers and men, to the warmest thanks and the richest rewards which a 
grateful people can pay. But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we 
bid farewell to the dust of these martyi'-heroes, that wheresoever throughout 
the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to 
the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common coun- 
try, there will be no brighter page than that which relates The Battles of 

Mr. Everett's addresses will ever remain enduring monuments 
to his scholarship, eloquence, and patriotism. As an orator, he 
stood first in the land : he had no peer. 

In the record of benevolence given in another place, the interest 


Mr. Everett felt in the destitute loyal people of East T'cnnessee 
conspicuously appears. He entered with all his soul into the 
movement for- their relief, displaying in this practical sympathy 
both his genuine kindness of heart and patriotic devotion to the 
whole country. 

The last pub.lic occasion on which his voice was heard was at 
the meeting of his fellow-citizens in Faneuil Hall on Monday, 
Jan. 12, 1805, for the relief of Savannah, — the "Christmas 
gift," three weeks before, of Gen. Sherman to the nation. 
His manner was unusually animated in that appeal. But expo- 
sure to currents of air then, and soon after in the court-room, 
where he had an important suit in course of trial, brought on a 
serious attack of lung-disease, followed by apoplectic symptoms. 
He died Jan. 15, 1865. The patriotic devotion to his coun- 
irj in its peril from foes at the North, who were more dangerous 
and excuseless than those at the South, shed a halo of true glory 
over his closing life, which will forever endear his memory to the 
American people. At the commemorative meeting of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, held on the evening of Jan. 30, elo- 
quent tributes were paid to his memory ; and we know not where 
else to look for addresses of sucli singular beauty and appropriate- 
ness as were then delivered. 

The testimony of those who were equally distinguished, though 
in different walks of literature, but had for some years widely 
differed from him on national questions, is very touching. Said 
William CuUfen Bryant, the distinguished poet, — 

If I have uttered any thing in derogation of Mr. Everett's public character at 
times when it seemed to me that he did not resist with becoming spirit the 
ao-o-ressions of wrong, I now, looking back upon his noble record of the last 
four years, retract it at his grave. I lay upon his hearse the declaration of 
my sorrow that I saw not the depth of his worth ; that I did not discern, 
under the conservatism that formed a part of his nature, that generous courage 
which a great emergency could so nobly awaken. 

Wrote the fiery bard of freedom, J. G. Whittier, — 

I am saddened by the reflection, that, through the very intensity of my 
convictions, I may have done injustice to the motives of those with whom I 
differed. As respects Edward Everett, it seems to me that only within the 
last four years have I truly known him. . . . 

At the mooting in Faneuil Hall, Jan. 18, to commemorate 
his death, the Hon. Alexander H. Bullock, now Governor, closed 
his eloquent eulogy with these glowing words : — 


His greatest days were his last. The country did not know him perfectly 
until 1861. Then he renewed his youth ; then he broke away from his own 
traditions and associations, and mounted to that wise, large patriotism whicli 
has guided twenty loyal millions to life and glory. He waited not for others, 
nor for the victory of our arms ; but, in those first days of war and gloom, his 
voice sounded like a clarion over this land. Almighty God be praised that 
he has been spared to us these four years ! In these temples of your elo- 
quence, in the commercial metropolis where his counsel was more needed, 
everywhere and every day, by public speech and through the popular press, 
he has confirmed hesitating men at home, he has inspired your armies in the 
field. These victories which fill the air to-day peal grandly over his inanimate 
form : they cannot wake him from sleep ; but they are a fitting salute for his 
burial. He passes to his rest when the whole heaven is lighted up to proclaim 
that his mission has been accomplished. The same page of the calendar shall 
repeat to the next age the Death of Everett, and the New Life of 
HIS Country. 



Ex-Gov. George S. Boutwell's Early Life. — Entrance upon Public Service. — TLe Ad- 
vocate of Popular Education and Universal Freedom. — Speech on extending the 
Right of Suffrage to the Colored Jlen. — The Hon. Thomas D. Eliot's Birth and Boy- 
hood. — Graduates at Columbia College, and studies Law. — In Congress. — Address 
and Speeches on the great Questions of War and Freedom. — The Hon. A. H. Rice. — 
The Hon. Samuel Hooper. — The Hon. H. L. Dawes. — The Hon. John B. Alley. — 
The Hon. D. W. Gouch.- The Hon. W. B. Washburn. —The Hon. Oakes Ames."^ 


GEORGE S. BOUTWELL was born in Brookline, Norfolk 
County, Jan. 28, 1808. 

His boyhood was spent upon a farm, amid whose quiet labors he 
formed habits of industry, and secured a good physical constitution. 

In early youth, he engaged in mercantile pursuits ; rising from 
the errand-boy's place to the control of extensive business. After 
nearly twenty years' experience in intensely practical occupation of 
his energies, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 183G. 

In 1842, Mr. Boutwell was chosen to the Legislature of the 
State, where he was an able and efficient member for seven years. 
In 1849-50, he held the position of Bank Commissioner. In 1831, 
the people elected him Governor of Massachusetts. Mr. Boutwell 
was also a member of the Constitutional Convention of the Com- 
monwealth in 1853. Perhaps his noblest, greatest work for the 
State was his active and earnest service as Secretary of the Board 
of Education for eleven years. He was for six years member of 
the Board of Overseers of Harvard College. 

When, in the spring of 1861, the rising storm of rebellion shook 
the national capital with excitement, he was a delegate from 
Massachusetts to the Peace Congress called to calm the strife ; 
and, while he deprecated war, he was true to the principles and 
trust of his native State. 

From July, 18G2, to March, 1863, he was Commissioner of Inter- 
nal Revenue, and, in the autumn of the former year, was chosen 
representative to Congress, and placed on the Judiciary Commit- 



tee. In 1864, he was a delegate to the Republican Conven- 
tion at Baltimore which renominated for the Presidency Abra- 
ham Lincoln. 

On no occasion, perhaps, has he won higher admiration and re- 
gard, by a single effort, than on that of the discussion of negro 
suffrage, Jan. 18, 18G6, in the House of Representatives. 

The members seemed to be in a careless mood, when the word 
])assed around that " Gov. Boutwell is going to speak." As 
he rose to his feet, a sudden stillness spread over the hall ; and 
the tried friend of the laboring classes, the advocate of popular 
education, and the eloquent pleader for the rights of the oppressed 
African, commenced one of his finest and most powerful extem- 
poraneous speeches. He said, — 

Mr. Speaker, — It is only recently tbat I entertained the purpose to speak 
at all upon this bill, and it was my expectation to avail myself of the kindness 
of the Chairman of the Judiciary Committee to divide with him the time 
allotted him by the rules of the House ; but I accept the opportunity now 
presented of speaking, before the previous question is demanded, to state 
certain views I entertain on this bill. I may say, in the beginning, that I am 
opposed to all dilatory motions upon this bill. I am opposed to the restric- 
tions moved by the gentleman from New York (Mr. Hale), because I see in 
them no advantage to anybody, and I aj)preheud from their adoption much 
evil to the country. It should be borne in mind, that, when we emancipated 
the black people, we not only relieved ourselves from the institution of 
slavery, we not only conferred upon them freedom, but we did more, — we 
recognized their manhood, which, by the old Constitution and the general 
pohcy and usage of the country, had lieen, from the organization of the Grov- 
ernment until the Emancipation Proclamation, denied to all of the enslaved 
colored people. As a consequence of the recognition of their manhood, cer- 
tain results follow in accordance with the principles of this Grovernment ; and 
they who believe in this Government are by necessity forced to acee^^t these 
results as a consequence of the policy of emancipation which they have in- 
augurated, and for which they are responsible. But to say now — having 
given freedom to this people — that tliey shall not enjoy the essential rights 
and privileges of men, is to abandon the principle of the Proclamation of 
Emancipation, and tacitly to admit that the whole emancipation policy is 

After showing clearly the inherent, divinely given right of the 
emancipated bondmen to share in the elective franchise, and the 
dangerous power left in the hands of those who arc still disloyal 
by withholding it, he closed with great force and imprcssivc- 
ness : — 



I have thus given, with less preparation than I ouglit to have made for the 
discussion of a question like this, the views I entertain upon this subject. 
But, beyond this, when we proclaimed the emancipation of the slaves, and 
put their lives in peril for the defence of the country, we did in effect guar- 
antee to them substantially the rights of American citizens and a Christian 
posterity ; and heathen countries will demand how we have kept that faith. 
Mr. Speaker, we are to answer for our trcatuient of the colored people of this 
country ; and it will prove in the end impracticable to secure to men of color 
civil rights, unless the persons who claim these rights are fortified by the polit- 
ical rio;ht of votino;. With the right of voting, every thing that a man oug-ht 
to have or enjoy of civil rights comes to him. Without the right to vote, 
he is secure in nothing. I cannot consent, after all the guards and safe- 
guards which may be prepared for the defence of the colored men in the en- 
joyment of their rights, — I cannot consent that they shall he deprived of the 
right to protect themselves. One hundred and eighty-six tliousand of them 
have been in the army of the United States. They have stood in the place 
of our sons and brothers and friends ; they have fallen in defence of the 
country; they have earned the right to share in the Government; and, if you 
deny them the elective franchise, I know not how they are to be protected : 
otherwise you furnish the protection which is given the lamb wlien com- 
mended to the wolf. There is an ancient history, that a sparrow, pursued by a 
hawk, took refuge in the chief assembly of Athens, in the bosom of a member of 
that illustrious body, and that the senator in anger hurled it violently from him. 
It fell to the ground, dead ; and such was the horror and indignation, because 
of that incident, of men in that ancient Init not Christianized body, — men 
living in the light of nature and reason only, — that they inr.ncdiately ex- 
pelled the brutal Areopagite from his seat, and from the association of 
legislators. What will be said of us, not by Christian, but by heathen 
nation^ even, if, after accepting the blood and sacrifice of these men, we hurl 
them from us, and allow them to be the victims of those who have tyrannized 
over them for centuries? I know of no crime that exceeds this ; I know of 
none that is its parallel : and, if this country is true to itself, it will rise in the 
majesty of its sti'ength, and maintain a policy, here and elsewhere, by which 
the rio-hts of the colored people shall be secured through their own power. 
"In peace, the ballot; in war, the bayonet." 

It is a maxim of another language, which we may well apply to ourselves, 
that, where the voting register ends, the military roster of rebellion begins ; 
and, if you leave these four millions of people to the care and custody of the 
men who have inaugurated and carried on this Rebellion, then you treasure 
up for untold years the elements of social and civil war, which must not only 
desolate and paralyze the South, but shake this Grovernment to its very foun- 

After the proposed amendments were voted down, the original 
bill, vrhich provides, that, from all laws prescribing the qualifica- 


tions of voters in the District of Columbia, the word " white " be 
stricken out, and that hereafter no person shall be disqualified for 
voting on account of color, came to the final vote. New England 
moved in solid column for the measure ; and, of a hundred and 
seventy ballots cast, only fifty-four were against it. Enthusiastic 
applause followed, when the outburst was checked, and the House 

Mr. Boutwcll is in the full activity of his powers of mind and 
body, and, it is hoped, may long continue to serve the country 
that will always hold him in grateful remembrance. His presence 
is dignified, his manner pleasing, and his nature genial. 


Hon. Thomas D. Eliot was born in Boston, March 20, 1808. 
His father was 'William G. Eliot, who subsequently became a 
resident of Washington, D.C., having an official position in the 
Treasury Department. His mother was the daughter of the Hon. 
Thomas Dawes, of Boston, who was for several years a Justice of 
the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. 

He is brother of Rev. William G. Eliot, D.D., of St. Louis. 
His boyhood was passed in Wasliington. He entered Columbia 
College, and, the year before he graduated, delivered an English 
oration at tlie first commencement of that institution. At his 
graduation, 1825, he was appointed to deliver the Latin saluta- 
tory addresses of the anniversary. Rev. Baron Stow, D.D., and 
the Rev. Robert Cusliman, D.D., were among his classmates. 
He soon after became a student at law in the office of his uncle, 
the Hon. William Cranch, Chief Justice of the Circuit Court of 
the United States of the District of Columbia. Li tlie year 1830, 
he went to New Bedford to complete his law studies with the 
Hon. C. H. Warren, whose partner he became after his admission 
to the bar. When, several years later, J\fr. Warren was a{> 
pointed Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Mr. Eliot's widen- 
ing professional practice claimed so exclusively his attention, that 
he neither sought nor had time for political preferment. The 
people, however, desired his services as their representative, and, 
still later, their senator, in the General Court. His professional 
duties and his devotion to his family induced him to decline a 
pi'offered Congressional nomination, until his prosperous career as 
a lawyer made a new field of activity a pleasant relaxation from 
professional labor, and an inviting sphere of public usefulness. 


In 1854, he was chosen to complete the unexpired term of the 
Hon. Zeno Scudder, representative in Congress from his district; 
and took his seat in the Capitol when the discussion attending 
the Kansas-Nebraska Bill was at its lieight. Always on tlie side 
of freedom, his speeches at this crisis of intense interest and feel- 
ing were earnest and eloquent. 

July 28, 1854, Mr. Eliot asked leave to introduce a bill in the 
House of Representatives to repeal the Fugitive-slave Law : and, 
on motion to suspend the rules, the ayes were 45 ; the nays, 120. 
This was the first bill offered for the repeal of that law. 

Mr. Eliot had always been a firm Whig, attached to the lib- 
eral wing of the party, but centring his hopes upon the success 
of tliat political organization. The whirlwind of Americanism 
swept that party out of existence in the fall of 1854, and with 
it disappeared from Congress the Massachusetts delegation. Mr. 
Eliot shared the universal fate ; and his term closed in March, 
1855. Upon the dissolution of the Whig party, he united with 
those members of various organizations who desired to found the 
Republican party ; and in the proceedings at Boston which re- 
sulted in the Convention at Worcester in the fall of 1855, and 
the nomination of Hon. Julius Rockwell, he bore a prominent part. 
From that time he has acted constantly and zealously with the 
Republicans. At the State Convention of 1857, he was unani- 
mously nominated as their candidate for the office of Attorney- 
General ; but the duties of this office were less to his taste than 
his professional practice, and he declined the nomination. He 
has also declined offers of judicial station in the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas and on the new Superior Bench. It would not be 
easy to find one whose life has been devoted more faithfully and 
closely to his profession. In the practice of many years, lie has 
well deserved the confidence of his clients by the careful prepara- 
tion wliich he has given to their cases out of court, as well as the 
earnestness with which their causes have been tried. For some 
time, he and Ex-Gov. Clifford have been confessedly at the 
head of tlie bar in Southern Massachusetts. Outside of his pro- 
fession, his life has been chiefly spent in his home. A less pleas- 
ant one might have stimulated him to more ambitious achieve- 

He was re-elected to Congress from his old district in 1860. 

In the Thirty-sixth Congress, Mr. Eliot took a high and con- 
sistent position as a Republican, representing a district which 
"embraces within its limits the first harbor made by our Pilgrim 


forefathers at Provincetowii, and their first home on Plymouth 

He addressed his constituents, Feb. 1, 1861, defining his posi- 
tion in the exciting crisis ; and his earnest words indicate his 
fidelity to them in his conscientious devotion to tlie principles of 
the fathers of the Republic. We can quote only the closing 
paragraph, passing over the logical and clear statement of the 
various attempts at compromise, and always in favor of the 
South : — 

The crisis in our national aiFairs is one of gravest moment. I assume 
with awe the profound responsibility that rests upon those who now represent 
the people. I was not chosen by you in view of such events ; but I have 
regarded with jealous watchfulness the causes that have produced them, and 
I recognize the duties they enjoin. 

I am entreated in your Jiebalf to make " concession " to slavery ; to make 
the slave-power, which has ruled us heretofore, more potent by Congressional 
legislation and by Constitutional amendment, so that it shall rule us hereafter 
also. It is said the Union may be saved by concession. I believe the Union 
has been dismembered now because of power gained by unwise concessions 
heretofore made. I believe that only firm adherence to the principles of our 
present Constitution will restore to us a more perfect union, and establish 
justice, and insure to us domestic tranquillity. 

The Rebellion had reached the gigantic proportions of a South- 
ern empire in arms, when the Congressional session of 18t31-2 
opened with the vacant seats of those members, who, with their 
predecessors, had controlled the national legislation. Soon after 
the exciting delmtes commenced, Mr. Eliot introduced a resolu- 
tion, declaring the objects of the war to be the suppression of the 
Rebellion, and the re-establishment of the rightful authority of 
the Constitution and laws over the entire country, and declaring 
the right and duty of the military commanders to emancipate the 
slaves of rebel owners; and, on the 12th of December, supported 
the resolution by a very able speccli. A passage or two will re- 
veal the same old fire of freedom which burned in the hearts of 
men in the colonial days of resistance to an insolent foe. Mr. 
Eliot said, — 

I commence the debate upon the great questions involved in this resolu- 
tion, and the bills and resolutions which have been presented upon similar 
subjects by other gentlemen, with profound distrust of my ability to discuss 
them thoroughly, but with a full, abiding, clear, and coniident conviction 
that the good, conmion sound sense of the members of this House, their free 
instincts, their patriotic purposes, will enable them to mature a plan that shall 


at once embody the feelings, the wishes, the hopes, and tlie demands of our 
constituents and of all loyal men, and which will meet the great necessities 
of this occasion. 

Mr. Speaker, I desire to address myself to you in all frankness and sin- 
cerity. It is no time for set speech. The times themselves are not set. 
Speech is demanded, but such as shall crystallize into acts and deeds. 
Thoughts of men go beyond the form of words into the realities of things. 
When we came together the other day, I was impressed with the conviction 
that no time should be needlessly lost — no, not an hour — before the oppor- 
tunity should be presented to this House to express itself in some way, and 
to some extent to give utterance to its judgment, which should also be re- 
garded in a measure as the judgment of the people ; for we had just come 
from i\\Q people : and if, at any time, we would assume to represent their 
feelings, opinions, and judgment, it would be then. . . . 

No matter how, a few months ago, loyal men might have yearned that the 
old state of things should be restored, the status ante bel/um is impossible. 
The first blow which was struck at Fort Sumter rendered it impossible. 
Stimulated by mad ambition, that blow shattered the hopes of loyal men 
throughout the land. No, sir ! no, sir ! Reconstruction must come ; but in 
the rebellious and seceding States, when it comes, it will come, I believe, 
without the presence of the slave ! 

Why, sir, when the President called for aid, nay, before he called, upon 
the day the attack was made upon Fort Sumter, who was there in the land 
that dreamed of the intense loyalty which lived in the hearts of our people 'i 
We had been living for nearly fifty years in peace ; we had been divided 
among different parties ; we had Ixion carrying on the various pursuits of 
life ; we had success and prosperity ; cities had sprung from tlje ground in a 
day ; no nation had prosfjered so much as we. Who knew of our loyalty V 
We had hated each other as politicians : who knew how we would love each 
other as loyal men ? Here, in this House, a Democrat of the Breckinridge 
school said to me last year that he would pledge himself that there would be 
from New York no less than an army of fifty thousand men who would come 
from their homes to fight against the North. Yet what an echo that Sumter 
gun created ! Why, sir, it sounded through the North and the East and 
the West ; and their startled population sprang to arms. It sounded tlu'ough 
our valleys and over our plains ; and the deserted plough was left in the half- 
turned furrow by the yeomanry of the land. It sounded through our towns, 
villages, and cities ; and the mechanic left his shop, the merchant forgot his 
unbalanced ledger, and the lawyer left his cases untried, and, with his clients, 
hastened to the field. It sounded along the aisles of our churches; and 
pastors and people, their prayers and their patriotism working to one end, 
marched to the war. More than six hundred thousand men are now in arms. 
They have left their homes, and on the land and on the sea are upholding 
the flag, and sustaining the power, and defending the honor, of the Govern- 


Sir, if we have a right to argue of the ways of Providence, we might say, 
without irreverence, that the hand of God points to us our duty. Our Presi- 
dent may act, our Commander-in-Chief within his province, and the officers 
under him in command, may act, and I believe are called upon to act, by 
every consideration of humanity and of patriotism ; and, coming from the 
Commonwealth I represent in part, — a State which has performed no small 
service in this war, — I call upon you to aid me in giving such expression of 
the judgment of this House as shall command respect. I am not here to 
boast of the bravery or tlie patriotism of Massachusetts soldiers. From 
the port where I have my home, more than fifteen hundred men have been 
shipped for our navy. From all our seaboard and inland towns, their skilful 
and hardy sons are found as masters upon the quarter-deck, and as seamen 
on board our ships. From our whole State, her young men are with the 
army. More than twenty thousand of her sons are in the field, ready and 
willing, as you know, to shed their hearts' blood in their country's cause. 

In their name, and in their behalf, I pray you to call upon the military arm 
to strike that blow more effective for peace and for freedom than armies or 
victories can bo, and convert the slave, which is the power of the enemy, into 
the free man who shall be their dread. So shall the sword intervene for 
freedom I If I have read the history of Massachusetts aright, that is the 
intervention her fathers contemplated. In the early days of English free- 
dom, when constitutional liberty was beginning to find a home in the hearts 
of Englishmen, after Hampden and Eliot and their compatriots had been 
working in the cause, in the days of Charles, a young man, in an album 
which he found in a public library, wrote these two lines : — 

" Haec manus, inimica tyrannis, 
Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem." 

" This hand, hostile to tyrants, 
Seeks with the sword quiet rest in freedom." 

They called down upon his head the indignant rebuke of an offended king: 
but the monarch has died, and Sidney has passed away ; yet, while Massachu- 
setts shall live, the lines he then inscribed shall be remembered. In after- 
years, when our forefathers were seeking to find a motto for then- State coat- 
of-arms, they could select none that seemed to them as pertinent as the last of 
those two lines ; and there it stands, — 

" Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem." 

And now she asks, through the humblest of her sons, that the military power 
of our chief, hostile always to rebellion, shall thus, with the sword, find quiet 
rest in freedom. 

May 14, 1862, Mr. Eliot, as chairman of the Select Committee 
on Confiscation, reported two bills, — one for the conliscaition 
of rebel property, and one for the emancipation of slaves of rebels. 


The first bill was passed in the House of Representatives, and 
was sent to the Senate. 

The second bill was not passed as reported ; but an emancipa- 
tion bill was passed, which was not acted on in the Senate. 

The Senate rejected the Confiscation Bill as passed by the 
House, but passed it with an amendment in the nature of a sub- 
stitute, and returned it to the House, where the Senate substitute 
was rejected, and the House bill insisted on, and a committee of 
conference was appointed. This committee incorporated the 
main provisions of the House and Senate bills into one bill, and 
inserted emancipation clauses ; and the bill was then passed in 
the House, July 11 ; and in the Senate, July 12. 

Mr. Eliot spoke in the House in support of the first confiscation 
and emancipation bills on May 20, 1862. 

It was calm, earnest reasoning, of which the key-note is given 
in a brief quotation : — 

The framers of our Constitution contemplated no confederated treason, 
nor was it within the range of tlieir belief that the precise legislation which 
the present exigencies require could be demanded ; but, when they ordained 
the Constitution, they declared in its immortal preamble the ends to be se- 
cured. Among other ends were these, — "to insure domestic tranquillity," 
and " to provide for the common defence." Domestic tranquillity is a politi- 
cal condition of things, the opposite of which a civil war exhibits. An 
organized and confederate rebellion cannot consist with such tranquillity. 
The purpose of the fathers was to establish a frame of government contain- 
ing powers sufficient to insure peace between the States, and between them 
and the General Grovernment. 

On the 19th of January, 1863, Mr. Eliot introduced into the 
House of Representatives a bill to establish a " Bureau of Eman- 
cipation," which was referred to a select committee ; but, for 
want of time, it was not reported back to the blouse. The same 
bill was again brought before^ the House by him, in December, 
1864, and referred to a select commitiee on " Emancipation." 

Mr. Eliot, as chairman of the committee, reported back the bill 
establishing a " Bureau of Freedmen's Affairs " under the War 
Department, which was debated in the House, passed on the 
1st of March, 1864, and sent to the Senate. The vote in the 
House stood, yeas 69, nays 67. On the 25th of May, 1864, Mr. 
Sumner, as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Slavery and 
Freedmen, to which committee the House bill had been referred, 
reported it back to the Senate, with an amendment in the nature 
of a substitute ; and, on the 28th of June, the Senate amendment 


was passed, and sent back to the House. On the last day of 
June, it was referred to the Select Committee, who recommended 
non-concurrence with the Senate amendment ; and the House 
postponed the bill until Dec. 20. Congress adjourned sine die 
on the -Ith of July. 

At the second session of the Thirty-eighth Congress, Dec. 20, 
1864, the Senate amendment was non-concurred in ; and a 
committee of conference appointed by the two Houses subse- 
quently agreed upon a bill establishing a " Department of Freed- 
men." The report of the committee was agreed to by the 
House, but not by the Senate ; and another conference commit- 
tee was appointed, who reported a bill to establish a Bureau of 
Freedmen and Refugees under the War Department. Their re- 
port was accepted by l>oth Houses, and the bill was approved by 
the President. In regard to the final success of the measure, it 
might be difficult to decide whether the country is the most in- 
debted to Mr. Eliot in tlie House, or to Mr. Sumner in the Senate. 

When the bill establishing a " Bureau of Freedmen's Affairs " 
came up for discussion in the House, Mr. Eliot advocated its pas- 
sage in a speech delivered Feb. 10, 1861. 

He thus closed his eloquent, patriotic, and humane appeal in 
behalf of three millions of emancipated slaves. In it he refers to 
a conversation with Mr. Lincoln just after the Proclamation of 
Emancipation had gone forth from his pen, — the crowning work 
and glory of his noble life. 

Shortly after that proclamation was made, I had an interview with the 
President; and he then said, "I think that proclamation will not of itself 
effect the good which you anticipate, nor will it do the mischief which its 
opponents predict." But he " budded better than he knew." That act was 
the great act of his life. It has become greater daily in the judgment of the 
world ; and, in the ages that are to come, it will be the corner-stone of his 
immortal fame. Never before had such%t)pportunity been given to man. 
For one, I reverently recognize the hand of God. He created the occasion, 
and his servant obeyed the divine command which it involved. . . . 

Why, sir, the case is too plain for argument. Now is the accepted time ; 
and this Congress will bear the deserved reproach, not only of this great- 
hearted nation, but of all nations of Christian men, if wo falter in this work. 

Mr. Speaker, it has somewhat appeared already how the parties to this 
bill will be the better for the law. But I would take a wider view of this 
grand work which the war has put upon us. From its commencement, no 
man has been able to anticipate events. Nothing has occurred as the wisest 
seer predicted. Great generals have failed, and men unknown to fame be- 
fore have conducted us to victory. Battles have been won in the valleys and 



" above the clouds " by a rank-and-file bravery which the annals of military 
history cannot rival. Who of us has not had occasion to say, " Not unto us, 
but unto thee, God ! be rendered the praise " ? 

And now, out of the war, a new nation of men has arisen. No power in 
Constitution, in President, or in people outside of the rebel States, could 
have held out to them its liberating arm in time of peace. The mad ambition 
of slave-owners, which struck at the life of the nation to give new life to 
slavery, disclosed the power to strike back the blow ; and, in the fulness of 
time, a man was found commissioned to the work. 

We read, that, in the beginning, God said, "Let there be light, and there 
was light." But, since the beginning, human agencies have worked out the 
ways of Pro\'idence, and never in history since that great fiat has it been 
given to more than one man to lift from three million souls the darkness 
and the doom of slavery. Our duty he has assigned us now. I believe that 
this bill, wisely administered, will complete the work. 

It will enable the Government to help into active, educated, and useful 
life, a nation of freedmen who otherwise would grope their way to usefulness 
through neglect and sufiering to themselves, and with heavy and needless loss 
to us. 

They are children of the Government. By the necessities of war deprived 
of the guiding and controlling hand which had held in stern mastery their 
earthly destinies, they are unused to rights heretofore denied them ; yet they 
know somewhat of them by instinct and by association. No matter how 
abject the slavery, the idea of freedom is in the soul ; and, when the friendly 
hand has been extended, the freedman has shown capacity and will to walk 
as a man among men. Wliat they require is to be made sure that they 
are free, to be furnished a chance to work, and to be guaranteed their 
reasonable wages. Work they understand. Their mothers worked before 
them, and went down into dishonored graves, cursed by the unpaid toil of 
bondage. But wages they have not owned ; and, iu the right to earn and to 
enjoy them, they fiiid their manhood. Soon tliey will find the place they 
have a rio-ht to till. Quick to learn ; appreciating kindnesses, and returning 
them with veneration and affection ; earnest to acquire property, because 
that, too, is proof of manhood, - — they ask but opportunity and guidance 
and education for a season ; and then they will repay you, some thirty, and 
some sixty, and some a hundred fold. 

Without your legislation, the freedmen able to fight will be alienated from 
your cause ; the freedmen unfit for service, with the young and the aged 
and infirm, will be a charge upon your treasury. But give the aid which 
this bill can secure to them, and you will quickly find, not only that peace 
which comes from duty well discharged, but material strength and a recom- 
pense of reward, which, after all the expenses of your bureau shall have been 
defrayed, will contribute to your wealth. 

So shall this your act give to the freedmen of the South, and to all the 
freemen whom you represent, " beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, 
and the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." 


Mr. Eliot's strength, mental and physical, is unabated ; and 
his voice will still be heard amid the excitement of the debates in 
Congress, speaking clearly, firmly, and eloquently for the rights 
of all the people. 


Was born, Aug. 30, 1818, in Newton Lower Falls, where his 
father was engaged in paper manufacturing. He was one of ten 
children. After attending the public schools till about fifteen years 
of age, he went to Boston, and entered the mercantile business as 
clerk. His health failed at the end of two years ; and, returning 
home, he resumed his studies. A year later, he went into a paper 
warehouse in Boston. During all these years, he intensely desired 
a liberal education, and secretly hoped, at a future period, to se- 
cure the boon. One day, he told his employer, Mr. John L. Wil- 
kins, a man of genuine culture, his cherished aspirations, and 
met with prompt encouragement. Again he went home, and 
immediately commenced preparation for college under Rev. Dr. 
Newton of West Newton. Pie entered Union College, Schenec- 
tady, N.Y., in 1840, taking a high position in scholarship; received 
an appointment to the post of honor in the exercises of commence- 
ment of 1844, and made the closing address, equivalent to the 
valedictory in other colleges. 

Mr. Rice's health was frail ; and he accepted, in 1845, a part- 
nership in the house of which he is now the senior member. 
Meanwhile, he devoted his leisure to literary pursuits. 

He was on the School Committee of Boston for several years, 
and Chairman of the Board of Governors of Charitable Institu- 

In 1853 and 1854, Mr. Rice was a member of the Common 
Council ; and, in the latter year, ho was elected its President. 
In 1855, he was chosen Mayor of Boston, and re-elected in 1856. 
He was very active in securing the establishment of the Free 
Library, — "-the only one," he remarked, " absolutely free in the 
country, and perhaps in the world." 

The speeches at the exercises of opening it were made by 
Edward Everett, Mr. Rice, and R. C. Winthrop. The address of 
Mr. Rice was so comprehensive and clear in its views, that it was 
quoted in leading English papers. 

He was elected member of the House of Representatives in the 
Thirty-sixth Congress, and re-elected to the Thirty-eighth and 


Thirty-ninth Congresses. The speeches of Mr. Rice on Protec- 
tion in its Rekition to Agriculture and Manufactures and upon 
the Country, at the opening of the late conflict, were highly 

But his greatest work for the country in the civil war has been 
done as Chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs. 

In this capacity, his labors have been manifold. When the 
fierce attack, under the lead of the Hon. Henry Winter Davis, 
was made in Congress upon the Navy Department, Mr. Rice pre- 
pared himself for the defence. A question of the most subtle 
scientific character, respecting certain applications of steam, had 
been for months before the committee. Mr. E. N. Dickinson, a 
scientific meclianical engineer of New York, affirmed that the 
principle adopted by the United-States Navy was radically wrong ; 
while Mr. B. F. Isherwood,Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy, denied 
the assertion entirely. 

The committee were seventy days taking testimony, making a 
formidable mass of manuscript. Mr. Rice addressed himself to 
the task of sifting this evidence, and consulting scientific works, 
till he was able to present one of the clearest, ablest, and most 
elaborate reports ever made before any legislative body. 

And when, on Feb. 3, 1865, Mr. Davis made his studied 
speech in favor of establishing a board of naval administration, 
aiming a blow at the legitimate exercise of autliority in the de- 
partment, Mr. Rice, with no other preparation than could be made 
during Mr. Davis's remarks, rej)lied in a logical, lucid, and most 
satisfactory speech of an hour and a half in length. We quote the 
closing passage of this eloquent defence of the navy : — 

As I have already said, from the dawn of the Rebellion until now, the 
navy has been everywhere that it could be, and always has done glorious and 
efficient service. The Mississippi and its tributaries are open to connnerce 
again ; every port for blockade-runners upon the Atlantic and the Gulf has 
been closed ; all the strongholds seized by the enemy vipon the coast have 
been recovered, and nearly every corsair driven from the ocean. The navy 
was at Hatteras, at Port Royal, at Charleston, at Island No. 10, at Port 
Donelson, at Fort Henry, at Shiloh, at Memphis, at Vicksburg, at Arkansas 
Post, at Port Hudson, at Mobile Bay, and at Fort Fisher ; and \h all those 
places it added radiance to the American name, and glory to the American 
naval history, which no lapse of time shall be able to obliterate. It has 
placed upon the imperishable record of fame, to be transmitted amid the 
plaudits of mankind to the latest generations, such names as Stringham and 
Foote, and Du Pont and Farragut, and Goldsborough and Porter, and 


Dablgi-en and Rodgers, and Rowan and Davis, and Winslow and Gushing. 
I should consume the day if I attempted to name them all. Theu- reputa- 
tion is secure in history ; it is secure in the hearts of their countrymen ; and 
when the final history of this war shall be written out, and the comparison 
shall be made of ;he manner in which the different departments of this Grov- 
ernment have executed the high and laborious and responsible trusts com- 
mitted to them, faithful and earnest as they have been, there will not be one 
of them that will stand brighter, or that will be more loudly or warmly com- 
mended by our successors, than will the Navy Department. And, sir, I 
cannot think that the well-earned fame of the naval service, this just 
meed of praise, will be diminished or obscured by any gentleman, however 
lofty his standing, or however brilliant his abilities, who asks you, in the light 
of these facts, to put over your Navy Department a board of administration 
which shall be a change without improvement, or who cites to you the fact, 
that, in the accomplishment of the gigantic labors that have fallen to the lot 
of that department, it made a mistake in regard to the draught of a monitor, 
or an alleged, but not admitted, mistake in the construction of a double- 

Mr. Rice is a gentleman in feeling and action ; and the marked 
ability of his official service associates most honorably his name 
with the part taken by the Commonwealth in the victorious con- 
flict for national unity and liberty. 


Native place was Marblehead, where he first saw the light Feb. 3, 
1808. After the usual culture of the schools, followed by four 
years in a counting-room, he visited Europe and the West Indies. 
In 1832, he settled in Boston, engaging in the China trade, a 
partner in the firm of William Appleton & Co. He was elected 
to the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1851 ; to the 
State Senate in 1857 ; and, in 1861, to the House of Representa- 
tives in Congress, to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of 
William Appleton. Ho was Chairman of the Committee on Ways 
and Means ; and, re-elected to the Thirty-eighth Congress, he lield 
the same position. Again elected to the Thirty-ninth Congress, he 
became Chairman of the Committee on Finance. It was here that 
he displayed that masterly knowledge of the difficult business 
properly before him that made him a confidential adviser of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, and won, in the highest degree, the 
confidence of the President. His name was coiis|)icuoas among 
the few from which that of the able Hugh McCuUoch was selected 
for a place in the Cabinet. His juilicious, i)ractical course, amid 


the fluctuations in the financial world during tlie war, has accom- 
plished much, in a quiet way, for the country, — a service whose 
value cannot easily be appreciated nor over-estimated by tliose 
who are not in the secret of that complicated and mighty machine 
of national progress, the Treasury Department, in its connection 
with all business activity. 


Was a native of Cummington, and is now fifty years of age. 
Graduating at Yale College in 1830, he entered the profession of 
law. He edited at one time " The Greenfield Gazette." In 1848, 
he was chosen State Representative ; in 1850, to the Senate ; and 
again, in 1852, to the Lower House. He was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention in 1853 ; and District Attorney for 
the Western District until elected from the Tenth District to the 
Thirty-fifth Congress, in which he was on the Committee of 
Revolutionary Claims. Re-elected tj the Thirty-seventh, Thirty- 
eighth, and Tiiirty-ninth Congresses, he has been Chairman of the 
Committee of Elections ; a post of duty of great importance to 
the country, and attended with many difficult questions, to which 
his practical ability was always equal. During the revolutionary 
period of the past five years, M»\ Dawes has done his work ably 
and well. 


Is a resident of Lynn, his birthplace in 1817. While young, he 
was an apprentice in the shoe and leather business, to which he has 
since devoted himself when not engaged in public affairs. 

He was a member of the Governor's Council in 1851, and of 
the State Senate in 1852. He was a delegate to the Constitu- 
tional Convention, and representative in tlie Thirty-sixfh, Thirty- 
seventh, Thirty-eighth, and Thirty-ninth Congresses. As Chair- 
man of the Committee on Post-offices and Post-roads, his official 
duties necessarily, during the chaotic condition of all things at the 
South and on the border, often required excellent judgment and 
prudent action. He won and retains implicit confidence on the 
part of the Government, his colleagues, and his constituents. 


Was a son of Maine, and born in Wells, January, 1820. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth College, and, in 1846, settled in Boston, 
a lawyer by profession. In 1852, he was elected to the State 


Legislature. He was chosen member of the Thirty-fifth, Thirty- 
sixth, and Thirty-seventh Congresses. He was on the Committee 
on Territories, and sul^sequcntly on the Committee on the Con- 
duct of the War. It was in this last responsible position that his 
influence was especially felt in the progress of the civil war. 


The Plon. William B. Washburn, of Greenfield, quietly met the 
questions before the House, in tlie national struggle, with tlie 
Christian patriotism which distinguishes him in the walks of 
private life. By him, in devotion to the country, stands the Hon. 
Oakes Ames, of North Easton, Massachusetts. Indeed, Massa- 
chusetts brain and heart have had no small share in the political 
and moral conflicts and achievements in the halls of Congress 
and in the departments of State, as well as in the field of martial 



Charles Francis Adams, Ambassador to the Court of St. James, London. — John Lothrop 
Motley, Ambassador to the Court of Austria, Vienna. — Anson Burlingame, Ambassa- 
dor to Pekin, China. 

11HE nations of Europe were deeply agitated by the outbreak 
of civil war in the United States. Monarchs, and the aris- 
tocratic classes generally, desired a dismemberment of the Re- 
public. Such a catastrophe would strengthen in the popular mind 
the '' divine right of kings," and secure the throne, and the 
proud distinctions it fosters, from the sacrilegious hands of the 
masses, awakening, in the light of American liberty, to the divine 
right of the people to enjoy freedom regulated by laws of their 
own making. 

The United States, therefore, found little sympathy abroad, ex- 
cepting among the common people, and the few liberal minds in 
the higher ranks of society. England was ready in all ways pos- 
sible, under cover of national law and custom, to aid the leaders 
of the causeless and unexampled revolt. France occupied a 
similar position, though more cautiously taken. 

In the complications, commercial and political, which would 
arise among the foreign governments to a great extent (and none 
could tell how great), it was of the first importance to have able 
and wise representatives in foreign courts. 

Among the ministers to other nations, occupying prominent 
positions on the Eastern hemisphere, were three Massachusetts 

One has been in the mother - country, another in the most 
despotic nation of Europe, and the third in the Celestial Em- 
pire ; and, in the glimpse we take of them and their official 
services, we naturally begin with our minister to England, — 


He is a son of the illustrious John Quincy Adams, and was 
born in Boston, Aug. 28, 1807. When his father represented the 



United-States Government at St. Petersburg, in 1809, he accom- 
panied him, and spent six years in the Russian capital, learning 
to speak fluently, not only the dialect of the country, but also 
the German and French languages. 

In February, 1815^ then in his eighth year, he went with his 
mother in a private carriage, from St. Petersburg to Paris, to meet 
his father, — a journey at anytime no trivial undertaking, but 
then, on account of the disturbed condition of Europe, attended 
with unusual embarrassments. 

On his appointment to a mission at the court of St. James, his 
father took Charles to England with him, and placed him in a board- 
ing-school. Here he sometimes had personal encounters with his 
school-fellows in the defence of the honor of his country against 
the insults of young England. Returning to Boston in 1817, he 
entered the Latin School, and subsequently Harvard College, 
graduating in 1825. 

The two succeeding years he passed in the Presidential man- 
sion, Washington, which was occupied by his father. He entered 
the law-office of Daniel Webster, at Boston, two years later ; and 
in 1828 was admitted to practice, but did not devote himself to 
his profession. Marrying, in 1829, tiie daughter of Peter C. 
Brooks, he became brother-in-law of Edward Everett ; and, in 
addition to his own inheritance, the alliance was attended with a 
fortune to the family. The people of Boston, in 1841, chose him 
to represent them in the Legislature. The previous year, he had 
declined the nomination. 

Up to this time, his pursuits had been mainly literary. 
Greek was a special study with him ; and the Roman writers, as 
well as the greatest authors of more recent times, were his con- 
stant companions. Actuated by the scholarly impulses of a stu- 
dent, he declined a nomination to the State House of Representa- 
tives in 1841 ; but his father was so much disturbed by tliis appar- 
ent shrinking from public duty, that he promised him to accept a 
second nomination if offered him the following year. After three 
years' service there, he took his seat in the State Senate. In 
1848, the Free-soil party nominated him for the Vice-Presidency. 
"The Life and the Works of John Adams," his grandfather, is 
highly creditable to his ability as an author and editor : a similar 
effort to preserve the annals of his distinguished father is prom- 
ised. The Letters of John Adams and Aljigail Adams were edited 
by him, with an Introductory Memoir, in 1840, and were received 
with favor. 



He was elected to Congress in 1858 ; and also a second time, 
serving one term, until March 4, 1861. He manifested in all 
Congressional deliberations tliat statemanship which has always 
characterized him in his public and official relations. The closing 
sentences of his speech, Jan. 31, 1861, when the Rebellion was 
lifting its horrid front, will illustrate his style, and his manner 
of treating important topics : — 

When the cry goes out that the ship is in danger of sinking, the first 
duty of every man on board, no matter what his particular vocation, is to lend 
all the strength he has to the work of keeping her afloat. What ! shall it be 
said that we waver in the view of those who begin by trying to expunge the 
sacred memoiy of the 4th of July V Shall we help them to obliterate the as- 
sociations that cluster around the glorious struggle for independence, or stul- 
tify the labors of the patriots who erected this magnificent political edifice 
upon the adamantine base of human liberty V Shall we surrender the fame 
of Washington and Laurens, of Gadsden and the Lees, of Jefferson and 
Madison, and of the myriads of heroes whose names are imperiahably con- 
nected with the memory of a united peoj^le ? Never, never ! 

For myself, I can only interpose against what seems to me like the madness 
of the moon the barrier of a single feeble remonstrance ; but, in any event, 
it shall never be said of my share in the action of this hour of danger, that it 
has been guided by vindictive passions, or narrow considerations of personal 
or party advantage. I well know what I hazard, among many whose good 
opinion has ever been part of the sunlight of my existence, in following what 
I hold to be a higher duty. Whilst at any and at all times I shall labor to 
uphold the great principles of liberty, without which this grand system of our 
fathers would seem to be a mockery and a show, I shall equally strive to give 
no just ground to enemies and traitors to expand the circle of mischief they 
may do. 

Although not very frequently indulging in the profession of a devotion to 
the Union, which has heretofore been too often associated with a public policy 
I deemed most dangerous to its safety, I will venture to add, that no man 
over the boundless extent of our dominion has more reasons for inextinguish- 
able attachment to it than myself. It is inwoven in my afiections with the 
faithful labors in its support of two generations of my race ; it is blended 
with a not inconsiderable personal stake in its continuity ; it is mingled with 
my earnest prayers for the welfare of those wlio are treading after me ; and, 
more than all these, it colors all my visions of the beneficent spread of re- 
publican institutions, as well in America as over the rest of the civilized world. 

If, then, so great a calamity as a division be about to befall us, it shall be 
hastened by no act of mine. It shall come from the wilful passions of infat- 
uated men, who demand it of us, to destroy the great principles for which our 
fathers struggled in life and in death, to stain our standard with the symbol 
of human oppression, and to degrade us, iu the very hour of our victory. 


before our countrymen, before all the nations of the civilized world, and be- 
fore God. Rather than this, let the heavens fall ! My duty is performed. 

In 1861, Mr. Adams v^as appointed envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to the court of St. James. His personal 
qualities of mind and character, and the prestige of his name, his 
father and grandfatlier having occupied the same high position, 
gave him influence at once in England. His services during the 
years of civil war demonstrated the wisdom of the appointment. 
The more than four hundred pages of printed correspondence 
between Secretary Seward and Mr, Adams, including that with 
other State officers, display a marvellous wisdom on the part of 
both in the management of new, delicate, and difficult questions. 
Mr. Adams's sagacity, prudence, and firmness were second only to 
Mr. Seward's in his negotiations with the English Government. 

The Secretary used the following language in his note to Mr. 
Adams, June 5, 1862 : — 

The prejudice that we found prevailing in England soon after the civil 
war began, to the effect that tbis Government desired to challenge Great 
Britain to a war for popular effect at home, has been inveterate. It is pleas- 
ing, however, to discover that at last the equally prudent and just policy we 
have so constantly pursued is beginning to be appreciated by the British 
Government. No one has done more to correct the injurious error referred 
to than you have done. 

Mr. Adams's course against permitting the iron-clads at Laird's 
to depart on their destructive errand " was distinctly and unre- 
servedly approved." Indeed, whenever he acted officially, he was 
cordially sustained. The clear statements of mooted points, the 
exact estimate of what was demanded in the most trying emer- 
gency, and the uncompromising firmness in maintaining the honor 
of the Republic, without exasperating unfriendly feeling, will 
place the name of Charles Francis Adams among the ablest diplo- 
matists of any country or age. The nation owes hini a debt of 
profound gratitude for his distant yet efficient services during a 
rebellion which reached even the sliores of England. 


The American minister to Austria, was born in Dorchester, 
Norfolk County, April 15, 1814. He graduated at Ilarvaixl 
College in 1831, and soon afterwards embarked for Europe. 
Proceeding to Gottingen, Germany, he spent a year there, and, 
removing to Berlin, was in that city about the same period. 


After travelling in the south of Europe, he returned to America, 
and commenced the study of law. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1837. The profession was dry, and unattractive to his literary 
cast of mind ; and he never gave his energies to it. 

In 1840, he went to Russia as secretary of legation at St. 

During the next six years, he published two volumes of ro- 
mance, one of which, " Merry Mount," was founded upon inci- 
dents in Massachusetts colonial history. 

He also contributed several valuable articles to the reviews. A 
History of Holland was commenced in 1846, and reached two 
volumes ; when, to have access to material he could not find in 
this country, he sailed with his family for Europe again. The 
fresh and rich resources of information he obtained dissatisfied 
him with his annals ; and he laid them aside to commence anew 
the work, with the title, " History of the Dutch Republic." It 
was published in London in 185G, in three volumes octavo, and 
had a rapid sale ; reaching, by the year 1860, about fifteen thou- 
sand copies. It was republished in America, with a steady and 
growing demand. It has been translated into Dutch and 

The exhaustive and attractive work gave the author a reputa- 
tion wide as the domain of letters. 

Mr. Motley's residence abroad was divided, for the most part, 
between Berlin, Dresden, and the Hague. He visited the United 
States in 1858, but, after a brief stay, returned to the Continent. 
His next great literary work was "The United Netherlands," in 
three volumes. 

The University of Oxford, England, conferred upon him the 
degree of D.C.L. in 1860 ; and Harvard College, that of LL.D. 

A few months later, he was appointed American ambassador 
to the court of Austria, and has occupied the important official 
position with credit to himself, and honor to the country. 

When Napoleon decided to offer the throne of Mexico to Maxi- 
milian, it gave occasion to a correspondence between Mr. Motley 
and Mr. Seward in regard to the proper bearing of the American 
minister in the complication of national claims and rights. 

Mr. Motley's resume^ from time to time, of European affairs in 
their relation to our country in the midst of a gigantic war, were 
enlightened and comprehensive, meeting the warmest approval at 

Mr. Seward's reply to Mr. Motley, Feb. 26, 1863, is an example 


of this uniform appreciation of tlie able discharge of difficult 
duties : — 

Your very interesting despatch of Jan. ^7 has been received. The sur- 
vey of Continental politics which you have taken in this paper is full of in- 
struction. If questions purely dynastic, or of mere administration, or, at 
most, of political organization, can make and keep so many European nations 
so unquiet as to require constant vigilance on the part of the governments, 
one would expect that they would be tolerant of this government in its eiforts 
to preserve, in its full efficiency, a system that is so perfect as to Ije undis- 
turbed by questions of those sorts, and encounters an opposition or resistance 
from only one disturbing cause, — and that one African slavery, which the 
public sentiment of mankind elsewhei"e unanimously condemns. 

Mr. Motley wisely avoided raising an issue on the Mexican 
question, or the discussion of it, at the court of Vienna. Ameri- 
ca is justly proud of an ambassador whose genius, culture, and 
character so much honor the nation which he represents. 


Mr. Burlingame, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipoten- 
tiary to China, is a native of New Berlin, Chenango County, N.Y. 
He was born Nov. 14, 1822. 

On the wild Western frontiers he passed his early youth, 
engaged in surveys of boundary-lines, and in the formation of 
treaties with the aborigines. He commenced his course of liberal 
education in the Branch University of Michigan, but, removing 
to Massachusetts, entered Harvard College, and graduated in 
1846. He then studied law, and opened an office in Boston. 

Mr. Burlingame was sent to the State Senate in 1852, and, the 
next year, was a member of the Constitutional Convention of the 

Elected to the Thirty-fourth Congress, he was an active, influ- 
ential member. He was re-elected to the Thirty-fifth, and served 
ably on the Committee of Foreign Affairs ; and again, in the fol- 
lowing session, had the same honorable position. 

Under the administration of Mr. Lincoln, he was sent, in 1861, 
ambassador to Austria, and soon after to China. 

His first letter to Mr. Seward was dated Aug. 23 of that 
year; and the acknowledgment of it, Dec. 9; indicating the 
long interval which must necessarily lie between the depart- 
ure of a message from an office of legation at the antipodes, 


and the arrival of an answer from Washington, — time enough lor 
a revohition to sweep over half a continent. 

Mr. Burlingame's management of treaties which opened trade 
in Chinese ports, and extended it abroad, securing ads-antages to 
other countries with our own, and his successful efforts for the 
protection of foreign residents in Shanghai, were emphatically 
indorsed at home and abroad. 

Sept. 9, 1863, Mr. Seward wrote, — 

The policy which you have adopted in the conduct of your responsible 
mission is able and wise ; it is also just towards the Chinese Government 
and people, and liberal towards all other nations. It is an occasion of special 
felicitation that it meets the concurrence of the enlightened representatives of 
Great Britain, Russia, and France. 

Mr. Burlingame's defence of Gen. Burgoine, the successor of 
the Americo-Chinese hero, Ward ; his efforts in regard to the sani- 
tary condition of Shanghai, which caused the opening of a new 
gate to the city, and the drainage of stagnant waters before it ; 
and his cautious, decided treatment of all questions of national 
policy, however nearly or remotely connected with rebellion in 
China and in America, — won for him, in official form, the most 
flattering acknowledgments of indebtedness from men represent- 
ing the interests of different nations. 

The honor and prosperity of the nation abroad were safe in the 
hands of our American minister in Chiiia during the changing 
fortunes of the civil war, 

■^fv. B£MJ. F. BUT^ 


^;les dev'-«-- 


PAET 11. 




The Signs of the coming Conflict. — Massachusetts takes the Aharm. — The Prophetic 
Words of Adjutant-Gen. Schouler. — The Action of the Governor and Legislature. — 
The Volunteer Militia. 

THE threatening agitation at the South early in the winter of 
1860, ridiculed by many at the North as a transient ebulli- 
tion of feeling, was regarded in Massachusetts with serious appre- 
hension. With the vigilance and the promptness of her youthful 
days, she began to gird herself for the conflict. 

An incident illustrative of Massachusetts loyalty, unknown to 
the public at the time, which places her quite in advance of all 
other States in the offer of her sons to confront the armed foes 
of our nationality, occurred just before tlie evacuation of Fort 
Moultrie. The first mention of it in a popular assembly was 
made l)y the hero of Sumter on July 4, 18(35. With tlie peerless 
naval commander, Vice-Admiral Farragut, he was welcomed to 
Boston in a grand reception at Faneuil Hall, during which he 
remarked, — 

I am indebted to Massachusetts for many things ; and before I sit down I 
will simply remark, that the first letter I received in Fort Moultrie, before 
I went to Fort Sumter, when it was found that things were looking very 
threatening (and I felt the storm there long before you saw the flash here), 
— the Hrst letter I received was from a gentleman, I am sorry. I do not re- 
member his name, a militia officer of this city, offering me troops from Mas- 
sachusetts if the Government would then allow them to be sent to me. 

On July G, in Faneuil Hall, Brig.-Gen. Edward W. Hinks was 
introduced to Gen. Anderson by the Mayor as "the gentleman 



who wrote to him when he was in Fort Monltrie, tendering him 
the Massachusetts troops." A cordial greeting followed ; and 
Gen. Anderson said he would have accepted the proffered assist- 
ance if he had had the authority. He was loudly called for, and 
came forward to the platform with Gen. Hinks, and said to the 
audience, — 

My Friends and Fellow-citizens, — I wish to present to you Brig.-Gen. 
Hinks, the first volunteer of the war, and to thank him in your name as well 
as ray own for a letter which he sent me when I took command of Fort 
Moultrie, in which he assured me, that, if the Government would allow, he 
would forward to me friends and soldiers from Massachusetts. I wish you to 
remember this first volunteer. 

Gen. Hinks, who was retiring, was brought back by the Mayor ; 
and cries for a speech, mingled with cheers, saluted him. The 
general, with a few modest words of allusion to the distinguished 
visitors, who were the Alpha and Omega of the war, retired amid 
the popular applause. 

We add an extract from Gen. Anderson's interesting letter, 
the first from the field of hostile demonstrations, dated "Fort 
Moultrie, Dec. 25, 1860." After thanking Col. Hinks for his 
patriotic and chivalrous offer, he thus concludes : — 

When I inform you that my garrison consists of only sixty effective men ; 
that we are in a very indifferent work, the walls of which are only about 
fourteen feet high ; and that we have, within a hundred and sixty yai'ds of oui' 
walls, sand-hills which command our work, and which afford admirable sites for 
batteries, and the finest covers for sharpshooters ; and that, besides this, there 
are numerous houses, some of them within pistol-shot, — you will at once see, 
that if attacked in force, headed by any one but a simpleton, thei'e is scarce a 
possibility of our being able to hold out long enough to give our friends time 
to come to our succor. Trusting that God will not desert us in our hour of 
trial, I am very sincerely yours, 


Major \st Artillery. 

A few days before this letter was written, South Carolina had 
taken the initiatory in the work of dissolving the Union. The 
governor's message upon the crisis urged the legislature to pre- 
pare to defy the power of the United States ; and the convention 
of the State found no opposition to the Ordinance of Secession. 

.Before the holidays had passed, the members of Congress 


from South Carolina had resigned their seats, and the Ordinance 
of Secession was passed by the State. A Confederate Congress 
had assembled, and Major Anderson was within the walls of Fort 
Sumter, for whose greater security from the menacing passions 
of treasonable men he had abandoned Fort Moultrie. 
A graphic writer thus sketches the rushing events : * — 

The process of dissolution was not confined to the secession of States 
and the withdrawal of members from Congress. Members of the Cabinet 
residing in the Southern States considered their allegiance to their States 
superior to that to the United States. Dec, 10, Cobb of Georgia, Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, and, the 29th, Floyd of Vu-ginia, Secretary of War, 
resigned their places in the Cabinet. Through their unparalleled treachery 
to the Grovernment that had given them the highest confidence, they had 
so crippled the forces of the Union, in the robbing of money and arms, that 
the interests of secession were assisted nearly into an ec|uality of power with 
the rest of the Union. 

The work thus commenced was not to be half-way : the position taken 
was to be sustained by arms. In December, South Carolina's legislature 
authorized the seizure of all arsenals, arms, and forts within her limits. Jan. 
3, Gov. Brown of Georgia ordered the seizure of Forts Pulaski and Jack- 
son, at Savannah ; on the 4th, the authorities of Alabama seized Fort 
Morgan; on the 10th, the authorities of Mississippi seized the forts and 
other United-States property within her limits ; on the 12th, the navy-yard 
and property at Pensacola were taken ; on the 28th, the rebels of Louisiana 
took the United-States revenue-cutter and other property, and the money in 
the mint at New Orleans ; and, to complete this list of plundering. Gen. 
Twiggs of Texas surrendered the United-States forces and property in his 
hands into the power of the rebels. The forts seized were armed and 
manned, the arsenals were robbed, the militia of the cotton States was called 
out, and every material preparation made to withstand any attempt of the 
Union for self-preservation. Legislatures were convened, minute-men organ- 
ized, mass meetings held, the suspension of banks was legalized, millions 
were voted to carry out the nefarious designs of the secessionists. Southern 
rights associations were organized. Northern men were daily arrested, Union 
men were awed into silence, the levying of executions issuing from the United- 
States courts was prevented by legislatures, religious conferences passed reso- 
lutions favoring secession, and Palmetto and State flags were flying every- 
where, and everywhere the stars and stripes were hauled down, and trailed 
in the dust. The news of secession was hailed with acclamations of delight ; 
and, to close this saturnalia, two hundred and sixteen of the patients in the 
United-States hospital at New Orleans were removed to make room for the 

* Mass. Register, 1862, p. 120. 


secession troops of Louisiana. Theft was honored, robbery justified, and in- 
humanity to the sick became a public virtue ; law, order, peace, brotherly 
love, patriotism, and respect for historical memories, all declined to their con- 
founding contraries. 

Amono; the leadin": men, the Governor of Florida, Gov. Moore of Alaba- 
ma, Letcher of Virginia, and Moore of Louisiana, Cobb, Johnson, and Floyd, 
in the Cabinet, senators Clingman of North Carolina, and Toombs of Georgia, 
the Governors of Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Kentucky, and 
Barnwell, Orr, and Adams, the three South-Carolina commissioners to Wash- 
ington, and Ex-Governor IMoorehead, of Kentucky, Davis, Beauregard, and a 
host of others, leading men, all honorable men in the South, men nourished 
into growth and power by the Union, now turned their faces and their swords 
against that Union, to destroy it. 

The only method there seems to have been in the madness of 
secession was the determination of the Southern leaders to sever 
as rapidly as possible every tie that bound them to the national 
government. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler of Lowell was at this 
time in Washington, conferring with his political friends of the 
South. They said to him, " The North can't fight : we have 
friends enough at the North to prevent it." 

"You have friends at the North," replied Geu. Butler, "as 
long as you remain true to the Constitution; but let me tell 
you, that, the moment it is seen that you mean to break up the 
country, the North is a unit against you. I can answer at least 
for Massachusetts. She is good for ten thousand men to march 
at once against armed secession." 

" Massachusetts is not such a fool. If your State should send 
ten thousand men to preserve the Union against Southern seces- 
sion, she will have to fight twice ten thousand of her own citizens 
at home wiio will oppose the policy." 

" No, sir : when we come from Massachusetts, we shall not 
leave a single traitor behind, unless he is hanging on a tree." 

" Well, we shall see." 

" You will see. I know something of the North, and a good 
deal about New England, where I was born, and have lived forty- 
two years. We are pretty quiet there now, because we don't 
believe that you mean to carry out your threats. We have heard 
the same story at every election these twenty years. Our people 
don't yet believe you are in earnest. But let me tell you this, — 
as sure as you attempt to break up this Union, the North will 


resist the attempt to its last man and its last dollar. You are as 
certain to fail as that there is a God in heaven. One thing yon 
7nay do : you may ruin tlie Southern States, and extinguish your 
institution of slavery. From the moment the first gun is fired 
upon the American flag, your slaves will not be worth five years' 
purchase ; l)ut, as to breaking up the country, it cannot be done. 
God and Nature, and the blood of your fathers and mine, have 
made it one ; and one country it must remain." 

While these hostile demonstrations were occurring at the 
South, Adjutant-Gen. Schouler wrote from the State House in 
Boston, on the last day of December, 1860, the following commu- 
nication, which proved to be prophetic of a national tragedy and 
trial, which but few were then willing to believe to be possible: — 

Events have trauspired in some of the Southern States, and at Washington, 
which have awakened the attention of the people of Massachusetts in a re- 
markable degree to the perpetuity of the Federal Union, and which may 
require the active militia of the Commonwealth to be greatly augmented. 
Should our worst fears be realized, and this nation be plunged into the hor- 
rors of civil war, upon Massachusetts may rest, in no inconsiderable degree, 
the duty of staying the effusion of blood, and of rolling back the black tide 
of anarchy and ruin. She did more than her share to achieve the independ- 
ence of our country, and establish the Government under which we have 
risen to such unparalleled prosperity, and become the great power of the 
American continent ; and she will be true to her history, her traditions, and 
her ftiir fame. 

Should it become necessary to increase the number of her active militia to 
a war-footing, the present organization offers an easy and a good means. The 
present companies could be filled to their full complement of men, and the 
regiments to their full complement of companies. New regiments of infantry, 
new battalions of riflemen, new companies of artillery and cavalry, could be 
formed with which to fill the several brigades, and make our present divis- 
ions five thousand men each, with proper apportionment of the several mili- 
tary arms. This, of course, would require a large outlay of money, which 
would doubtless be cheerfully met by our people if their honor and the wel- 
fare of their country demand it of them. 

In the mean time, I would suggest that a General Order be issued calling 
upon commanders of the companies of the active force to forward to head- 
quarters the names of the persons composing their commands, also their 
places of residence, so that a complete roll of each company may be on file 
in this department. 

The companies that have not their full quota of men should be filled by 
new enlistments to the number fixed by law; and, whenever new enlist- 
ments are made or discharges given, the names of the persons enlisted and 


discliarged should be forwarded immediately to headquarters, and placed on 

At the State dinner to the Independent Company of Cadets on 
the evening of Jan. 2, 1861, Ex-Gov. Banks gave a toast in honor 
of Major Anderson, then besieged. It was responded to by Adju- 
tant-Gen. Schoiiler in a short address, in which were these words, 
which may be considered as expressing the general views of the 
Old Bay State : " We have no boasts to make. History tells 
what the men of Massachusetts have done, and they will never 
disgrace that history." He closed his speech with the following 
toast : — 

The Militia of Massachusetts, — True to the State, true to the Union : 
without any blustering or bravado, they will defend the Constitution and the 
flag of the Union. 

President Buchanan's National Fast, on the 4th of January, was 
made the occasion of patriotic sermons by the clergymen of Bos- 
ton. The whole State at this time was in a feverish condition 
of anxiety. 

In one of his valedictory addresses, all of which were aglow 
with patriotic fervor. Gov. Andrew, referring to Major Ander- 
son's moving from Fort Moultrie to Sumter, remarked, " Cer- 
tainly never an act so slight in itself touched the hearts of so 
many millions of people, as with fire from heaven, as the recent 
simple, soldier-like, and patriotic movement of Major Anderson 
at Fort Moultrie." 

The tidings of Major Anderson's removal to Fort Sumter, an 
event which doubtless decided the course in regard to the revolt 
of the great cotton State, Georgia, thoroughly aroused Gen. But- 
ler to the inevitable struggle at hand. He called upon Senator 
Wilson, and expressed earnestly the hope that Gov. Andrew 
would immediately summon Massachusetts to a preparation for 
the war at hand. It must be conceded by all, that Gen. Butler's 
loyalty rose above partisan and personal affinities, and spoke 
clearly and promptly the prevalent spirit of the Commonwealth. 
He gave to the Governor, who was watching, with sad anticipa- 
tions of an outbreak, the progress of treason, the benefit of his 
experience in familiar intercourse with the Southern leaders of 
rebellion, and declared it to be their intention to fight, if neces- 
sary, for independence. 

In the Governor's Address to the Legislature, Jan. 5, 1861, 
the whole number of enrolled militia, for the year which had 


just closed, was stated to be 155,389 men; and the active militia 
ready for service, 5,592 : of these he said, " In respect to good 
conduct, discipline, spirit, and capacity proportioned to its numer- 
ical force, I am advised that our active citizen soldiery was never 
in a condition of greater efficiency." 

His remarks upon the "condition of the country" were calm, 
loyal, and appropriate. 

With a wise discernment of the true nature of the impending 
crisis, he predicted that emancipation, in some form, lay " at the 
end of the road which South Carolina invited her sister States 
upon the Gulf of Mexico to enter." 

Alluding to the extraordinary and exciting political events of 
the last twenty years, he said of the National Government, — 

The people of Massachusetts have never wavered from their faith in its 
principles, or their loyalty to its organization. Looking forward to the long 
ages of the future, building always in their own minds for countless gener- 
ations yet to come, they have endured, and are willing still cheerfully and 
hopefully to endure, much wrong and more misconception, because they trust 
in the blood inherited from heroic ancestors; in the principles of constitu- 
tional liberty ; in the theory of democratic institutions ; in the honest purpose 
of the intelligent masses of the people everywhere ; in the capacity of Truth 
and Right ultunately to reach and control the minds of men ; in an undjang 
affection for their whole country, its memories, traditions, and hopes ; and, 
above all, in the good providence of God. 

In regard to the great issue, he added, — 

And the single question now presented to the nation is this : Shall a re- 
actionary sjnrit, unfriendly to liberty, he permitted to subvert a democratic 
republican government organized under constitutional forms'? 

Upon this issue, over the heads of all mere politicians and partisans, in 
behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, I appeal directly to the warm 
hearts and clear heads of the great masses of the people. The men who own 
and till the soil, who drive the mills, and hammer out their own iron and 
leather on their own anvils and lapstones, and they who, whether in the city 
or the country, reap the rewards of enterprising industry and skill in the 
varied pursuits of business, are honest, intelligent, patriotic, independent, and 
brave. They know that simple defeat in an election is no cause for the dis- 
ruption of a government. They know that those who declare that they will 
not live peaceably within the Union do not mean to live peaceably out of it. 
They know that the people of all sections have a right, which they intend to 
maintain, of free access from the interior to both oceans, from Canada to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and of the free use of all the lakes and rivers and high- 
ways of commerce, North, South, East, or West. They know that the Union 


means peace, and unfettered commercial intercourse from sea to sea, and from 
shore to shore ; that it secures us all against the unfriendly presence or pos- 
sible dictation of any foreign power, and commands respect for our flag, and 
security for our trade ; and they do not intend, nor will they ever consent, 
to be excluded from these rights which they have so long enjoyed, nor to 
abandon the prospect of the benefits which humanity claims for itself by 
means of their continued enjoyment in the future. Neither will they consent 
that the continent shall be overrun by the victims of a remorseless cupidity, 
and the elements of civil danger increased by the barbarizing influences which 
accompany the African slave-trade. Inspired by the same ideas and emotions 
which commanded the fraternization of Jackson and Webster on another 
great occasion of public danger, the people of 3Iassachusetts, confiding in the 
patriotism of their brethren in other States, accept this issue, and respond, 
in the words of Jackson, ''The Federal Union, — it must be preserved ! " 

Until we complete the work of rolling back this wave of rebellion which 
tlu'eatens to ingulf the government, overthrow democratic institutions, subject 
the people to the rule of a minority, if not of mere military despotism, and in 
some communities to endanger the very existence of civiHzed society, we can- 
not turn aside, and we will not turn back. It is to those of our brethren in 
the disafiected States whose mouths are closed by a temporaiy reign of terror, 
not less than to ourselves, that we owe this labor, which, with the help of 
Providence, it is our duty to perform. 

Brig. -Gen. Edward W, Pierce, comraauding Second Brigade, 
First Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, in a letter to 
Gov. Andrew, made the first formal offer of troops : — 

Headquahtees Second Brixiade, 
AssoNET Village, Fkeetown, Jan. 5, 1861. 

To his Excellency John A. Andrew, Captain^ General and Commander-in- 
Chief Massachusetts Volunteers : — 

Having for full half the entire years of my life been enrolled in the volun- 
teer militia of this Conuuonwealth, and during fifteen of these years having 
been honored with a commission in this branch of the public service, I had 
come fully to the conclusion that my part of the burden had already licen 
borne, and my share of its honors had been received. 

With this view of the matter, I had contemplated resigning my commis- 
sion, and soliciting your Excellency to grant me a discharge from its duties, as 
one of the earliest acts of your administration. 

The recent outbreak in a sister State of the honored Confederation in 
which we had the good fortune to be born, and under whose laws (good and 
wholesome for the most part) we have enjoyed the inestimable privileges of 
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness;"- the threatening attitude 
assHmed by acts and wicked designs toward the Constitution and Union 


of these States, — has caused me to demur, lest my couduct should seem to 
show a disposition to vacate my }3ost and desert the cause of my country in 
the day of danger or in the hour of peril. 

Indeed, so far am I removed, both in thought and wish, from conduct so 
dastardly, all intention of resigning my position in the militia is, for the pres- 
ent, abandoned, and every vestige of such inclination has fled. 

Contented and happy to retain, and, if necessity shall require it, to act by 
virtue of, my present commission, in repeUing invasion from these shores, I am 
no less ready to resign, and accept a place in one of the companies that 
the emergencies of the case may require to be raised in our own State towards 
recruiting the Federal army ; and your Excellency will be pleased to under- 
stand that my services hereby are so tendered. 

With sentiments of the highest respect, I have the honor to remain 
Yours, &c., 

Bng.-Gen. commanding 2(1 Brig. 1st Div. M.V.M. 

The Saturday on which this communication was dated was 
crowded with marked and significant events. 

Through the generous loyalty of the merchants of Boston, a 
salute of a hundred guns was tired on the Common, in honor of 
Major Anderson, by a detachment of the Boston Light Artillery. 

On the 8th, Gov. Andrew ordered a salute to be fired throughout 
the State in honor of Gen. Jackson's victory at New Orleans. He 
said to a friend, that he did this, more than any thing else, " to stir 
up the people, and awaken the military spirit,''' which, he knew, 
must soon be called out by the national exigencies. Almost amid 
the roar of the cannon, Ex-Go v. Boutwell made a strong speech 
upon the secession movements in Charleston ; and there was also 
held a spirited meeting of the survivors of the war of 1812. 

The very next day, the " Star of the West," an unarmed 
steamer, bearing supplies to the famishing Spartan band that gar- 
risoned Fort Sumter, was fired upon by United-States guns in 
the hands of rebellious citizens, and compelled to turn her prow 
northward, with the food designed for the defenders of the na- 
tional flag. 

On the 11th, Government troops embarked on the steamer 
" Joseph Whitney," at Fort Independence, for the Southern bor- 
der. The same day, the General Government detailed men to 
put in order Fort Adams, at Newport, — the capital of the 
smallest State of the Union in area, but second to none in 
generous loyalty in the opening struggle. 

Jan. IG, 18G1, the Governor issued the following very compre- 


liensive and explicit General Order, marked No. 4, — the grand 
basis of all the subsequent military movements in the Common- 
wealth : — 


Headquarteks, Boston, Jan. 16, 1861. 
General Orders, No. 4. 

Events which have recently occurred, and are now in progress, require 
that Massachusetts should be at all times ready to furnish her quota of troops, 
upon any requisition of the President of the United States, to aid in the 
maintenance of the laws and the peace of the Union. His Excellency the 
Commander-in-Chief therefore orders, — 

That the commanding officer of each company of volunteer militia examine 
with care the roll of his company, and cause the name of each member, to- 
gether with his rank, and place of residence, to be properly recorded, and a 
copy of the same to be foi-warded to the office of the Adjutant-General ; pre- 
vious to which, commanders of companies shall make strict inquiries whether 
there arc men in their connnands, who from age, physical defect, business, or 
family causes, may be unable or indisposed to respond at once to the orders 
of the Commander-in-Cliief, made in response to the call of the President of 
the United States, that they may be forthwith discharged, so that their places 
may be filled by men ready for any public exigency which may arise, when- 
ever called upon. 

After the above orders have been fulfilled, no discharge, either of officer or 
private, shall be granted, unless for cause satisfactory to the Commander-in- 

If any companies have not the number of men allowed by law, the com- 
manders of the same shall make proper exertions to have the vacancies filled, 
and the men properly drilled and uniformed, and their names, and places of 
residence, forwarded to headquarters. 

To promote the objects embraced in this order, the general, field, and 
staff officers, and ihe, adjutant and acting quartermaster-general, will give all 
the aid and assistance in their power. 

IMajor-Generals Sutton, Morse, and Andrews will cause this order to be 
promulgated throughout their respective divisions. 

By command of his Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and Com- 

mander-in- Chief, 


Adjutant- General. 

The members of Gov. Andrew's staff were efficient officers in 
carrying forward the warlike measures in which he suddenly 


found himself to be the principal actor. The names of those who 
thus stood by his side were Lieut.-Col. Horace B. Sargent, Lieut.- 
Col. Harrison Ritchie, Lieut.-Col. J. N. Wetlierell, and Lieut.-Col. 
Henry Lee, jun. 

Lieut.-Col. Lee was very active, making estimates of the equip- 
ments necessary, and secnring the vessels required to transport 
the troops. Lieut.-Col. John Quincy Adams, who succeeded 
Lieut.-Col. Sargent in December, 1861, not only most admirably 
filled the place, but was a warm, confidential friend of the Gov- 
ernor during the exciting progress of the war. Correspondence 
was opened with G-en. Scott at Washington, Charles Francis 
Adams, and other responsible gentlemen, to secure accurate 
information of the startling revolt, and to be ready for its darkest 

The Governor had also a Legislature which represented, by a 
decided majority, the true heart of the Commonwealth. He was 
left free to act promptly and nobly in the dire emergency. 

On the 18th of January, the first legislative action of this, and, 
we believe, of any other State, was had in the passage of the fol- 
lowing resolutions : — 

Whereas, Several States of the Union have, through the action of their 
people and authorities, assumed the attitude of rebellion against the National 
Grovernment ; and ivhereas, treason is still more extensively diffused ; and 
whereas, the State of South Carolina, having first seized the post-office, custom- 
house, moneys, arms, munitions of war, and fortifications of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, has, by firing upon a vessel in the service of the United States, 
committed an act of war ; and whereas, the forts and property of the United 
States in Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida, have been seized, with 
treasonaljle and hostile intention ; and whereas, senators and representa- 
tives in Congress avow and sanction these acts of treason and rebellion : 

Resolved, That the Legislature of Massachusetts, now, as always, con- 
vinced of the inestimable value of the Union, and the necessity of preserving 
its blessings to ourselves and our posterity, regard with unraingled satisfac- 
tion the determination evinced in the recent firm and patriotic special mes- 
sage of the President of the United States to amply and faithfully discharge 
his constitutional duty of enforcing the laws and preserving the integi-ity of 
the Union ; and we proffer to him, through the Governor of the Common- 
wealth, such aid in men and money as he may require to maintain the 
authority of the National Government. 

Resolved, That the Union-loving and pati-iotic authorities, representatives, 
and citizens of those States whose loyalty is endangered or assailed by in- 
ternal treason, who labor in behalf of the Federal Union with unfliachiug 


courage and. patriotic devotion, will receive the enduring gratitude of the 
American people. 

Resolved, That the Governor be requested to forward, forthwith, copies of 
the foregoing resolutions to the President of the United States and the Gov- 
ernors of the several States. 

During the same session of tlic Legislature, a bill was passed, 
making an appropriation of twenty-five thousand dollars, and au- 
thorizing the Adjutant-General to secure contracts for the outfit 
of two thousand troops. The principal articles specified, besides 
two thousand ball-cartridges, were overcoats, blankets, and knap- 
sacks. The resolutions passed by the Legislature, tendering to 
the President aid in men and money, sent as he may need, were 
approved by the Governor Jan. 23, and sent to Washington by 
mail the same day. Meanwhile the volunteer militia had resorted 
to the nightly drill at their armories, in anticipation ot a lawless 
assault upon the life of the Republic by the armed propagandists 
of American slavery : " so that, when the summons came from 
the President on the 15th of April, the ' fiery cross ' was sent 
over the Commonwealth ; and, in obedience to the call, the men 
came forth as in the brave days of old, leaving the work-shop and 
the plough, their nets and barges, homes and kindred, inspired by 
love of country and the rights of mankind." 

It was this provision for a sudden appeal to the "arbitra- 
tion of the sword," with that vigilance which of old " scented 
tyranny in the breeze," and often surprised the enemies of liberty 
with a display of martial strength and courage believed by them 
impossible, that gave to Massachusetts the honor of taking the 
front in the march to meet the last great assault upon human 

On Jan. 17, a meeting of merchants was held in the rooms 
of the Board of Trade, Mayor Wightman presiding, " to con- 
sider upon the best means of preserving the Union, and upon ad- 
dressing the Massachusetts delegation in Congress." The meeting 
also decided upon the form of a petition to Congress, and ap- 
pointed the necessary committees. 

Military companies in several towns assembled to ascertain how 
many were ready to go to the aid of the United-States Govern- 
ment if their services were required. There was the greatest 
alacrity and readiness. The Boston Light Artillery had a meet- 
ing on the evening of Jan. 21, at which a hundred and three 
were present. Ninety-nine pledged themselves to tender their 


aid to the Commander-in-Chief, should the President of the 
United States need them. This was one of other similar meet- 
ings held the same evening. 

Among these, on that day, was one of the field and staff officers 
of the Sixth Regiment, held in Lowell, Jan. 21. They unani- 
mously voted to be in readiness to go ; and that " Col. Jones be 
authorized and requested forthwith to tender the services of the 
Sixth Regiment to the Commander-in-Cliief and Legislature, 
when such action may become desirable for the purposes con- 
templated in General Orders, No. 4." 

The Worcester Liglit Infantry, the Hale Guards of Haverhill, 
the Braintree Light Infantry, Charlestown Artillery, the Salem 
Light Artillery, and the Boston Washington Light Guard, all 
voted to be in readiness to serve their country. 

We have very clear evidence of forbearance, rather than hasty 
radicalism, in Massachusetts, in a petition at this time to Congress 
to adopt measures calculated to restore harmony between the 
United States, which contained fifteen thousand signatures. The 
committee to take the petition to Washington was composed of 
Edward Everett, Robert C. Winthrop, Lemuel Shaw, Edward S. 
Tobey, Amos A. Lawrence, and Charles L. Woodbury, who left 
Boston on the 23d of January. 

The advent of spring, with its fragrance and bloom in the 
" sunny South," found its political atmosphere hot and electric 
with the deeds and plots of secession. The cotton States had 
gone, or were going, with South Carolina, in her mad attempt to 
dissolve the Union. 

The city elections of the State occur during tliis season of the 
year ; and the inaugural addresses of the mayors were worthy 
of the Commonwealth. They had the ring of her unclouded 
loyalty, and an intelligent comprehension of the national trou- 

April 13, Fort Sumter, after a terrific bombardment and most 
gallant resistance, was compelled to surrender to the rebel 
demand for the keys of the noble fortress. War was thus de- 
clared by the roar of cannon aimed at the nation's defences, to 
reach through them her too forbearhig and magnanimous heart. 

Massachusetts promptly accepted the challenge ; and tlie head- 
quarters of her cheerful activity to meet its most fearful conse- 
quences were now the Adjutant- General's department. 

The very day that Sumter fell, its able official head wrote, by 


direction of the Governor, the following letter to the Secretary 
of War : — 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, 
April 13, 1861. 

,S'(r, — I am dii-ected by Ms Excellency the Grovernor to request of you, if 
consistent with law and the policy of your department, to allow me to draw 
two thousand rifled muskets from the United-States arsenal at Springfield, in 
advance of our annual quota becoming due. 

We have five thousand infantry now armed and equipped, and properly 
officered. Only about three thousand of them, however, are armed with 
rifled muskets : the others have the old smooth-bores, all of which have been 
changed from flint-locks to the percussion. If you will permit us to draw two 
thousand more of the new rifled muskets, we shall have five thousand as well 
armed, drilled, and officered infantry as ever handled a musket. 

I would also suggest that a couple of regiments of the volunteers be 
ordered by the President to garrison Forts Warren and Independence, 
in Boston Harbor. They are now without troops, and might be taken 
by lawless men, and turned against the Government. 

I beheve that our troops would like to do garrison-duty until called upon 
by the President for active service. The regiments might alternate every four 
or six weeks ; and thus they would learn much that would be of service 
to them, and hold the forts against attack or surprise. 

With great respect, I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant, 

Hon. Simon Cajieron, 

Secretary of War, Washington. 

Neither the muskets, nor permission to garrison the forts, could 
be obtained. Subsequently, Major-Gen. Wool, of the United-States 
army, in whose department was the State of Massachusetts, fur- 
nished "five thousand of the most improved smooth-bore muskets 
from Springfield, and four thousand Windsor rifles (without bay- 
onets) from the United-States arsenal at Watertown." 

April 15, a telegram was received from Senator Wilson at 
Washington, asking in behalf of the Government for twenty com- 
panies of Massachusetts troops to be sent forward immediatelj^ to 
the capital, and there mustered into service, — the first call 
upon her waiting militia. On the same day, a special order was 
issued, directing " Col. Jones of the Sixth Regiment, Col. Pack- 
ard of the Fourth, Col. Wardrop of the Third, and Col. Monroe 
of the Eighth, to muster their respective commands on Boston 


Common forthwith, ' iu compliance with a requisition made by 
the President of the United States.' " 

By mail and special messengers, the order was conveyed to the 
homes of the officers in Lowell, Quincy, New Bedford, and Lynn. 
The companies were to be gathered from the counties of Plym- 
outh, Bristol, Norfolk, and Essex. That night, for the first time 
in half a century, the quiet dwellings of the people in the city, 
village, and country, were disturbed with the summons for some 
of their inmates to liasten to the arena of civil wai^. 

The spirit of '76 was abroad on the midnight air ; and the 
next day, from the sea-border, old Marblehead sent forward 
three infantry companies under Capts. Martin, Phillips, and 
Boardman, — the vanguard of Freedom's uprising host. 

At nine o'clock, a.m., the train that carried the troops to Bos- 
ton reached the Eastern Depot, where a multitude greeted them 
with cheers that drowned all other sounds, and rang over their 
march to the music of "Yankee Doodle," tlirough the rain and 
sleet of a dismal storm, to their quarters in Fancuil Hall. 

Upon the question, " Who was the first man in the war ? " we 
have a good letter from Newburyport, whose mistake was after- 
wards corrected. Capt. Bartlett's ofier, as described below, was 
first after Banks's retreat : — 

The Boston correspondent of the " Springfield Republican," speaking of 
Capt. Knott Martin's election at Marblehead as representative, says, "He is 
the man who first reached Boston with his company after the war broke out 
in 1861." The story about the pig is a true story and a good story, as Capt. 
Martin is a true and good man ; but he was not the first man to reach Boston 
with his company : that honor belongs to the late Capt. A. W. Bartlett and the 
Cushing Cuard of Newburyport. They were the first to reach Boston ; and it is 
worthy of record in favor of Capt. Bartlett, than whom not a braver man fell in 
the war. He was in the dry-goods business on State Street, perhaps little 
dreaming of war, having been captain of the company but a short time, when, 
one afternoon, the telegraph-operator handed him a despatch. He took the 
paper, and, without saying a word of its contents, turned to his clerk, and said, 
" Step round the corner to the stable, and get me a horse and chaise." The 
clerk, knowing that he held a telegi-aphic despatch in bis hand, made bold to 
ask, " What has transpired ? " — " I have orders," he responded, " to have 
the Cushing Guard in Boston to proceed to Washington by the first train to- 
morrow, and I must notify the officers at once ; for, if not another man goes, I 
shall be there." As quick as the horse could be had, and could carry him, 
he rode over the town, and, in three hours, had his men at the armory. Tlien 
people knew nothing of war ; and many in the company declhicd to leave 
their business and families to answer so sudden a call. But the next dry his 


store was closed ; and at the head of seventeen privates and a few officers, in 
all, we think, twenty-one, he marched to the cars. It was a cold, wet day ; 
and the people, stunned at the suddenness of the call, looked on without a 
shout or cheer as he was off for Boston, reporting himself the first of any com- 
pany in the State. Afterwards he raised a full company of uinety-oight men 
in seven days for the Thirty-fifth Regiment ; and, in four weeks after leaving, 
he and one-third of that company were dead, or maimed for life, on the 
bloody field of Antietain, where his mangled body, blown by shell and pierced 
by shot, was found. 

Capt. Bartlettjjtwas the first; and before his company left, in 1861, the 
City Council voted to raise the national flag over tlie City Hall, to remain 
there till the Rebellion should be suppressed : and that was the first flag-rais- 
ing in the State. They also, when there was no law for it, voted to draw fi'oni 
the city treasury one thousand dollars to assist the Cushing Guard to go, and 
to aid the families of those who went ; and that was the first appropriation of 
money for the war, made in this Commonwealth. Many men acted bravely 
in the war, and among them was Capt. Martin ; and many towns did nobly. 
We would detract nothing from them ; but the above is a true record, and it 
is giving honor only where honor is due." 

The reply of Gen. Hiiiks, concerning the " First Massachusetts 
man in the war," will be interesting as an historical statement, 
and is quoted, excepting a single expression, verbatim : — 

I will attempt, without detracting from the noble record of Capt. Bartlett, 
who for a time served with credit under my command, and who gallantly 
yielded up his young life upon the bloody field of Antietam, to vindicate the 
truth of history. 

On Monday, April 15, 18G1, at quarter-past two o'clock, in reply to an 
offer of my services made in the morning of that day, I received from 
Gov. Andrew a verbal connnaud to summons the companies of the Eighth Re- 
giment, by his authority, to rendezvous at Faneuil Hall at the earliest possible 
hour. Leaving Boston on the half-past two o'clock train, I proceeded to 
Lynn, and personally notified the commanding officers of the two companies 
in that city, and from thence telegraphed to Capt. Bartlett at Newburyport, 
and Capt. Centre of Gloucester; and then drove to Beverly, and summoned 
the company there ; and from thence hastened to Marblehead, where I 
personally notified the commanding officers of the three Marblehead companies. 
I found Capt. Martin in his slaughter-house with the carcass of a hog, 
just killed, and in readiness for the " scald." On communicating to the cap- 
tain my orders, I advised him to immediately cause the bells of the town to be 
rung, and to get all the recruits he could. Taking his coat from a peg, 
he seemed for a moment to hesitate about leaving his business unfinished, and 
then turned to me, and, with words of emphatic indifference in regard to it, put 


the garment on, with liis arms yet stained with blood and his shii't-sleeves but 
half rolled down, and with me left the premises to rally bis company. 

On Tuesday, April 16, I was directed to remain on duty at Faneuil Hall ; 
and, during the forenoon, the following-named companies arrived there, and 
reported for duty ; to wit : — 

1. Companies C, Eighth Regiment, forty muskets, Capt. Knott V. Martin, 
and H, Eighth Regiment, twenty-six guns, Capt. Francis Boardman, both of 
Marblehead; which place they left at half-past seven o'clock, a.m., and ar- 
rived in Boston at about nine o'clock. 

2. Company D, Fourth Regiment, thirty-two muskets, Sergeant H. F. 
Wales, of Randolph, left home at nine o'clock, and arrived at about ten, a.m. 

3. Company B, Eighth Regiment, forty muskets, Capt. Richard Phillips, 
of Marblehead, left home at nine o'clock, and arrived in Faneuil Hall about 
eleven, a.m. 

4. Companies D, Eighth Regiment, sixty-five muskets, Capt. George 

F. Newhall, and F, Eighth Regiment, seventy muskets, Capt. James Hudson, 
both of Lynn, left home at quarter-past nine o'clock, and reached Faneuil 
Hall a little after eleven o'clock, accompanied by Lieut. -Col. Timothy Mon- 
roe, subsequently colonel of the Eighth Regiment. 

At about twelve o'clock, several companies, belonging to dilFerent re- 
giments, arrived at Faneuil Hall ; and among them was Company A, Eighth 
Regiment, nineteen muskets, Capt. A. W. Bartlett, of Newburyport ; which 
company, as I then understood and have since been informed, left Newbuiy- 
port at about nine o'clock, a.m. I think that Company E, Eighth Regiment, 
Capt. Porter, of Beverly, arrived at about the same time ; and that Company 

G, Capt. Centre, of Gloucester, also arrived early in the afternoon of the same 

The several companies of the Eighth Regiment were recruited during 
Tuesday and Wednesday, April 16 and 17, to an average of about eighty 

The above is substantially a true record, as will appear by reference to 
the files of " The Journal " of that date ; and is prompted only by a desire 
to do justice to Capt. Martin and the patriotic men of Marblehead, who, on 
the oubreak of the Rebellion, were the first to leave home, the first to arrive 
in Boston, and subsequently, under my command, the first to leave the yard 
of the Naval Academy of Annapolis to seize the depot and railroad, and to 
repair and relay the track, in the march through Maryland to relieve the be- 
leagured capital of the nation. 

Fovmerlt) Adjutant, Lieui.-Col, and Col. of the Eighth Mass. Infantry. 

On the morning of that eventful IGtli of April, Gen. Butler, 
who, during the previous night, had been hard at work with Col. 
Jones in getting the Sixth ready for the field, was on his way to 
Boston in the same car with Mr. Carney of Lowell, the President 


of the Bank of Mutual Redemption. He said to him, " The Gov- 
ernor will want money. Can the bank offer a temporary loan of 
fifty thousand dollars to help off the troops ? " 

Tlie patriotic reply was, " It can and shall." 

The two regiments required by the War Department were to 
have more men and companies than the Massachusetts regiments 
then numbered. The State authorities were, therefore, under the 
necessity of making up the full quota by additions from other 
regiments. By this course, some discussion was raised, and dis- 
satisfaction expressed, respecting regimental uniforms, which 
called forth from Gov. Andrew the emphatic expression, " It 
isn't uniforms, it is men, we want." 

The advocates of the national l)lue ultimately prevailed in their 
sensible and practical view of the appropriate dress of our brave 
volunteers, and this style of uniform was chosen. The mind 
does not revert with pleasure to the uncouth ga'-b in which some 
of the first troops went to the field. The " army blue " will, we 
hope, always distinguish the American soldier. 

We thhik the first and perhaps the only juvenile offer of mili- 
tary service is contained in the following spicy letter, which is here 
given, simply to illustrate how thoroughly the whole community 
was fired with the ardor of true patriotism : — 

Newburypokt, April 19, 1861. 

Gov. Andrew. Dear Sir, — I am fifteen years old, five feet sis inches 
high, weigh a hundred and forty-five pounds ; and they won''t let me enlist, 
because they say that I am not old enough. I think that I am old enough 
to whip a secessionist ; at any rate, I should like to try : but I don't see as 
there is any chance for me as yet ; so I shall have to keep cool, and let my 
hair grow, I suppose. I wish your Excellency would send an order to E. F. 
Stone to let me enlist. Please send an answer quickly, and oblige 

Yours truly, 

C. H . 

On that same momentous day whicli stirred to its depths the 
heart of the State capital. Gen. B. F. Butler sent a letter to 
the Governor, containing the offer of his services to the country. 

The City Government ordered the national flag to be raised on 
Faneuil Hall, and to be kept floating there till further orders. Its 
folds were soon heavily waving in the chill wind of that stormy 
day. Before the dark night shrouded it from the moistened eyes 
of those who gazed upon it with quickened devotion to its glo- 


rious stars, R. B. Forbes, Esq., a distinguished citizen and mer- 
chant-prince, proposed to the Governor to raise a coast-guard, the 
members of which were to be drilled in navy-tactics, and fur- 
nished with arms, a steamer, and other equipments for service. 
The proposition was referred by the Governor to the Navy De- 



THE three-months' REGIMENTS. 

The Adjiitant-General and his Office. — The Men summoned to the Field. — The Blidnight 
Messengers. — The Response of the Volunteers. — The Gathering of Troops in Boston. 
— Reception. — Scenes attending their Departure for Washington. — Officers of the 
Regiments. — The March of the Sixth, the Eighth, the Fifth. — Third Battalion of 
Rifles. — Cook's Battery. 

TO give the early action of the State when just awakening 
to the tremendous struggle before us, we must take a dis- 
tinct and separate view of the three-months' regiments. 

The Adjutant-General's department at the capitol of the Com- 
monwealth had suddenly become the busy centre Jof military 
operations on an hourly expanding scale ; and a brief sketch of 
an officer so intimately connected with the army movements of 
the State will possess interest, especially to the many brought in 
oflficial relations directly in communication with him. 

William Schouler was born in the county of Renfrew, Scotland, 
in 1814. The next year he went to New York with his father, 
who came to this country as a pioneer in the business of calico 

After a brief residence on Staten Island, Mr. Schouler removed 
to Massachusetts, and lived between the years 1829 and 1832 in 
Taunton, Lynn, and West Cambridge. William learned his 
father's trade. He was early a reader and a politician. An 
" original Whig," he gave himself ardently to the campaign of 
1840. The year following, he was proprietor and editor of the 
"Lowell Courier," and, in 1847, became connected with the 
"Boston Atlas." In 1853, he was co-editor of the "Cincinnati 
Gazette," and, three years later, edited the " Ohio State Journal," 
at Columbus, Ohio. Se was appointed by the Governor Adju- 
tant-General of the State, but resigned in 1858, and returned to 
Massachusetts to take the editorial charge of the " Boston Atlas 
and Bee." Four times he represented the city in the Legisla- 
ture, was elected Clerk of the House, and was a member of the 



Constitutional Convention. He was also chosen major, and then 
colonel, of the First Massachusetts Artillery Regiment. 

Daniel Webster was a warm personal friend until his " 7tli-of- 
March speech," when Mr. Schouler's opposition to it cooled their 
mutual regard. 

In 1860, Gov. Banks appointed Col. Schouler Adjutant-General of 
the State. A more loyal, devoted, and efficient man for the post, 
soon to be one of extraordinary responsibility, could not have been 
selected. He found an efficient helper in the lamented Col. Wil- 
liam H. Brown.* Some of the work done in a single year will in- 
dicate the amount of business transacted in this office. More than 
sixteen hundred commissions were issued, with forty-six General 
and thirty-three Special Orders, covering 867 manuscript pages ; 
six thousand letters were written, which would make 4,700 pages 
of manuscript ; ten thousand certificates of State aid were issued ; 
an alphabetical index of soldiers' names was in progress ; with 
reports, and a great variety of miscellaneous business. Those 
who have known nothing of this noiseless, gigantic work, have 
failed to appreciate official fidelity, without which the forces of 
the State would have been crippled in many ways. 

The Surgeon-General, the Quartermaster- General, and the 
Paymaster-General, labored with the same untiring activity to 
carry forward the military operations. 

Chaplain Quint, unsurpassed in ability and efficiency, said 
of Col. Schouler and another officer of the Governor's staff, 
"If one has not examined the reports of the Adjutant-General, 
he ought to, to see the vast amount of business, the clear meth- 
od, and the admirable results of the work of that office. It is a 
marvel; and I know a little about what tables of figures, and 
records of facts, mean. If one will look at the Surgeon-General's 
report, and remember the men who have been surgeons, he will 
imagine what I know, that, in medical skill, no men surpassed, 
and few equalled, the Massachusetts surgeons. Alas that some 
whom I knew and revered had to give their lives to their coun- 
try ! " 

Adjutant-Gen. Schouler, like Senator Wilson, rose from hum- 
ble life among the people by untiring industry ; that devotion 
to his duties, which, with fine practical talent and executive 
ability, secured the confidence of his fellow-citizens. One of his 
sous, who graduated at Cambridge in 1859, enlisted in 1862 in 
the Forty-third Regiment, was appointed lieutenant, and com- 
pleted his term of service. Another son is midshipman in the 
* See notice of, among sketches of the heroic dead. 


iiavy. Col. Schouler's name is forever associated witli Massa- 
chusetts in the Rebellion. 

Before the excitement over the arrival of the first volunteers 
had died away, a second despatch from Senator Wilson was sent 
over the wires, calling upon Massachusetts, in the name of the 
Government, for four regiments to form a brigade. Gen. Butler 
telegraphed Senator Wilson to remind Mr. Cameron that the 
brigade called for by the Government needed a brigadier. The 
result was the selection of himself for the high honor of the first 
appointment of tlie kind from tlie loyal States. He was commis- 
sioned Brigadier-General, Third Brigade, Second Division, Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, and was ordered to talie command of 
the troops. 

Meanwhile the electric wires, mails, and living messengers, 
had been conveying the orders to the scattered officers to hasten 
with their several commands to the capital. 

The sun was near the horizon on the 16th, when Capt. Pratt of 
Worcester received his order to join the Sixth Regiment with all 
possible promptitude. The next day's morning light shone on 
the glittering weapons and eager faces of the marching troops. 

It was nine o'clock, p.m., on the IGth, before the Governor had 
decided to add to the same regiment the companies of Capts. 
Sampson and Dike. The courier left that night for Stoneham, 
eight miles from Boston. At two o'clock in the morning, he 
knocked at the door of Capt. Dike, aiid soon after placed in his 
hands the summons to the field. He read them, and with cheer- 
ful decision said, " Tell the Adjutant-General that I shall be at 
the State House with my full company by eleven o'clock to-day." 
He marched his men through the streets of Boston at the prom- 
ised hour. At half-past nine o'clock, a.m., he reported at the 
Adjutant-General's office in Boston in these words : — 

Sir^ — I received the orders of the Commaader-in-Chief at two o'clock this 
morniu"- to have my company ordered into active service, fully equipped for 
the defence of Washington. I now report that I have my company here, 
uniformed and fully equipped, consisting of sixty-four privates, eight non- 
commissioned officers, and four lieutenants, — all that the law permits. I 
could have had more. I now await further orders. 

With no less enthusiasm did the captains of other companies 
welcome the orders to leave their vocations and homes for the 
perils of war. 

The subjoined order was issued from the office of the Adjutant- 


General, giving the destination of the Third, Fourth, and Sixth 
Regiments, and detailing for service witli them several additional 
companies : — 

HEADQtJAETERS, BoSTON, April 17, 1861. 

Brig.-Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, of Third Brigade, Second Division, is 
ordered to detail the following troops for the following services : — 

Col. David W. Wardrop, of Third Regiment of Infantry, Second Brigade, 
and Fu'st Division, is hereby ordered forthwith to report himself and his com- 
mand for active service. 

Company C, Fifth Regiment, Third Brigade, and Second Division, com- 
manded by Capt. Richardson, will be added to the command as a part of said 

He will with these troops proceedybr^^w^VA to Fortress Monroe, in Viroinia, 
by steamer to be provided, and there report himself to Col. Abner B. Pack- 
ard, of Fourth Regiment, Second Brigade, First Division, or to such officer of 
the United States as may be in command of that fortress ; there to enter into 
the senace of the United States as United-States militia, and await and abide 
such further orders as may be received. 

In case Fortress Monroe shall be inaccessible, or in the posse.ssion of an 
enemy. Col. "Wardrop will exercise liis own discretion as to the disposition of 
his command until he shall join Col. Packard, or shall receive further orders 
from the "War Department of the United-States Government at "Washino-ton • 
and whatever orders he may receive from that department he will obey, 
whether the same be given by telegraph or otherwise, provided he be satisfied 
of their genuineness. 

Col. Abner B. Packard, of the Fourth Regiment, Second Brio-ade, First 
Division, is hereby ordered to report himself and his command for active ser- 
vice. He will, with his command, proceed forthwith to the same duty as 
that ordered to be performed by the troops under Col. David W. "Wardrop; 
and, upon being joined by Col. "Wardrop and his troops, he will take com- 
mand of them also, and act as to them also conformably to the above orders. 

Col. Edward F. Jones, commanding the Sixth Regiment of Infontry in the 
Third Brigade and Second Division, is hereby ordered to report himself and 
his^ forthwith for active service. 

Company C, of the Seventh Regiment, Fourth Brigade, and Second Divis- 
ion, Copt. Dike; Company C, of First Regiment, First Brigade, and First 
Division, Capt. Sampson ; Company B, of Third Battalion of Infantry, Fifth 
Brigade, and Third Division, Capt. Pratt, — will be detailed from their re- 
spective commands, and, for the purposes of this service, will be added to the 
regiment of Col. Jones. He will with these troops proceed to the depot of 
the Boston and "Worcester Railroad Company at six o'clock this evening, and 
thence by the most practicable route, via New- York City, to Washing-ton, 
where he will report himself and his troops to Brig.-Gen. ]5enjamin F. Butler, 
and, in his absence, to the Adjutant-General of the United States at "Wash- 


ington. Said troops are to enter into the service of the United States as mili- 
tia, and there await and obey such further orders as may be received. 

By order of his Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and Com- 
mander-in- Chief. 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant General. 

The ITtli was a day of loyal excitement in Boston. " There 
were a thousand things to do ; but there were a thousand will- 
ing hearts and hands to help." 

Mayor Wightman tendered to the State authorities every avail- 
able place in the city, at the disposal of the City Government, for 
the quartering of troops ; flags were thrown to the breeze from 
pnblic and private buildings ; the banks, Corn ExcJiange, Board 
of Trade, and wealthy citizens, offered their treasures, and the 
ladies their needle-work. In the surronnding towns the excite- 
ment was no less intense, and practical in its expression. 

The Sixth Regiment was ready in the afternoon to head the 
columns of Freedom in the march to her field of deadly and pro- 
tracted strife for the continued possession of her fair domain. 

The troops marched to the State House, thronged by an earnest 
multitude, in whose breasts the spirit of the fathers was aroused, 
to defend their honor, and carry through fire and blood the ban- 
ner they loved, till it should float victoriously over every rebellious 
State and citizen. 

On this occasion, the regiment was drawn up in line on Beacon 
Street, in front of the State House ; Gov. Andrew, accompanied 
by his staff, several councillors, and other gentlemen, with Gen. 
Butler, stood upon the steps. 

Gov. Andrew's address to the Sixth Regiment, on its departure, 
was as follows : — 

3Ir. Commander, — As the official representative of the old Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, I bid you farewell, — you and your glorious com- 
mand. You, citizens, ai'e summoned* from your quiet homes to assume the 
cause of defending the dignity of the people and of your glorious flag. To 
you, citizens of Massachusetts, under the direction of him who stands by your 
side, is intrusted the high privilege before referred to, under the lead of an 
old hero of a hundred battles. Gen. Winfield Scott, whom God has chosen 
and spared to this day. You are to repair to the city of Washington, there 
to protect the Temple of Liberty, erected under the eye of him whose name 
it bears, and who is called by the civilized world the Father of his 
Country. To Washington, or wheresoever duty may call, there you will go. 
Soldiers, summoned suddenly, with but a moment for preparation, we have 
done all that lay in the power of man to do, all that rested in the power of 



the State Government to do, to prepare the citizen-soldiers of Massachusetts 
for this service. We shall follow you with our benedictions, our benefactions, 
and our prayers. Those whom you leave behind you we shall cherish in our 
heart of hearts. You carry with you our utmost faith and confidence. We 
know that you never will return until you can bring the assurances that the 
utmost duty has been performed which brave and patriotic men can aecom- 
pHsh. This flag, sir (presenting the colors of the regiment to Col. Jones), 
take, and bear with you. It will be an emblem on which all eyes will rest, 
reminding you always of that which you are bound to hold most dear. 

Col. Jones, on receiving tlie flag from the Governor, replied : — 

Tour Excellency, — You have given to me this flag, which is the emblem 
of all that stands before you. It represents my whole comrqand ; and so 
help me, God ! I wiU never disgrace it. 

The regiment then marched to the Worcester-railroad Station 
through an enthusiastic throng of friends and spectators, whose 
earnest faces and eager eyes, often glistening with tears, showed 
the deep emotion that filled every heart ; while love of country, 
and admiration of those who, taking their lives in their hands, 
were going forth " to do or die " for Liberty and Union, ever and 
anon manifested itself in hearty cheers. From windows and 
housetops waved the dear old banner of Freedom, never before so 
precious ; and the sympathizing crowd did not disperse until the 
long train of cars, with its noble freight, rolled away from the sta- 
tion " for Washington via Baltimore." 


Colonel . 

Lieutenant- Colonel 


Adjutant . 



Surgeon . 

Surgeon's Mate 

Chaplain . 

Sergean t-Major 

Quartermaster- Sergeant 



Hospital- Steward 

Total . 

Edward F. Jones, Pepperell. 
Benjamin F. Watson, Lawrence. 
Josiah A. Sautell, Lowell. 
Alpha B. Farr, Lowell. 
James Munroe, Cambridge. 
Rufus L. Plaisted, Lowell. 
Norman Smith, Groton. 
Jansen T. Paine, Charlestown. 
Charles Babbage, Pepperell. 
Samuel W. Shattuck, Groton. 
Church ITone, Worce.ster. 
John Dupce, Boston. 
Frederick Stafford, Lowell. 
William H. Gray, Acton. 

, „ * .14. 



A, — Lowell . . Capt. George M. Deckerman, Lowell . 52 • 

B, — Groton . . " Eusebius S. Clarke, Groton . 73 
Q,— Lowell . . " Albert S. Follansbee, Lowell . 50 

D, — Lowell . . " James W. Hart, Lowell . 43 

E, — Acton . . " David Tuttle, Acton . . 57 
F, — Lawreyice . " Benj. F. Chadbourne, Lawrence . 60 
H, — Loioell . . " John F. Noyes, Lowell . . 52 
I. — Lawrence . " John Pickering, Lawrence . 57 
K, — Boston . . " Walter T. Sampson, Boston . 67 
L, — Stoneham . " John H. Dike, Stoneham . 65 
B. — Worcester . " Harmon W. Pratt, Worcester . 101 

Total "683 

The approach of evening was hushing the tumult of the city, 
when the regiment marched to the depot, attracting an interest 
which held many eyes awake that night, and was destined to 
thrill liberty-loving hearts the world over, and to the end of time. 
The little bell that signalled the departure of the train bearing 
the volunteers sounded forth the knell of oppression and a new 
epoch in history. 

The reghiient arrived safely in New York at the usual hour. 
The appearance of the troops in the great metropolis at the criti- 
cal moment, it is believed, had much to do with the unexpected 
turn in the feeling of the city, and the commitment of it de- 
cidedly, and for the war, to the cause of the North, which was 
the cause of the Union. It was certainly a memorable day to 
the citizens of all classes, when those brave men, whose compan- 
ions in arms were on the sea, animated by the same high pur- 
pose of loyalty, trod the pavement with the bearing of heroes 
who intended to defend the flao; arainst traitors at home and 
abroad, at whatever cost of life and treasure. The march of the 
pioneer regiment from the capital of the Bay State to the capital 
of the nation is given in a form which has peculiar interest. Tlie 
official report of its gallant colonel is quoted, with no other change 
than the correction of the list of casualties, which could not then 
be known : — 

Headquaktees 6tii Regt., 3d Bkigade, 2d Div., M.V.M., 
Capitol, Washington, April 22, 1S61. 

Brigade-Major William H. Clemexce, — In accordance with Special 
Order No. 6, 1 proceeded with my command toward the city of Wash- 
ington. Leaving Boston on the evening of the 17th April, we arrived in 
New York on the morning of the 18th, and proceeded to Phihidelphia, reach- 
ing that place on the same evening. On our way, John Brady, of Company 


H, Lowell, was takeii insane; and, deeming it unsafe to have him accompany 
the regiment, I left him at Delaneo, N.J., with I. C. Buck, with directions 
that he should telegraph Mayor Sargeant, of Lowell, as to the disposition of 
him. We proceeded thence to Baltimore, reaching that place at noon on 
the 19th. After lea\dng Philadelphia, I received intimation that our passage 
through the city of Baltimore would be resisted. I caused ammunition to be 
distributed, and arms loaded, and went personally through the cars, and 
issued the following order ; viz. : — 

" The regiment will march through Baltimore in column of sections, arms 
at will. You will undoubtedly be insulted, abused, and perhaps assaulted; to 
which you must pay no attention whatever, but march with your faces square 
to the front, and pay no attention to the mob, even if they throw stones, 
bricks, or other missiles : but if you are fired upon, and any one of you are 
hit, your officers will order you to fire. Do not fire into any promiscuous 
crowds, but select any man whom you may see aiming at you ; and be sure 
you drop him." 

Reaching Baltimore, horses were attached the instant that the locomotive 
was detached, and the cars were driven at a rapid pace across the city. 
After the cars, containing seven companies, had reached the Washington De- 
pot, the track behind them was barricaded ; and the ears containing the band 
and the following companies — viz.. Company C, of Lowell, Capt. FoUansbee; 
Company D, of Lowell, Capt. Hart; Company I, of Lawrence, Capt. Pick- 
ering; and Company C, of Stoneham, Capt. Dike — were vacated by the 
band, and they proceeded to march in accordance with orders, and had pro- 
ceeded but a short distance before they were furiously attacked by a shower 
of missiles, which came faster as they advanced. They increased their step 
to double-quick, whioh seemed to infuriate the mob, as it evidently impressed 
them with the idea that the soldiers dared not fire, or had no ammunition; 
and pistol-shots were numerously fired into the ranks, and one soldier fell 
dead. The order, "Fire ! " was given, and it was executed : in consequence, 
several of the mob fell, and the soldiers again advanced hastily. The Mayor 
of Baltimore placed himself at the head of the column beside Capt. FoUans- 
bee, and proceeded with them a short distance, assuring him that he would 
protect them, and begging him not to let the men fire : but the IMayor's 
patience was soon exhausted, and he seized a musket from the hands of one 
of the men, and killed a man therewith; and a policeman, who was in ad- 
vance of the column, also shot a man with a revolver. 

They at last reached the cars, which started immediately for Washing- 
ton. On going through the train, I found there were about one hundred 
and thu-ty missing, including the band and field music. Our baggage was 
seized, and we have not as yet been able to recover any of it. I have found 
it very difficult to get reliable information in regard to the killed and wound- 
ed, but believe there were only three killed ; viz., — 

Sumner H. Needham Lawrence. 

Addison 0. Whitney Lowell. 

Luther 0. Ladd Lowell. 



Capt. J. H. Dike 
Andrew Robbins 
Michael Green 
D. B. Tyler 
Edwin CoUey 
H. W. Danforth, 
William R. Patch 
James Keenan 
Daniel Stevens 
Edward Coburn 


Stoneham, dangerous, doing well. 

Lawrence, flesh wound, " " 
Lowell, condition unknown. 

Stoneham, " " 

Lowell, " " 

Company C, Stoneham. 
" D, Lowell. 

Capt. Dike is in the hands of some brotlier Masons, and to the Order he 
owes his life. The others are supposed to be at the Baltimore Infirmary. 
The following were brought with us, and sent to the hospital liere : — 

Gordon Reed . 
Alonzo Joy . 
G. G. Durrell 
Victor Dengras 
W. G. Withington 
W. H. Young 
Warren Holden 
Morris Mead . 
George Alexander 
C. L. Gill . 
Charles Stinson 
J. M. Moore . 
J. W. Penncll 
E. A. Perry . 
William G. Butterfield 
Stephen Flanders 
J. W. Kempton 
John Fortier . 
C. H. Chandler 
S. S. Johnson 
Henry Dike . 
J. F. Rowe . 
Daniel Brown 
George Calvin, 
H. Gardner . 
S. Colley 
W. D. Gourley 
John Swett . 
W. H. Lamson 
George W. Levering 
William M. Holden . 

As the men went into the cars, I caused the blinds to be closed, 
and took every precaution to prevent any shadow of offence to the people 


' A, 


; well. 

























































* " 








of Baltimore : but still the stoaes flew thick and fast into the train ; and 
it was with the utmost difficulty that I could prevent the troops from leav- 
ing the cars, and revenging the death of their comrades. After a volley 
of stones, some one of the soldiers fired, and killed a jMr. Davis, who, I have 
since ascertained by reliable witnesses, threw a stone into the car. Yet that 
did not justify the firing at him ; but the men were infuriated beyond control. 
On reaching Washington, we were quartered at the Capitol in the Senate 
Chamber, and at present are all in good health and spirits. 

I have made every effort to get possession of the bodies of our comrades, 
but have not yet succeeded. Should I succeed, I shall forward them to Bos- 
ton, if possible ; otherwise I shall avail myself of the kind offer of George 
Woods, Esq., who has offered me a prominent lot in the Congressional Bury- 
rng-ground for the purpose of interment. 

We are this day mustered into the United-States service, and will forward 
the rolls at first opportunity after inspection. 

Colonel Sixth Regiment, M. F.J/., in service of United States. 

According to a statement made by Chaplain Hanson of the 
Sixth, in a letter to Adjutant-Gen. Schouler, dated April 12, 1865, 
there was a fourth martyr at Baltimore. He writes : — 

Charles A. Taylor came to Boylston Hall, Boston, as the regiment was 
quartered there, and enlisted in Company D, Lowell. He announced himself 
as a fancy painter by profession ; was about twenty-five years old, with light 
hair and blue eyes. Such was the haste, and lack of system, with which all 
our earliest movements were conducted, that even his loss was not discovered 
until his captain received his overcoat. The gentleman who sent it saw him 
fall, and testified, that, after he was killed, his brutal murderers beat him with 
clubs and rocks until all trace of humanity was destroyed. He was buried 
at Baltimore. No trace of his family or friends has been discovered by the 
officers of the regiment, though a box was received for him from Boston a 
short time after the regiment reached the Belay House. 

Col. Jones, in a communication to Gov. Andrew, says that " a 
correct list of the Massachusetts killed at Baltimore can never be 
made.''^ This is doubtless true. 

The Sixth was ordered to take a position near the Relay House, 
between Baltimore and Washington, where it remained on duty ; 
the troops acquitting themselves through the brief term of service 
with the strict discipline and cheerful loyalty of which the bloody 
transit through Maryland was the assurance. 

Major Cook's l^attery was with this regiment, winning unquali- 
fied praise for its fine appearance and efficient service. 



The same day an order was forwarded to Capt. Briggs, a worthy 
son of one of Massachusetts' noblest governors, to join with his 
troops the Eighth Regiment ; and another order sent to Gen. 
Ward of Worcester, Fifth Brigade, Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia, to have Company B, Third Battalion of Rifles, ready for 

The Third Regiment marched to the wharf, where lay the 
steamer " Spaulding," whose prow was turned towards Fortress 
Monroe, then garrisoned by only two companies of regular artil- 
lery, which rebel hands were ready to seize. The Fourth Regi- 
ment moved to the Old-Colony Depot, and were soon borne away 
from the cherished capital of their State in the train for the Fall- 
River boat, bound for the same imperilled stronghold. 

The tables below contain the names of their officers : — 



Lieutenant -Colonel 
Surgeon'' s Mate 
Sergeant -Major 
Total . 


David W. "Wardrop, New Bedford, 
Charles Raymoud, Plymouth. 
John H. Jennings, New Bedford. 
Austin S. Cushmari. New Bedford. 
Edward D. Allen, Fairhaven. 
Alexander R. Holmes, New Bedford. 
Johnson Clark, New Bedford. 
Albert C. Maggi, New Bedford. 
Frederic S. Gilford, New Bedford. 

A, — Halifax 

B, — Plymouth . 

C, — Cambridge 
G, — Freetoivn . 
H, — Phjmptoa . 
K. — Carver 

L, — Neiv Bedford 

Total . 


Capt. Joseph S. Harlow, Halifax 

" Charles C. Doten, Plymouth 

" James P. Richardson, Cambridge 

" John W. Marble, Freetown 

" Lucien L. Perkins, Plympton . 

" AVilliam S. McFarlin, Carver . 

" Timothy Ingraham, New Bedford 







Lieutenant- Colonel 


. Abner B. Packard, Quincy. 
Hawkes Fearing, Jr., Hiughara. 
Horace 0. Whittemore, Boston. 
Henry Walker, Quincy. 


Quartermaster . . William H. Carruth, Boston. 

Surgeon . . . Henry M. Saville, Quincy. 

Surgeon's 3Iate . . "William L. Faxon, Quincy. 

Sergeant -Major . . Alvin E. Hall, Foxborough. 

Quartermaster- Sergeant George W. Barnes, Plymouth. 



A, — Canton . . Capt. Ira Drake, Canton . . . .81 

B, — Easton . . " Milo M. Williams, Easton . . 37 

C, — Braintree . . " Cephas C. Bumpus, Braintree . . 6G 

D, — Randolph . . " Horace Niles, Randolpli . . .80 
E, — Abington . . " Charles F. Allen, Abington . . GO 

F, — Foxborough . " David L. Shepard, Foxborough . 76 

G, — Taunton . . " Timothy Gordon, Taunton . . 68 
H, — Quincy . . " Franklin Curtis, Quincy . . .79 
/, — Hingham . . " Luther Stephenson, Jr., Hinghara . 80 

Total 636 

An officer has furnished some valuable facts in the early history 
of this regiment : — 

The Fourth Regiment was composed of companies in various towns along 
the Old-Colony shore. Its members had responded well to the order of Gov. 
Andrew, in March, 1861, in relation to the wilHngness of the militia of the 
State to respond to any call that might lie made. On Monday, April 15, Col. 
Packard received his orders to appear with his command in Boston, in readi- 
ness to proceed to Washington. They were immediately sent out, through his 
adjutant, Lieut. Walker, to the different companies, by a special messenger, 
who reached Taunton, forty miles distant, at two the next morning; handing his 
order to Capt. Gordon, Company G, at three in the morning. By two, p.m., 
of that day, every company was at Faneuil Hall. On Wednesday morning, it 
was decided to send the Fourtli to Washington, the Sixth to Fortress Monroe. 
This order was afterwards changed, and the Fourth was ordered to proceed to 
Fortress Monroe. Company H, of Quincy, having mustered only some thirty 
men, Adjutant Henry Walker of that town, formerly an officer in the company, 
having obtained permission, detailed a drummer and fifer, and in full uniform 
proceeded to Quincy, reaching there at noon. He had just one hour and a 
half to do what he intended, as the regiment was ordered to be off at three, 
P.M. Sending men to break open the company's armory and boxes, he 
marched through the place, gathering recruits. Nineteen men fell in behind 
him, mostly without any leave-taking, in their working-dresses. Returning 
to the armory, each man received arms and equipments, and wore inmiedi- 
ately marched to the depot, and by half-past two were at Faneuil Hall. We 
think tliat this was the first instance of such recruiting in the war. These 
nineteen men were almost as poorly clothed as Falstaff's recraits, but liad 
hearts throbbing with heroic patriotism. One man said, "I wish to see my 


wife." — " No time for leave-taking," was the adjutant's reply : " fall in ! " 
Fall in he did. Another said, " Do you want an Irishman in your coijipany? " 
" Do you believe in the old flag? if you do, fall in." And he fell in in his 
shirt-sleeves, sending for his coat. 

From the steps of the State House, Gov. Andrew spoke a few- 
farewell words to the Fourth Regiment : — 

3Ir. Commander, — I regard with inexpressible feelings the presence of 
this noble command of yours from the ancient Colony of Plymouth. You 
have come from the side of the sounding sea, where repose the ashes of the 
Pilgrims. You are bound upon a high and noble pilgrimage for Liberty, for 
the Union, and for the Constitution of your country. Soldiers, citizens, sons 
of sires who never disgraced their flag in civil life or on the tented tield ; 
who died to serve their country, with the full faith of honest and patriotic 
hearts, — I bid you God speed ! From the bottom of my heart, and in the 
name of the old Bay State, whose unworthy representative I am, I bid you 
God speed, and fare you well ! 

Col. Packard responded, — 

Tour Excellency, — I am scarcely able to speak. All I can say is, We 
will endeavor to do our duty. 

Gov. Andrew answered, — 

I know you will endeavor ; and I know, colonel, you will succeed. 

Continues the officer quoted above, — 

The Fourth left Boston before any other. It was the first to leave the 
State ; and if to be the first, even by a short time, be an honor, the Fourth 
can claim that honor. 

It arrived in New- York Harbor on the afternoon of April 18. The captain 
of the boat did not judge her to be safe to carry troops to Fortress Monroe ; 
and Col. Packard telegraphed to Gov. Andrew for instructions. He received 
in answer, " If the captain says he can carry your men, go on. Massa- 
chusetts must be first on the gi-ound." We all were anxious to go; and, 
after some ballast had been put on board, we left New York, arriving off" 
Fortress Monroe early Saturday morning. We spent an hour of anxiety, lying 
off and on, doubtful as to who held the fort. We finally landed, and marched 
inside, finding some two hundred and fifty regulars, who, worn out with 
watching, heartily welcomed us. 

The next month was spent in guard and fatigue duty, mounting guns, and 
storing provisions. When we arrived, the fort was almost defenceless land- 
ward, so far as guns were concerned, and without stores. Threats had been 
made by the rebels, and night after night the little garrison had slept at 
the guns. 


If the Sixth saved "Washington, the Fourth, with the Thu-d, saved Fortress 
Monroe, more important, in a military point of view, than a score of Wash- 

On the 27th of May, the Fourth proceeded to Newport News, and, with 
other troops, fortified that point. Four of its companies, in conjunction with 
a portion of the Ninth New- York and First Vermont, formed a battalion, 
which, under Lieut. -Col. Washburn, took part in the battle of Big Bethel. 
This battalion was, with Major Winthrop, on our right : and although, 
through newspapers, other organizations received all the praise, it is the fact 
that no pait of the force engaged went farther ahead, or nearer the enemy, 
than this battalion ; and that the order for the commencement of the retreat 
came from our left, the order being generally credited to a certain New- York 
colonel, who thought the enemy were outflanking him. It was also a note- 
worthy fact, that the Fourth was the only organization that marched into camp 
at night in rea-ular order, at shoulder-arms. 

On the 3d of July, the Fourth and Third were ordered to occupy Hamp- 
ton. Here the two regiments remained during their term of service. Dur- 
ing their stay, they constructed a line of works ai-ound the town. 

On the 17th of July, they left Hampton, and proceeded to Fortress Mon- 
roe, preparatory to embarking for home. Gen. Butler addressed them, say- 
ing, "You have done your duty well. You have all along been in the 
advance at Fortress Monroe, at Newport News, at Hampton." 

Col. Dimmock, the regular officer in command of the fort, said, " Next to 
regulars, let me commend Massachusetts volunteers.". 

The regiment was mustered out July 22. Its officers still kept 
it, as it had always beeu, one of the best militia regiments in the 

The 18th of April dawned upon the Eighth Regiment on Bos- 
ton Common, waiting the command of Gen. Butler to march for 
Washington by way of Baltimore. 

In front of the State House, around which a great and enthusi- 
astic crowd had gathered, the regiment listened to Gov. Andrew's 
farewell address : — 

Mr. Commander and Soldiers, — Yesterday you were citizens ; to-day 
you are heroes. Summoned by the sudden call of your country, true to the 
fortunes of your flag, to the inspirations of your own hearts, and to the 
mighty examples of your fathers, you have hurried from the thronged towns 
of Essex, and all along the shore from Boston to Cape Ann, famed through 
all Massachusetts for noble men, brave soldiers, and heroic women. You 
have come to be cradled anew one night in Faneuil Hull, there breathing 
once more the inspiration of historic American liberty, and standing beneath 
the folds of the American banner. 

From the bottom of my heart of hearts, as the official representative of 


Massachusetts, I pay to you, soldiers, citizens, and heroes, ihe. homage of my 
most profound gratitude ; and the heart of all Massachusetts beats with full 
sympathy to every word I utter. There is but one pulsation of liberty beat- 
ing through all this, its beautiful domain, from the shores of Cape Cod to the 
hills of Berkshire ; and the mountain-valleys and the mountain-peaks answer 
to each other. Soldiers, go forth bearing that flag ; and as our fathers 
fought, so, if need be, strike you the blow. 

" Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 
With Freedom's flag beneath our feet, 
And Freedom's banner waving o'er us?" 

We stay behind to guard the hearthstones you have left ; and, whatever 
may be the future, we will protect the wives and children you may leave ; 
and as you will be faithful to the country, so we will be faithful to them. 

I speak to you as citizens and soldiers, not of Massachusetts, but of the 
American Confederate Union. While we live, that Union shall last ; and 
until these countless thousands, and all their posterity, have tasted death, the 
Union of the American people, the heritage of Washington, shall be eternal. 

Soldiers, go forth, bearing with you the blessings of your country, Ijearing 
the confidence of your fellow-citizens ; and, under the blessing of God, with 
stout hearts and stalwart frames go forth to victory. On your shields be 
returned, or bring them with you. Yours it is to be among the advance 
guard of Massachusetts soldiers. As such, I bid you God speed, and fare 
you well ! 

There was great applause during the speech, and at its close 
a call for Gen. Butler, who stood with the Governor on tlie steps. 
He addressed the troops : — 

Soldiers, — We stand upon the spot to which the good pleasure of the 
Commander-in-Chief and our dearest wishes have assigned us. To lead 
the advance guard of freedom, of constitutional liberty, and of perpetuity 
to the Union, is the honor we claim, and which, under God, we will main- 

Sons of Puritans, who believe in the providence of Almighty God, as he 
was with our fathers, so may he be with us in this strife for the right, for the 
good of all, for the great missionary country of hberty ; and, if we prove 
recreant to our trust, may the God of battles prove our enemy in the hour of 
our utmost need ! 

Soldiers, we march to-night ; and let me say for you all to the good people 
of the Commonwealth, that we will not turn back until we show those who 
have laid hands upon the fabric of the Union that there is but one thought 
in the North, — " the union of these States now and forever, one and insep- 

Attended by a cheering throng, the regiment then marched to 



Faneuil Hall, where an excellent collation was prepared ; thence 
to the Worcester Depot. 

Company A, Seventh Regiment, Massachusetts Yolunteer Mili- 
tia, under Capt. Arthur F. Devereux, had been added to the 
Eighth, when the following was the roll of officers : — 

Colonel . 

Lieutenant -Colonel . 
Quartermaster . 

Assistant Surgeon 
Drum-3IaJor . 


( Timothy Munroe, Lynn. 
I Edward TV. Hinks, Lynn. 

Andrew Elwell, Gloucester. 

Ben Perley Poore, Newbury. 

George Creasey, Newburyport. 

E. Alfred Ingalls, Lynn. 

Roland Gr. Usher, Lynn. 

Bowman B. Breed, Lynn. 

Warren Taplej, Lynn. 

Gilbert Haven, Maiden. 

John Goodwin, Jr., Marblehead. 

Horace E. Munroe, Lynn. 

Samuel Roads, Marblehead. 



A, — Neiohuryport 

B, — Marblehead 
G, — Marblehead 
D, — Lynn 

JE, — Beverly . 

F, — Lynn 

G, — Gloucester 
H, — Marblehead 
I, — Salem 

K, — Pittsfield 




Albert W. Bartlett, Newburyport, 
Richard Phillips, Marblehead 
Knott V. Martin, Marblehead 
George T. Newhall, Lynn . 
Francis E. Porter, Beverly . 
James Hudson, Jr., Lynn . 
Addison Carter, Gloucester . 
Francis Boardman, 3Iarblehead 
Arthur F. Devereux, Salem 
Henry S. Briggs, Pittsfield ; 
Henry H. Richardson, Pittsfield 







The half -past eight o'clock train bore the regiment "away 
from the depot, followed by the benedictions of assembled Boston, 
saluted at every station on the way by excited multitudes. At 
Springfield, where there was a brief delay to procure from the 
armory the means of repairing muskets, the regiment was joined 
by a valuable company under Capt. Henry S. Briggs, when the 
troops again took the cars for New York. The Broadway march 
of the regiment, the breakfast at the Metropolitan and Astor, 
the push through the crowd to Jersey City, the tumultuous 



welcome in New Jersey, the continuous roar of cheers across 
the State, tlie arrival at Philadelphia in the afternoon of the 
memorable 19th of April, who can have forgotten ? " 

A characteristic telegraphic despatch from Charles Sumner was 
sent to Gov. Andrew, dated 

New York, April 21. 

His Excellency Gov. Andrew, Boston, — I congratulate you on the posi- 
tion of Massachusetts, — first to act, and first to suffer! Our Commonwealth 
never excited more of love and admiration. 


The first tidings of the tragedy at Baltimore came to the men 
of the Eighth at Philadelphia. The loss of telegraphic communi- 
cation soon filled the air with the most alarming rumors. Unable 
to obey the order to march by way of Baltimore, Gen. Butler's 
command were sheltered in the unoccupied Girard House for the 
night, and abundantly furnished with refreshments. The earnest 
leader gave the night to tlie stirring crisis. He bought imple- 
ments for rebuilding railroad tracks and bridges, provisions, and 
whatever he deemed needful for the work before his troops. The 
maps were consulted, and the route through hostile Maryland 
chosen. Telegrams were flying to and from Boston, and con- 
sultations held by the officers, till the dawn of the 20th. Bach 
officer willing to follow in the advance to unknown dangers, 
and cut the way through to the nation's capital, was offered 
a revolver by Gen. Butler. None refused the significant pledge 
of fidelity to the flag. 

The Fifth Regiment, Third Brigade, Second Division, com- 
manded by Col. Samuel C. Lawrence, was ordered to report for 
active duty on the 19th of April. From the Seventh Regi- 
ment, Companies B, Capt. Peirson ; E, Capt. Locke ; F, Capt. 
Bailey ; G, Capt. Messer ; and H, Capt. Danforth, — were ordered 
to join the Fifth. Company F, declining to go, was immediately 
disbanded ; and a new company, which Capt. Ward well had been 
authorized the day before to raise, was taken in place of it. 

On the 20th, at four o'clock in the morning, Major Asa F. 
Cook was ordered to join, with his Light Artillery, Col. Law- 
rence's command. At ten o'clock of the same forenoon, he was 
ready with his company to march. Before night, all of these 
troops were on their way to Washington. 

The names of the officers are as follows : — 



Colonel . 
Lieutenant - Colonel 

Major . 





Surgeon s Mate 

Quartermaster- Sergeant 
Drum-Major . 
Hospital Steward . 
Total . 


Samuel C. Lawrence, Medford. 
( J. Durell Green, Cambridge. 
( George H. Peirson, Salem. 
( Hamlin W. Keyes, Boston. 
( John T. Boyd, Charlestown. 
(Thomas 0. Barri, Cambridgeport, 
(John G. Chambers, Medford. 

Joseph E. Billings, Boston. 

G. Foster Hodges, Eoxbury. 

Samuel H. Hurd, Charlestown. 
( Henry H. Mitchell, East Bridgewater. 
(William W. Keene, jun., Charlestown. 

Benjamin F. De Costa, Charlestown. 

Henry A. Quincy, Charlestown. 

Samuel C. Hunt, Charlestown. 

Charles Foster, Charlestown. 

Nathan D. Parker, Charlestown. 


A, — Salem . 

£, — South Reading 

C, — Charlestown 

D, — Haverhill 

E, —Medford 

F, — Boston . 

G, — Concord 
H, — Salem . 
I, — Somerville 
K, — Charlestown 

Total . 


Capt. Edward H. Staten, Salem . 

" John W. Locke, South Reading 

" William R. Swan, Charlestown 

" Carlos P. Messer, Haverhill 

" John Hutchins, Medford 

" David K. Wardwell, Boston 

" George S. Prescott, Concord 

" Henry F. Danforth, Salem . 

" George 0. Brastow, Somerville 

" John B. Norton, Charlestown 




In addition to the regiments, there were two other bodies of 
troops, which, as will appear in the record, did good service, — a 
battalion of rifles, and a battery. The number of men and the 
officers were as follows : — 


Major . 


Sergeant -Major 

Total, field and staflF 

. Charles Devens, jun. , Worcester. 

(John M. Goodhue, Worcester. 
' (Arthur C. Goodale, Worcester. 
. James E. Easterbrook, Worcester. 
. Oramel Martin, Worcester. 
. Nathaniel S. Liscomb, Worcester. 
George T. White, Worcester. 




A, — Worcester 

B, — Worcester 

C, — Worcester 
D, — Boston . 

Total, officer 

Capt. Augustus B. R. Sprague, Worcester, 83 
" Joseph H. Gleason, Worcester . 79 
" Michael S. McConville, Worcester . 78 
" Albert Dodd, Boston ... 75 

s and men 


Major . 

Assistant Surgeon 
Total, officer 


Asa M. Cook, Somerville. 
Frederick A. Heath, Boston. 
Thomas J. Foss, Boston. 
John P. Ordway, Boston. 
LeBaron x-Ionroe, Boston. 
s and men . . . . , 


The Third and Fourth Regiments arrived at Fortress Monroe 
the twentieth day of April ; the latter, soon after, took passage 
on the "Pawnee" for Norfolk, to assist in the destruction of the 
Navy Yard ; because melancholy waste must be made, or the 
valuable munitions of war — the accumulated improvements and 
stores of many years — would fall into traitorous hands. 



Gen. Butler prepares, in the Night of the 19th, a Written Plan of his March. — Ex- 
citing Rumors in the Blorning. — The Eighth leaves Philadelphia for Baltimore. — 
Change of Plan. — Embarks at Havre de Grace for Annapolis. — Arrives there. — Stir- 
ring Incidents. — Letter from Capt. Devereux. — The March to Washington. — The 
Movement on Baltimore. — Capt. Dodd's Company. — Reception of the Baltimore 
Martyrs in Boston. 

AFTER tlie consultation of Gen. Butler with his officers in 
the Girard House, at dead of night, with the rapidity of a 
strong mind stimulated to its quickest thought by the rush of 
events, he made out in writing his plan of operations. This was 
to be forwarded after his departure for the Maryland border to 
Gov. Andrew, that the Executive and the people of the State 
might know what it was, should he not survive the attempt to 
reach Washington. We give entire 


I have detailed Capt. Devereux and Capt. Briggs with their commands, 
supplied with one day's rations and twenty rounds of ammunition, to take 
possession of the ferry-boat at Havi'e de Grace for the benefit of this expedi- 
tion. This I have done with the concurrence of the present master of trans- 
portation of the road. The Eighth Regiment will remain at quarters, that 
they may get a little solid rest after their fatiguing march. I have sent to 
know if the Seventh Regiment will go with me. I propose to march myself 
at the hour of seven o'clock in the morning, to take the regular eight and a 
quarter o'clock train to Havre de Grace. The citizens of Baltimore, at a 
large meeting this evening, denounced the passage of Northern troops. They 
have exacted a promise from the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road not to send troops over that road through Baltimore : so that any at- 
tempt to throw troops into Baltimore entails a march of forty miles, and an 
attack upon a city of two hundred thousand inhabitants at the beginning of the 
march. The only way, therefore, of getting communication with Washington, 
for troops from the North, is over the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, or march- 
ing from the west. Commodore Dupont, at the Navy Yard, has given me 



instructions of the fact in accordance with these general statements, upon 
which I rely. I have, therefore, thought I could rely upon these statements as 
to the time it will take to proceed in marching from Havre de Grace to Washing- 
ton. My proposition is to join with Col. LefFerts, of the Seventh Regiment of 
New York. I propose to take the fifteen hundred troops to Annapohs, arriving 
there to-morrow about four o'clock, and occupy the capital of Maryland, and 
thus call the State to account for the death of Massachusetts men, my friends 
and neighbors. If Col. LefFerts thinks it more in accordance with the tenor 
of his instructions to wait rather than go through Baltimore, I still propose to 
march with this regiment. I propose to occupy the town, and hold it open as 
a means of communication. I have, then, but to advance by a forced march 
of thirty miles to reach the capital, in accordance with the orders I at first re- 
ceived, but which subsequent events, in my judgment, vary in their execution, 
believing from the telegraphs that there will be others in great numbers to aid 
me. Being accompanied by officers of more experience, who will be able to 
direct the afiair, I think it will be accomplished. We have no light batteries : 
I have therefore telegraphed to Gov. Andrew to have the Boston Light Bat- 
tery put on shipboard at once, to-night, to help me in marching on Washing- 
ton. In pursuance of this plan, I have detailed Capts. Devereux and Briggs, 
with their commands, to hold the boat at Havre de Grace. 

Eleven, a.m. — Col. Lefferts has refused to march with me. I go alone 
at three o'clock, p.m., to execute this imperfectly written plan. If I succeed, 
success will justify me. K I fail, purity of intention will excuse want of 

iudgment or rashness. 

'' ^ B. F. BUTLER. 

His Excellency Gov. Andrew. 

The morning of the 20th brought a rumor that modified the 
original design. At Havre de Grace, forty miles from Philadel- 
phia, is a railroad-ferry, which convoys in one passage the entire 
train over the Susquehanna. The report was abroad that a 
large rebel force had taken possession of the boat. Instead of 
sending forward the two companies, it was decided to march 
the whole regiment, seize the steamer, and appropriate it for the 
transportation of the troops. 

When Gen. Butler said to Mr. Felton, president of the road, 
" I may have to sink or burn your boat," the latter nobly replied, 
"Do so," and wrote the order approving the measure if necessary. 

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon, the Eighth was b;)rne away 
from the depot on Broad Street towards Havre de Grace. It 
was a serious ride. Arms were firmly grasped, and the possible 
mortal agony, before the sun went down, flung its shadow over the 
bravest hearts. One panic-smitten soldier leaped into the water, 
and, reaching the shore, ran for his life, but was caught, and 


punished for desertion. Instead of bristling bayonets to dispute 
the passage, the Eighth found the ferry-boat " Maryland " -waiting 
for the next train, with nothing unusual in the aspect of Havre 
de Grace. 

Gen. Butler took possession of the boat, and prepared to pack 
it with his troops, and steer for Annapolis. If any of the offi- 
cials of the "Maryland" were treacherous, he had men who 
knew the route, and were competent to manage the vessel. 

At six o'clock in the evening, the crowded boat left the wharf 
for Annapolis, and, at midnight, was near the city. The citizens 
were immediately alarmed, even the loyal ones, who were expect- 
ing a visit from the " roughs " of Baltimore ; but, after some ex- 
planations, their fears were quieted, and the inexpressible sense 
of relief followed. 

To no man was the assurance of the presence of a Union force 
more grateful than to Capt. Blake, of the naval school-ship 
" Constitution," which was aground at the Academy Wharf, and 
without a full crew. He asked Gen. Butler if his orders would 
allow him to help off the " Constitution." His characteristic 
reply was, " I have no orders. I am making war on my own 
hook ; but we can't be wrong in saving the ' Constitution.' That 
is certainly what we came to do." 

April 22, Gen. Butler issued on board the steamer an order, 
from which we quote a congratulatory passage : — 

The purpose which could only be hinted at in the order of yesterday has 
been accomplished. The frigate " Constitution " has lain for a long time at 
this port, substantially at the mercy of the armed mob which sometuues para- 
lyzes the otherwise loyal State of IMaryland. 

Deeds of daring, successful contests, and glorious victories, had rendered 
" Old Ironsides " so conspicuous in the naval history of the country, that she 
was fitly chosen as the school-ship in which to train the future officers of the 
navy to like heroic acts. ' It was given to Massachusetts, and Essex County, 
first to man her : it was reserved to Massachusetts to have the honor to retain 
her for the service of the Union and the laws. This is a sufficient triumph of 
right, and a sufficient triumph for us. By this, the blood of our friends shed 
by the Baltimore mob is in so far avenged. The Eighth Regiment may 
hereafter cheer lustily on all proper occasions, but never without orders, that 
the old " Constitution " by their efforts, aided untiringly by the United-States 
officers having her in charge, is now safely " possessed, occupied, and enjoyed 
by the Government of the United States, and is safe from all her foes." 

We make an interesting extract, though somewhat at the ex- 
pense of the New-York Seventh, from a letter written by Arthur 


F. Devereux, Captain of Company A, Eighth Regiment, preserved 
in the State archives. It is dated 

On Board Fkigate " Constitution," Annapolis Roads, April 23, 1861. 

Just as we had finished the distribution of supplies, and I had begun to 
get the barracks quiet, making the men go to bed, &c , Gen. Butler sent 
for me ; and I found him at his lieadcjuarters in conversation with six gentle- 
men. He announced to me that he had a dangerous, even a desperate, ser- 
vice to perform, and had sent for me to know if I would do it. I answered 
by asking for orders. They were, to take my men and the other flank com- 
pany under my command, and, leaving Philadelphia, go to Havre de Grace, 
seize a steamer there, go out into the stream, and protect her at all hazards 
against all comers until our regiment arrived, in conjunction with the New- 
York Seventh ; and we were to start in an hour. 

We were ready at once, and started secretly, without music, on the quick- 
step for the depot : found there the Seventh Regiment, just arrived from 
New York. I reported to Col. Lefterts as the detail for the above service. 
He wanted to consult with the president of the road, who, I found, was one 
of the gentlemen in Gen. Butler's headquarters when I was summoned there. 
The president would give me no cars until the matters under consideration 
were settled. Afterwards Col. Leflcrts must consult his officers, keeping me 
waiting until daylight, and then Jinally declined. The bully Seventh backed 
down. 'Twas too much risk, especially as the end in view was to reach An- 
napolis in the steamer, avoiding Baltimore, and thus keep up a connection 
with the North from Washington, so as to get orders, supplies, and re-enforce- 
ments. Only think of the immense advantage to .the Government to estab- 
lish such means as this, when otherwise cut off; not to speak of the fact that 
our further purpose was to cut out the frigate " Constitution " from Annapolis, 
which the enemy had sworn to possess ! The General Government had given 
Butler his authority : but the New- York Seventh refused to go on the hazard- 
ous service; and Butler was sworn to go alone, and do it all. And we have 
done it. After taking the steamer, and cutting out the glorious old " Consti- 
tution" in the face and eyes of a regiment of the enemy, I am now on board, 
in command, and am to bring " Old Ironsides " into New York safe. We 
shall do it, or blow her up ! She never goes into the hands of an enemy. 

Capt. Devereux arrived in New York, with the " Constitution," 
April 28, 18(31. 

The school-ship ivas saved, — an early omen of the rescue of the 
" immortal instrument," whose name it bore, from the grasp of 
traitorous hands which in a delirium of passioii were stretched 
forth to tear it into fragments, and over these march the mana- 
cled millions, whose chattelship was to be the corner-stone of the 
new Confederacy. 


Against the pathetic and threatening protest of Gov. Hicks and 
the Mayor of Annapolis, the Eighth landed, and encamped on the 
grounds of the Naval School. 

The changeful mood of the Colonel of the New- York Seventh, 
which had arrived in the ■' Boston," ready to join the Massachu- 
setts Eighth, and then friglitened from the purpose by reports of 
rebel plots, embarrassed the movements of the latter. 

Gen. Butler took charge of the Annapolis and Elk-Ridge Rail- 
way, which opened a sharp correspondence between him and tlie 
Governor of Maryland, that gained nothing for the aggrieved 

A letter from Col. S. C. Lawrence, dated at Annapolis, April 
24, 1801, contains a merited complimant to the commander: 
"Gen. B. F. Butler is here in his shirt-sleeves, working like a 
giant. He holds Annapolis under martial law; but 1 fear he can- 
not long retain it. He is eager to show the people here the troops 
now landing, some six thousand, hoping it will have a tendency to 
keep them true to us." 

At length, the regiment was ready to start for Washington. The 
train, — whose locomotive was secured by forcing the doors of tlie 
store-house, and put in running-order by Charles Homans of 
Company E, formerly a workman in the shop where it was built, 
— April 24, bore the Eighth from Annapolis. 

There stood Homans, with his hand on the lever of the engine ; 
on each side of him a soldier, with fixed bayonet ; the birds sing- 
ing in the trees beside the gleaming track : while human eyes 
flashed with rage because the lips were awed to silence and the 
hands powerless. Sledge and crowbar were wielded by resolute 
men under the warm and sultry sun. Bridges and track were 
rebuilt with a will ; but a mile an hour only was the slow rate 
of advance. In the afternoon, a shower drenched the sweating 
"boys," and gave them a cool, refreshing atmosi)here. In their 
ranks were more intelligence and culture than ever before were 
seen in the same number of troops. The sun went down glori- 
ously ; and the moon rose above the horizon, making the scene 
strangely beautiful. 

The graceful Winthrop wrote of that march, — 

Gottsehalk ! what a poetic night'-umrcli wo then began to play with our 
heels and toes on the railroad-track ! 

It was full moonliglit, and the niglit inexpressibly sweet and serene. The 

air was cool, and vivified by the gust and shower of the afternoon. Fresh 

spring was in every breath. Our fellows had forgotten that this morning they 


were hot and disgusted. Every one hugged his rifle as if it were the arm of 
the girl of his heart, and stepped out gayly for the promenade. Tired or foot- 
sore men, or even hizy ones, would mount upon tlie two freight-cars we were 
using for artillery-wagons. There were stout arms enough to tow the whole. 

It was an original kind of march. I suppose a battery of howitzers never 
before found itself mounted upon cars, ready to open fire at once, and bang 
away into the oflfing with shrapnel, or into the bushes with canister. Our 
line extended a half-mile along the track. It was beautiful to stand on the 
bank above a cutting, and watch the files strike from the shadow of a wood 
into a broad flame of moonlight, every rifle sparkling up, alert, as it came for- 
ward ; a beautiful sight to see the barrels writing themselves upon the dim- 
ness, — each a silver flash. 

By and by, " Halt ! " came, repeated along from the front, company after 
company. " Halt ! — a rail gone." 

From this time on, we were constantly interrupted. Not a half-mile passed 
without a rail up. Bonnell was always at the front, laying track ; and I am 
proud to say that he accepted me as aide-de-camp. Other fellows, unknown 
to me in the dark, gave hearty help. The Seventh showed that it could do 
something else than drill. 

At one spot, on a high embankment, over standing water, the rail was 
gone, — sunk, probably. Here we tried our rails brought from the turn-out : 
they were too short. We supplemented with a length of plank from our 
stores. We I'olled our cars carefully over. They passed safe ; but Homans 
shook his head. He could not venture a locomotive on that frail stuff". So 
we lost the society of the " J. H. Nicholson." Nest day, the Massachusetts 
commander called for some one to dive in the pool for the lost rail. Plump 
into the water went a little wiry chap, and grappled the rail. " When I 
come up," said the brave fellow afterwards to me, "one officer out with 
a twenty-dollar gold-piece, and wanted me to take it. ' That ain't what 
I come for,' says I. 'Take it,' says he, 'and share with the others.' 
' That ain't what they come for,' says I ; but I took a big cold," the diver 
continued, " and I'm condemned hoarse yit ;" which was the fact. 

Farther on, we found a whole length of track torn up on both sides, sleep- 
ers and all ; and the same thing repeated with alternations of breaks of single 
rails. Our howitzer-ropes came into play to hoist and haul. We were not 
going to be stopped. 

In a despatch from Gen. Butler, dated at Annapolis, April 26, 
1861, is a paragraph whicli states briefly the work accomplished: — 

It is now ten days since the Massachusetts troops were first called into the 
field, and their operations may be summed up thus : Two regiments have 
reached Fortress Monroe, and put it beyond danger of attack ; one. Col. 
Jones's, marched to the aid of the Federal capital, through Baltimore, and 
was baptized in blood; another, the Eighth, has rescued the frigate "Con- 
stitution," and put her on the side of law and order; has taken possession 


of Annapolis and the railroad, building it as they went ; and, together with 
their brethren of the Fifth, has marched to the capital, and thereby opened 
a communication through which thousands of troops are now passing. The 
two battalions ai"e now guai-ding the depot of troops. Are not these sufficient 
deeds for a campaign of many months 'I 

Sabbath morning, May 4, at two o'clock, the Eighth New-York, 
the Sixth Massachusetts, and Cook's Battery, were ready to ad- 
vance towards Baltimore, which, it was decided, should come 
under the stars and stripes again. Two hours later, the troops 
were at the Relay House, holding possession of its depot, and look- 
ing in every direction for the presence of the enemy. 

While here, a private in the Sixth Regiment was poisoned by 
strychnine, admmistered in food sold by itinerant venders. He 
barely escaped death. 

The surprise of Baltimore was great, when, in the evening of 
May 13, the Sixth, and Cook's Battery, with the New-York Eighth, 
beneath the clouds of a storm whose lightning and thunder were 
terrific, marched from the cars into the wild gloom of the city, 
which was among the most successful and romantic achievements 
of military strategy. 

Gen. Butler had intended to accompany the troops to the capi- 
tal ; but the arrival of fresh regiments detained him, till an order 
from Gen. Scott gave him command at Annapolis, which in a few 
days was enlarged to a department, including the region extend- 
ing back twenty miles each side of the railroad. 

The tender of troops to Gov. Hicks for the suppression of an 
apprehended insurrection of the negroes seemed to be an excess 
of fealty to the Constitution, which drew from Gov. Andrew a 
letter very emphatically objecting to the offer of such assistance 
in a community hostile to the Government. The commander 
justified himself on the ground that he was pledged to put down 
mobs, white and black ; and it was not legitimate warfare to let 
defenceless women and children in Maryland know " the hor- 
rors of St. Domingo." He and the army had grave lessons to 
learn concerning negro character, and the system of despotism 
under which, with marvellous patience and kindness, an injured 
race had borne its Shylock exactions. 

The line formed to the music, and in the liglit of tlic storm. 
The commander and his staif had reached Federal Hill, rising from 
the heart of the town, and were looking back upon the cavalcade, 
whose winding way and bristling steel were revealed distinctly 
with every flash from the echoing clouds, which poured down 


tlieir baptism upon tlio heroic host, when a blaze, which her- 
alded a crash of stuuuiiig- severity, bathed for a moment the earth 
and sky. The pageantry of war never had a finer illumination, 
nor presented a scene of more thrilling splendor. The ranks of 
dripping men, the startled horses and their riders, the brazen 
ordnance, the city itself, all were aglow for an instant, extort- 
ing a murmur of admiration from the lips of every beholder. 

]\Iay 1, Capt. Albert Dodd's Boston company, ordered to join 
Major Devens's Eifles, was forwarded by the propellor " Cam- 
bridge," with sealed instructions, as follows : — 

Adjutant-Genekal's Office, Boston, May 1, 1861. 
To Capt. Albert Dodd. 

Sir, — You are to go on l^oard the steam-propeller " Cambridge " this af- 
ternoon with your com_mand, and proceed at once to Fortress Monroe, where 
the troops on board the " Cambridge," belonging to the Third and Fourth 
Regiments, will be landed to join their respective companies now there. 

The " Cambridge " will then depart from Fortress Monroe, and proceed to 
Washington by the Potomac River. Should the ship be attacked, you will 
use your utmost exertions to defend and protect her, and endeavor to have 
her make the passage of the Potomac, and arrive at Washington. 

When you arrive at Washington, you will report yourself to Gen. Butler, 
who is to attach you and your command to the battalion of rifles under com- 
mand of Major Devens. Your command will be known as Company D of 
that battalion. 

Should the "Cambridge" fail to get to Washington by the Potomac 
River, — though there is no such word as "fail" known to Massachusetts 
men, — the ship will proceed to Annapolis, where you will report yourself 
to Gen. Butler, and if he is not thei-e, to Major Devens, and be attached to 
his battalion. You are to guard and piotect the ship while you are on board 
of her, and to report yourself so as to be attached to Blajor Devens's com- 
mand when you land ; always holding yourself subject to superior officers, 
who are expected and instructed to carry forward the purport of these 
instructions. It is the earnest desire of his Excellency the Commander-in- 
Chief that the ship " Cambridge " shall reach Washington, and demonstrate 
that a Massachusetts ship, manned with Massachusetts men, shall be the first 
ship to arrive by that route, as our Sixth Regiment was the first to arrive at 
Washington through the hostile city of Baltimore. You will confer with the 
captain of the ship, and you and he will act in unison. 

By order of his Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor and Cotnmander- 

in - Chief. 

WILLIAM SCHOULLR, Adjutant- General. 



Reception of the Baltimore Martyrs in Boston. — Major Devens's Battery at Baltimore. — 
Gov. Andrew on the Special Preparation of the State for the War. — Adjutant-Gen. 
Schouler's Testimony to the Good Conduct of the Early Troops. — The Fifth at Bull 
Run. — Gen. Butler's Letter to Gov. Andrew. 

ON the day of departure of fresh troops, the bodies of the 
slain in Baltimore, which Gov. Andrew had requested to be 
" tenderly forwarded," were brought back in the care of Morrill 
S. Wright, a private of the Richardson Light Infantry, of Lowell, 
detailed by Col. Jones for the purpose. From the depot to King's 
Chapel, escort duty was performed by the Independent Cadets. 
The Governor, with otlier State officials and prominent citizens, 
followed in the long procession which attended the remains. The 
streets were thronged as when the martyrs kept step to martial 
music in the ranks which, two weeks before, filled the highway to 
its curbstones. 

There were tearful eyes then and now ; but how different, and 
yet not all unlike, the emotions swelling ten thousand hearts ! 

April 17, the pulses beat high with patriotism ; in the sudden 
outflow, dimming many eyes ; while on other faces were min- 
gled the tears of the fond adieu with those of atfection for the old 
flag. Now all ivere mourners ; but beneath the silence and gloom 
of that great sorrow, like volcanic fires fitfully gleaming through 
the darkness of overhanging clouds and night, souls were aflame 
with the indignant purpose to avenge the martyr-blood of the 
State and nation, — a purpose whose light flashed from the eye of 
manhood and youth, and was breathed in the prayer that rose 
to God over those lifeless forms, which spake to the living of trea- 
son and liberty as no human voice could make appeal. 

The feeling in Boston, and far away on every side around it, 
is eloquently expressed in connection with the brief biographies 
of the victims of the secession mob by the Executive of the Com- 
monwealth, in his address at the dedication of their monu- 
ment : — 



When, on the evening of the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, there 
came the news along the wires that the Sixth Regiment had been cutting its 
way through the streets of Baltimore, whose pavements were reddened with 
the blood of Middlesex, it seemed as if there descended into our hearts a 
mysterious strength, and into our minds a supernal illumination. In many 
trying experiences of the war, we have watched by starlight as well as sun- 
light the doubtful fortunes of our arms ; but never has the news of victory, 
decisive and grand, — not even that of Gettysburg, on which hung issues 
more tremendous than ever depended on the fortunes of a single battle-field, 
— so lifted us above ourselves, so transformed our earthly weakness into 
heavenly might by a glorious transfiguration. The citizens of yesterday 
were to-day the heroes whom history would never forget ; and the follen 
brave had put on the crown of martyixlom more worthy than a hundred mor- 
tal diadems. Their blood alone was precious enough to wipe out the long 
arrears of shame. The great and necessary straggle was begun, without 
which we were a disgraced, a doomed, a ruined people. We had reached 
the parting of the ways, and we liad not hesitated to choose the right one. 
Oh ! it is terrible, beyond expression terrible, to feel that only war, with all 
its griefs and pains and crimes, will save a people ; but how infinitely greater 
than the dread and the dismay with which we thought of war was the hope 
of that salvation ! 

It was on the first day of May that Massachusetts received back to her 
soil the remains of these her children. 

One of the dead still sleeps at Baltimore. The mangled bodies of the 
other three, transported hither under charge of one of their fellow-soldiers, 
reached the State capital just before sunset, where they were received by the 
Governor of the Commonwealth, and were escorted through streets draped 
in emblems of mourning, and lined by thousands of citizens with uncovered 
heads and moistened eyes, to the "Vassal Tomb" beneath the ancient King's 
Chapel. On the way, they were borne past the State House, over the same 
ground where, twelve days before, they had stood to receive the flag which 
they swore to defend, and which they died defending. 

Of these three mai'tyrs, tlie name of but one was known, — that of Sum- 
ner Henry Needham, of Lawrence. The rolls of the regiment were cut off 
with its baggage in the struggle at Baltimore. But, had not this accident 
occurred, they might have failed to aftord means of identifying the remains ; 
for, in the haste of the original assembling and moving of the regiment, they 
had escajjed carefnl revision. Some men had discarded thft implements and 
clothing of peace, and fallen into the ranks on its march across the city the 
very hour of its departure. In those early days, when the nation was waver- 
ing between life and death, we did not waste time on forms. We were asked 
to send two regiments of troops as soon as we could. We did send five regi- 
ments, and more, sooner than the country had believed it was possible for any 
State to do ; but, in accomplishing that, we neglected formalities which would 
have been indispensable under an exigency less tremendous. 


Therefore it was that two of the three corpses — the same two which have 
mouldered into these ashes in the presence of which we stand — lay before 
us that May evening, without a name. Later in the night, under the direc- 
tion of officers of the headtjuarter's staff of Massachusetts, and in the pres- 
ence of the mayors of the cities of Lawrence and of Lowell, these bodies 
were identified ; and the names of Luther Crawford Ladd and Addison Otis 
Whitney, two young mechanics, both of Lowell, were added to that of Need- 
ham. And completing the four is the name of Charles A. Taylor, whose 
residence and family even now remain unknown. 

To complete the historical record of the humble men who thus, by a for- 
tunate and glorious death, have made their names imperishable, let us review 
the brief stories of their lives. They are quickly told. They are simple in 
incident, and they are characteristic of New England. 

Little is known of Taylor, except that his trade was that of a decorative 
painter. The most careful inquiries of his officers have failed to discover his 
residence or his origin. On the evening of April 16, he presented himself 
at Boston in the hall where the regiment was quartered, and was enrolled as 
a volunteer. He appeared to l)e about twenty-five years of age. His hair 
was light, his eyes blue. After he fell on the pavement at Baltimore on 
the afternoon of April 19, his brutal murderers beat him with clubs until life 
was extinct. 

Needham was born March 2, 1828, at Bethel, a little town lying under 
the shadow of the White Mountains, on the banks of the Androscoggin River, 
in the County of Oxford, in the State of Maine. About 1850, he came to 
Lawrence, in Massachusetts, and engaged in his trade there as a plasterer. 
After he fell mortally wounded at Baltimore, he was removed to the in- 
firmary, where he lingered until April 27, when he died. His remains lie 
at Lawrence, where his wife and child reside. 

Luther Crawford (son of John and Fanny) Ladd was born at Alexandria, 
near the Merrimack River, in the County of Grafton, in the State of New 
Hampshire, where his parents still reside, on the twenty-second day of De- 
cember, 18-13, being the anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims. 

Addison Otis (son of John F. and Jane B.) Whitney was boi-n Oct. 30, 
1839, at Waldo, in the county of the same name, which liorders on the 
Penobscot River, near where it joins the sea, in the State of Maine. Both 
died unmarried. 

These brief lives offer no incidents that are not common to most of the 
ingenuous young men of New l^ngland. Born of honest parentage, the 
youth of both Ladd and Whitney was passed by the side of the great rivers, 
and the sea, and the mountains of New England, and was nurtured in correct 
principles and fair ambition by the teaching of free schools, until, arrived at 
manhood, and attracted by the opportunities of the great mechanical estab- 
lishments of the eastern counties of i\Iassachusetts, they came to Lowell, and 
were employed, the first in a machine-shop, the second in the spinning-room, 
of one of its manufactories. Theii- companions in toil and in social life testify 


to their exemplary habits, their amiable disposition, and their laudable indus- 
try. And thus they were engaged, constant in work, hopeful of long life, 
and confident of the success which is everywhere in New England the fruit 
of free and honest labor, when the sudden summons reached them to take 
up arms for their country. They never faltered for one moment in simple- 
hearted patriotism and loyal obedience. At Lowell, on the fifteenth day of 
Api'il, they dropped the garb of the artisan, and assumed that of the citizen- 
soldier. Four days afterwards at Baltimore, their mortal bodies, bruised and 
lifeless, lay on the bloody stones of Pratt Street, the victims of the brutal 

Both Whitney and Ladd were young, and moved by a dauntless enthu- 
siasm. Whitney was but twenty-one years of age, and Ladd was only in 
his eighteenth year. 

Whitney joined the Lowell City Guards (Company D, of the Sixth Regi- 
ment) in the summer of 18C0. He attended muster with the regiment that 
year, and was discharged early in the winter of 1861, because he was learn- 
ing a trade, and could ill afford the time and expense of membership. On 
the call of the Governor on the regimental commanders, in March, 1861, to 
ascertain how many men in their commands would he ready for active service 
in ease they should be needed, Whitney promptly came forward, and signified 
his willingness to obey the summons. He signed the roils of the company 
with the understanding, that, if it should not be wanted, he should be dis- 
charged. On the evening of April 15, when the order came for the regiment 
to get ready to leave the following day, he was among the first to put on his 
uniform. In company with a comrade, he left the armory about two o'clock, 
during the night of the 16th, for the purpose of procuring his photograph in 
the early morning ; and he was at his company post promptly at the tune 

In passing through Baltimore, he was on the left of the first section ; and 
while marching through Pratt Street, near the bridge, was seen to fall. Some 
of his comrades, thinking he had stumbled, tried to assist him ; but, finding 
he was dead, they left him where he fell. A bullet had pierced his right 
bi'east, passing down the body, causing instant death. The shot was un- 
doubtedly fired from the upper window of a house. The coat which he wore 
was found stripped of every button, cut off by the mob. The place in the 
coat where the bullet entered is plainly visible, saturated with his blood. 

The precise manner of the death of Ladd is known by the bullet-holes, of 
which there are several, through the coat and the overcoat he wore, and by 
their gory stains. He is reported to have cultivated a strong taste for histori- 
cal reading, and from his earliest boyhood to have entered with ardor into the 
study of our national affairs. He enlisted in the City Guards, at Lowell, 
three months before his death, on the occasion of the appearance of the 
General Order of that year from the Commonwealth headc[uarter3, already 
alluded to, and known as Order No. 4 ; and he expressed ' his desire to join 
that company most likely to be called to active duty. By his youth he was 


legally exempt from military service, and his friends would have dissuaded 
him at last from assuming its hardships and perils ; but he met their persua- 
sions by an appeal to the flag of his country, whose fortunes he declared that 
he would surely follow. And when the fatal bullets had smitten him, and he 
lay struggling with death, the vision of his country's flag suddenly seemed 
to flash before him as a momentary glory and delight ; and exclaiming aloud 
with his dying voice, "All hail to the stripes and stars!" the soldier-boy 
ended his brief campaign. 

The public opinion that permitted this tragedy derives its interpretation 
from public documents and official action which leave no doubt of the value 
of the Massachusetts militia to the Union cause, no doubt of the danger their 
service averted, no doubt of the urgent necessity of that very march through 
Baltimore, no doubt that it was the hinge on which turned the ultimate fate 
of Maryland, and perhaps of the Union. Our militia were ready not a day 
too soon, nor were they an hour too late. The people of Baltimore, so tele- 
graphed the Mayor to myself, on the 20th of April, regarded the passage of 
armed troops of another State through their streets as an invasion of their 
soil, and could not be restrained. The Governor of Maryland and the Mayor 
of Baltimore represented to President Lincoln that the people were exaspe- 
rated to the highest degree by the presence of the troops, and that it was not 
possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore. They remonstrated 
against the transit of more soldiers, and they required that the troops already 
in the State be sent back to its borders. In reply to the 3Iayor of Baltimore, 
the Governor of IMassachusetts telegraphed, " I am overwhelmed with sur- 
prise that a peaceful march of American citizens over the highway to the de- 
fence of our common capital should be deemed aggi'essive to Baltimoreans. 
Through New York their march was triumphal." 

The loyal people of the Union shared this surjirise, and exhibited it through 
the public press, in public meetings, in cordial response to the Presidential 
proclamation, and by promptly raising troops for three months' service. The 
affair of the 10th of April was observed throughout the country with inex- 
pressible emotion. 

In the Congressional debates on " The Reconstruction of the 
States," in April, 1864, the Hon. Mr. Williams of Pennsylvania, 
in a speech of " rare beauty and masterly power,"' pronounced a 
feeling eulogy upon Massachusetts, in connection with the recep- 
tion and burial of the bodies of those slain heroes. He ex- 
claimed, — 

Leave Massachusetts out in tlie cold ! ^Vliat matters it that no tropical 
sun has fevered her Northern blood into the delirium of treason ? I know no 
trait of tenderness more touching and more human than that with whicli she 
received back to her arms tlio bodies of her lifeless children. " Handle them 
tenderly " was the message of her loyal Governor. ^lassachusetts desired to 



look once more upon the faces of her martyred sons, " marred as they were 
by traitors." She lifted gently the sable pall that covered them. She gave 
them a soldier's burial and a soldier's farewell ; and then, like David of old, 
when he was informed that the child of his affections had ceased to live, she 
rose to her feet, dashed the tear-drop from her eye, and in twenty days her 
iron-clad battalions were crowning the heights, and her guns frowning destruc- 
tion over the streets, of the rebel city. Shut out Massachusetts in the cold ! 
Yes : you may blot her out from the map of the continent ; you may bring 
back the glacial epoch, when the arctic ice-drift, that has deposited so many 
monuments on her soil, swept over her buried surface ; when the polar bear, 
perhaps, paced the driving floes, and the walrus frolicked among the tumbling 
icebergs : but you cannot sink her deep enough to drown the memory of 
Lexington and Concord, or bury the summit of the tall column that lifts its 
head over the first of our battle-fields. "With her," in the language of her 
great son, " the 2Kist, at least, is secure." The Muse of History has flung 
her story upon the world's canvas in tints that will not fade, and cannot die. 

Meanwhile Major Deveiis's battalion of riflemen was ordered 
to Fort McHenry, in the harbor of Baltimore, where it completed 
the term of service. Although quiet duty, it was indispensable, 
at that jjlace and time, to keep restless Maryland in the Union. 

May 14, at an extra session of the Legislature, Gov. Andrew, 
in his address, made statements which further show the singular 
pre-eminence of the State in readiness to hear the call to arms, 
repeated at intervals during the subsequent months and years. 
The Governor said, — 

In view of the great lack of arms existing iu this Commonwealth, certain 
to become apparent in the event of a continued struggle, — a want shared liy 
the States in common with each other, — under the advice and consent of the 
Council, I commissioned a citizen of Massachusetts, on the twenty-seventh 
day of April (who sailed almost immediately in the steamer "Persia"), to 
proceed to England, charged with the duty of purchasing Miuie rifles, or 
other arms of corresponding efficiency, in England, or on the Continent, as 
he mi«-ht find it needful or desirable. To this end, he was furnished with a 
letter of credit to the amount of fifty thousand pounds sterling ; and he was 
attended by an accomplished and experienced armorer, familiar with the work- 
shops of the Old World. The production of fire-arms at home will, of neces- 
sity, remain for a considerable period inadequate to the home demand, and I 
await with much interest the arrival from abroad of our expected importa- 
tion ; and I have no doubt that Congress, at its approaching special session, 
will relieve this Commonwealth from the payment of the duties chargeable 

In addition to its other military defences, the Nautical School-ship has been 
fitted up to aid in guarding the coast of the Commonwealth. She has 


been armed with four six-pound cannon and fifty-two muskets. The Collect- 
or of the district of Boston and Charlestown has commissioned, and placed 
on board the ship, an "aide to the revenue," with instructions to overhaul 
all suspicious vessels ; warning him to use that authority with caution and 
moderation. Each afternoon, at the expiration of business-hours, the col- 
lector telegraphs to the station at Hull the names of all vessels having per- 
mission to pass out of the harbor of Boston ; and, the list being immediately 
forwarded to the ship, the "aide" is authorized to order all vessels not so 
reported, and attempting to leave the harbor between sunset and sunrise, to 
wait till the nest day, and until he is satisfied of their right to pass. 

The commander of the ship is instracted to assist the ' ' aide to the rev- 
enue" to see that thorough discipline is at all times maintained; that the 
rules of the ship are strictly obeyed ; that all due economy is practised ; that 
the exercises of the school are daily continued ; and to see that the boys re- 
ceive kind treatment, and their habits, morals, and education are ctirefully 
and constantly regarded. On the 7th of this month, the ship left the harbor 
of Boston, and is now cruising in the bay in the performance of the duties 
assigned her. 

A sense of insecurity along our coast, under the late piratical proclamation 
of Jefferson Davis, as well as our constant wants for transportation service, 
have induced a purchase for the Commonwealth, as a part owner with the 
underwriters of Boston, of the steamer " Cambridge," of about eight hun- 
dred and sixty tons' burthen, and of the steamer " Pembroke," of two hundred 
and forty tons, both of which, equipped with competent naval armament, and 
ready to fight their way over the seas, are engaged in service. The " Cam- 
bridge " has carried a full cargo of arms, men, and supplies, in ample quan- 
tities, not only to Fortress Monroe, but up the Potomac itself; and, in spite 
of the danger supposed to menace her from its banks, she has safely carried 
tents, stores, provisions, and clothing to our troops at Washington. 

Besides making the requisite appropriations to meet these and other ex- 
penses, and adopting measures to establish the power of the Executive to 
meet the emergencies of the occasion on a distinctly legal foundation, my 
other principal purpose in convening the General Court was to ask its atten- 
tion to the subject of a State Encampment for Military Instruction. 

Wise statesmanship requires an adequate anticipation of all future wants 
of the controversy, wliether as to the number or quality of the military force, 
its discipline, instruction, arms, or equipment. At this moment, there exist 
one hundred and twenty-nine companies newly enlisted into the active militia, 
all of whom were induced to enroll themselves by the possibility of active 
duty in the field. Many of these are anxious to receive orders for service ; 
and, withdrawing themselves from other avocations, they are now endeavoiing 
to perfect themselves in the details of a soldier's routine of duty. It seemed 
equally an injustice towards those who are disposed to arms, and to all other 
citizens on whom future exigencies might cast the inconvenient necessity of 
taking the field, to discourage these efforts and struggles of patriotic ambi- 


tion. It is important to secure a reasonable number of soldiers, to have them 
ascertained, within reach, and in a proper condition for service ; and it is 
scarcely less important that other citizens should be left as free as may be 
from the distractions of a divided duty, so as to pursue with heart and hope 
the business enterprises of private life. The best public economy is found in 
the forethought of considered plans, disposing the means, pursuits, and people 
of the whole community, so as to meet all exigencies without confusion, and 
with the least possible derangement of productive industry ; and I have, 
therefore, to these ends, earnestly considered the suggestions of various emi- 
nent citizens, the written rec[uests or memorials, numerously signed, which 
have reached me, and the advice of the highest officers in our own militia, all 
uniting in the recommendation of a State encampment. 

0)1 the 30tli of May, Geu. E. W. Pierce, Second Brigade, First 
Division, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, succeeded Brig.-Gen. 
Butler after his promotion. 

Of these regiments, which obeyed the call to arms while yet 
the Rebellion was regarded as a transient ebullition of passion, 
Adjutant-Gen. Schouler wrote in his report to Gov. Andrew : — 

It would far exceed the limits of this report to recount in detail the brave 
acts of our three-months' troops during their term of service. It is sufficient, 
perhaps, to say that they were the first to respond to the call of the Presi- 
dent, the first to march through Baltimore to the defence of the capital, the 
first to shed their blood for the maintenance of our Government, the first to 
open the new route to Washington by way of Annapolis, the first to laud on 
the soil of Virginia and hold possession of the most important fortress in the 
Union, the first to make the voyage of the Potomac and approach the Fed- 
eral city by water, as they had been the first to reach it by land. They 
upheld the good name of the State during their entire term of ser\ace, as 
well by their good conduct and gentlemanly bearing as by their courage and 
devotion to duty in the hour of peril. They proved the sterling worth of our 
volunteer militia. Their record is one which will ever redound to the honor 
of IMassachusetts, and will be prized among her richest historic treasures. 
These men have added new splendor to our Revolutionary annals ; and the 
brave sons who were shot down in the streets of Baltimore on the 19th of 
April have rendered doubly sacred the day when the greensward of Lexino-- 
ton Common was drenched with the blood of their fathers. 

From the 13th of April to the 20th of May, one hundred and fifty-nine 
applications were granted at the Adjutant-General's office to responsible par- 
ties for leave to raise companies. In nearly every instance, the application 
was signed by the requisite number of men for a company. These applica- 
tions came from every part of the Commonwealth, and represented all classes, 
creeds, and nationalities. The authorities of the several cities and towns 
acted with patriotic liberality toward these companies, furnishing good accom- 


niodations for diilliug, and providing for the families of the men. In addi- 
tion ^to these companies,., organizations for drill-purposes and home-guards 
sprung up at once in every part of the State ; and numerous applications 
were received for loans of muskets to these parties, that they might perfect 
themselves in the manual. This spirit of patriotism was encouraged to its 
full extent by the means at the disposal of the Adjutant-General. From the 
loth of April to the 20th of May, about two thousand seven hundred old 
muskets were distributed to forty of these organizations. In every instance, 
good security was required and given for the safe-keeping of these arms, and 
their return to the State when called for, generally from the selectmen of the 
towns making application. When the office of Master of Ordnance was cre- 
ated by your Excellency on the 27th of May, the papers and vouchers re- 
lating to the arms were transferred from this department ; and the report of 
the Master of Ordnance, which accompanies this, will show the exact amount 
and condition of our ordnance material at that time. 

x\bout the 1st of May, an association of Massachusetts men, forming a 
company in Cincinnati, made an urgent request for arms. Their committee 
had applied at New York and Philadelphia without success, and at length 
came to Massachusetts. As we had just received five thousand new smooth- 
bore muskets from the Springfield Armory, I sold them one hundred ; for 
which they paid thirteen hundred dollars, the Grovernment price. The money 
was deposited in the State Treasury, and doubtless the muskets were soon in 
the hands of men who did good service in the Union array of Kentucky. 

The Fifth Regiment participated in the first great battle of the 
war at Manassas. Col. Lawrence was wounded. Hiram S. Col- 
lins, Haverhill, Company D ; Sergeant William H. Lawrence. 
Medford, Company E ; Sergeant Charles W. Cassebourne, Thomas 
Kettle, Isaac M. Low, Stephen O'Hara, Cyrus T. Wardwell, and 
Edward J. Williams, all of Boston, Company F ; Sergeant Wil- 
liam S. Rice, Concord, Company G- ; George A. Thompson, Salem, 
Company H, — were killed. Twenty-two were missing after the 
fight was over. 

The three-months' volunteers were distributed over the State as 
follows : — 

In Barnstable County 
Berkshire County 
Bristol County 
Essex County 
Franklin County 
Hampden County 
Hampshire County 
Middlesex County 
Norfolk County 












































In Plymouth County .... 
Svifiblk County .... 
Worcester County .... 
Other States ..... 
Residence not given . . . 

Totals 244 3,492 3,736 

The warlike condition of the State militia now inaugurated, 
together with a rapidly augmenting force in the field, made an 
additional force in the Adjutant-General's field of manifold ser- 
vice a necessity. 

On the 20th of April, Lieut.-Col. John H. Reed, of Boston, was 
commissioned quartermaster-general, with the rank of brigadier- 

Dr. William J. Dale, of Boston, was commissioned surgeon- 
general, and Elijah D. Brigham, of Boston, commissary-general, 
severally with the rank of colonel, on the 13th of June. 

Gen. Ebenezer W. Stone, of Roxbury, was commissioned mas- 
ter of ordnance, with the rank of colonel, on the 25th of May ; 
which office he held until the 3d of October. On the 7th of Oc- 
tober, Charles Amory, Esq., of Boston, was commissioned as his 

Albert G. Browne, jun., of Salem, was commissioned as military 
secretary to the Commander-in-Chief, May 27, 18G1 ; rank, lieu- 

Assistants were added to departments with the increase of offi- 
cial business. 

Upon the appointment of Gen. Butler to the rank of major- 
general, his immediate connection with the State troops ceased. 
In a note to Gov. Andrew, he thus warmly speaks of the patriotic 
Executive : — 

I cannot close our oflSeial relations, and my nearer official relations to the 
Massachusetts troops, without expressing to your Excellency my deep sense 
of obligation for the kind and vigilant attention which you have bestowed 
upon every want of the soldiers on duty here, the unremitting exertions to 
aid us in the discharge of our duties, your unvarying personal kindness to us 
all, and especially to myself If we have in any degree well done that duty 
to the country, and properly performed that service, which Massachusetts had 
a right to expect from us, in upholding her fame, so dear to all her sons, it 
has been because we have been so unweariedly and faithfully aided at home 
by the exertions of your Excellency and the military department of the 
State ; and I take leave of your Excellency with sentiments of the highest 
respect and firmest friendship. 


The Commonwealth was therefore prepared for the next call from 
the Government upon her waithig volunteers, whose Executive 
worthily represented her spirit when he said, — 

To whatever work of patriotic duty they are called, the people will come. 
There are those now among us, and still ready to serve the country, who 
remember in the war of 1812 the thousands flocking down, some even 
from beyond the county of Worcester, each man with pick or shovel on his 
shoulder, and each town or parish headed by its pastor, armed like the rest, 
to labor on the forts and defences of Boston. The people, if need be, could 
come themselves, and wall up our coast with the masonry of war. 


The President's Call for Volunteers. — Response of the States. — The first Regiment. — 
Its Origin. — Departure for the Seat of War. — Marches and Battles. 

PRESIDENT LINCOLN, who had become convinced by the 
"logic of events" that the war was no transient ebulhtion 
of sectional feeling, but a deadly conflict whose end none could 
discern, issued on May 3, 18(31, a call for troops to serve three 
years, unless the dawn of peace disbanded the army before the 
expiration of that period. 

In the towns of Massachusetts, and elsewhere in the loyal States, 
volunteer companies had been formed, anticipating the demand 
for their services in the widening arena of bloody conflict. May 
23, in accordance with the President's proclamation, the Ad- 
jutant-General of Massachusetts published an order for the organ- 
ization of six regiments of infantry, each to consist of ten compa- 
nies ; the maximum strength to be a thousand and forty-six men ; 
and the minimum, eight hundred and forty-six. 

Each regiment was to have a chaplain, who must be a regularly 
ordained minister of some religious denomination. The six regi- 
ments were promptly organized. 

The Third and Fourth Militia Regiments at Fortress Monroe 
were incomplete ; and, to supply the deficiency, three-years' troops 
were taken. May 9, a company from Lynn, commanded by Capt. 
W. D. Chamberlain, and another, raised in Boston and vicinity, left 
the city in the steamer " Pembroke " for Fortress Monroe. Nine 
days later, Capt. L. Leach's company from Bridge water, Capt. J. 
H. Barnes's company from East Boston, Capt. Charles Chipman's 
company from Sandwich, and Capt. S. H. Doten's company from 
Plymouth, sailed in the " Cambridge," having the same destination. 
On the 22d, Capt. P. H. Davis's company from Lowell, and Capt. 
T. W. Clarke's of Boston, were carried by the " Pembroke " to join 
the Tiiird and Fourth Regiments. After the three-months' troops 
returned, the remaining companies were formed into an infantry 




battalion, which afterwards became, by additions, the Twenty-ninth 
Infantry Regiment, whose record will appear in another place. 


This regiment was the first to leave the State for three years' 
service, and is said to have l)een the first three-years' regiment 
in the service of the United States. 

In its original composition, it was made up mainly from the 
First Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, of which Col. Robert Cow- 
din of Boston was the commander. 

As soon as the news of the assault on Fort Sumter reached Bos- 
ton, Col. Cowdin waited upon Gov. Andrew, and offered the 
services of himself and command to proceed immediately to the 
defence of Washington. He continued daily to urge the claims of 
his regiment until the 27th of April, when he received an order 
from the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts to prepare his regiment 
to go to the seat of war, and to report himself in person the next 
day at the State House, and select from the companies offered him 
enough to fill up his regiment to the requisite standard (ten com- 
panies) ; he having already detailed two companies from his regi- 
ment to fill up other regiments, by order of his Excellency the 

May 8, orders having been received from the War Department 
calling for volunteers for three years' service, the First at once 
unanimously responded, and, after some delay, was mustered 
into the service of the United States as follows : — 

Field and staff officers, May 25. 

Companies A, B, G, 11, May 23. 

Companies D, F, K, I, May 24. 

Company E, May 25. 

Company C, May 27. 

The field and staff of the regiment were composed as follows ; 
viz. : — 

Col. Robert Cowdin, Lieut-Col. George D. Wells, Major Charles 
P. Chandler, Surgeon Richard H. Salter, Assistant Surgeon Sam- 
uel A. Green, and Chaplain Warren H. Cudworth. 

Col. Cowdin, whose father and grandfather were military men, 
was a faithful officer, who had maintained during his long resi- 
dence in Boston a high character as a consistent temperance 
man, but whose promotion, though urged l)y superior officers, 
was, for some reason, opposed in other influential quarters. 



Lieut.-Col. Wells was a very capable and faithful officer, aad 
was promoted to the command of the Thirty-fourth Regiment. 

Major Chandler was killed at Glendale, Va., and was a faithful 
and meritorious officer. His body was never recovered, but is sup- 
posed to have been buried on the field. 

B, D, E, F, G, were the original companies of the First : the 
others were added to make up the complement, — ten companies. 
From May 25 to June 1, the headquarters of the regiment were 
at Faneuil Hall, Its first camp was established in Old Cambridge, 
about six miles from Boston, and called Camp Ellsworth ; after- 
wards the regiment went to Camp Cameron, in North Camljridge. 

The regiment complete was mustered into service, and left 
Camp Cameron for the seat of war, June 15, 1861, and marched 
to the depot of the Boston and Providence Railroad. Here a 
flag was presented by Alderman Pray in behalf of the City 
Council of Boston ; and an address was made by his Honor 
Mayor Wightman, to which Col. Cowdin responded. Eight 
o'clock, P.M., the soldiers entered the cars in waiting, and 
the train started. All along the route, they were met with 
patriotic demonstrations. Crowds thronged the railroad stations, 
wild with excitement. At Providence, they were welcomed with 
a national salute. Arriving at Groton, Conn., the cars were ex- 
changed for the commodious steamer " Commonwealtli." At fifteen 
minutes before two, p.m., June 16, the steamer, gayly decorateil 
with flags, and every available standing-place crowded with sol- 
diers, arrived at the pier in Jersey City. The troops debarked, and 
were welcomed with a bountiful entertainment, tendered by the soils 
of Massachusetts, Mr. Warren, President ; and, after a few hours' 
detention, took the cars for Washington. Arriving in Philadelphia 
the next morning, they were marched to the Cooper Shop and 
Union Refreslunent Saloons, where a welcome such as soldiers know 
how to appreciate awaited them. It was now the ITtli of June, 
the anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill. Since the 19th of 
April, when the Sixth Regiment was assaulted in its streets, no 
troops had passed through Baltimore. At the urgent request of 
Col. Cowdin, he was permitted to go that route, instead of by way 
of Harrisbnrg or Annapolis as other troops had gone. In order 
to be prepared for any emergency, as they drew nigh the city, ten 
rounds of ball cartridges were distributed to eacii man, and every 
gun examined, loaded, and capped. Oii alighting from the cars, the 
regiment formed, and marched up Baltimore Street to the Wash- 
ington depot, a distance of nearly two miles. 


Throughout the luie of marcli, though the sidewalks, steps, 
windows, balconies, and even house-tops, were thronged with spec- 
tators, not a word was uttered on either side, not a cheer or groan 
was heard, and not a secession flag or motto appeared. Taking 
the cars in waiting at tlie depot, th(3y arrived in Washington at 
seven, P.M., before the arrangements for their accommodation had 
been perfected. 

Their presence in the capital, then rank with the spirit of se- 
cession, gave to loyal hearts a sense of security ; and, for the first 
lime since the outbreaking of the Rebellion, loyal men breathed 
freely in Washington. 

On the 19th of June, the regiment went into camp beyond 
Georgetown on the Potomac, about two miles from Chain Bridge. 
On their way, the troops passed in review before President Lin- 
coln, who expressed to Gen. Morse great satisfaction with the ap- 
pearance of the troop?. To a delegation of New-England men 
who had called upon him to pledge their sympathy and co-opera- 
tion in the great struggle, the President expressed his gratifi- 
cation at the surprising promptness of the Old Bay State in 
responding to the first call, and said, "It is evident the Massa- 
chusetts people have got riley, and, from what we have just wit- 
nessed, appear to be coming down here to settle.'" This hon-mot 
produced considerable merriment ; and the President, begging to 
be excused on the ground of pressing engagements, retired. The 
new camp of the regiment was named Camp Banks. 

The 4th of July was a lovely day, and was not permitted by the 
soldiers to pass without some patriotic recognition. The celebra- 
tion was opened with the booming of cannon, and tlie playing of 
the national airs by the regimental band ; after which followed 
a dress-parade. A handsome silk banner was formally presented 
to Col. Cowdin by Col. Ellis, of the First California Regiment, in 
behalf of the San-Francisco City Guards; Capt. Moore, their 
commander, having formerly served under Col. Cowdin. An ap- 
propriate reply was made by the colonel. Speeches were also 
made by Senators McDougal and Wilson, Representative Eliot, 
and others. 

On the 16th of July, the First Massachusetts, Second and Third 
Michigan, and Twelfth New- York, constituting Richardson's bri- 
gade, crossed over Chain Bridge, in Virginia, — their first appear- 
ance on its "sacred soil." Advancing till night, they bivouacked 
in a large field in Vienna. On the 17th, after marching all day, 
they encamped about two miles this side of Centreville. On the 


morning of the 18tli, before breaking camp, Col. Cowdin requested 
Col. Richardson that the First Massachusetts might be placed in 
advance; assigning as a reason, that he would like to pit Mas- 
sachusetts against South Carolina, it being understood that the 
troops of this latter State were in advance of the rebel army. 
The request was granted ; and Col. Cowdin made the remark, that 
it was the best order he ever received in his life. 

To the First Massachusetts belongs the honor of opening the 
memorable skirmish of Blackburn's Ford. It was the only 
regiment under musketry fire ; and according to Estavan, a colonel 
of Confederate cavalry, this regiment had opposed to them the 
whole of Long-street's brigade, afterwards re-enforced by Early's 
brigade. The skirmishers of the First, under the command of Lieut. 
George H. Johnston, afterwards assistant adjutant-general, gal- 
lantly carried the Butler House at the point of the bayonet under 
a heavy fire of musketry; the rebels leaving the house by one door 
as the Massachusetts boys entered the other. The skirmishers 
were then ordered to deploy into an open field under fire of the 
enemy's sharpshooters, where they suffered severely. Two com- 
panies were sent to their relief, but were driven back with loss. 
The enemy then advanced out of the wood in large numbers 
with the cry of " Bayonet them, bayonet them ! " and in a mo- 
ment more the skirmishers would have been killed or captured ; 
but the First came upon the double-quick, and, pouring a volley 
into the enemy over the heads of the skirmishers, rescued the 
Union troops. Col. Cowdin was the most conspicuous man in 
the regiment, fighting in white shirt-sleeves at the head of his 
men. In one case, having ordered the men to lie down amid 
a heavy fire from the enemy, he alone remained standing, and 
remarked, " The bullet is not cast that can hit me to-day." 
Some person speaking to him on the left, he leaned that way 
to understand more distinctly, when a ten-pounder, whizzing 
past his right side, shattered a tree directly behind him. 
The colo)iel turned calmly around, and said, '• I am certain 
that the ball is not yet cast that will kill me;" and issued 
his command as coolly as though he were on a dress-parade. The 
regiment retreated only when ordered to do so by Col. Richard- 
son. Had Col. Cowdin been supported as he wished, the enemy 
would have been driven from this position, and the rout of Bull 
Run would never have taken place. Gen. Tyler testifies substan- 
tially this before the Committee on the Conduct of the War. 

This affair, though a mere skirmish, was of great interest to the 


First Regiment, as it was their earliest experience under fire. The 
movement was probably intended simply to feel the position and 
strength of the enemy ; but it had a further importance, in teach- 
ing the volunteers how to meet the bullets of the enemy. 

This movement was nearly a failure, although the troops did 
remarkably well. The regiment fell back to Centreville, which 
for some days was the focus of interest. 

During the battle of Bull Run, July 21, the First was stationed 
at Blackburn's Ford, where it remained until the retreat of the 
army, when it reluctantly fell back, astonished that the battle 
which it had begun so well had been so unaccountably lost. 

On the 23d of July, in anticipation of an attack on Washing- 
ton, it was ordered to Fort Albany, on Arlington Heights, a new 
breastwork overlooking Washington, Georgetown, Alexandria, 
and the adjacent country. On the 13th of August, the regiment 
was detached from Col. Richardson's brigade, and ordered to 
the vicinity of Bladensburg, on the opposite side of the river, 
beyond the capital, and there incorporated with Gen. Hooker's 
brigade, then composed of the Eleventh Massachusetts, tlie Se- 
cond New - Hampshire, and the Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania. 
Bladensburg, where the regiment was encamped, is a place 
of some historic interest. It was the scene of the battle 
between the English and the American forces, fought Aug. 24, 
1814, which resulted in the capture and destruction of the 
Capitol by the British. Here Adjutant William H. Lawrence 
(now a brevet brigadier-general) was appointed aide to Gen. 
Hooker, and First Lieut. George H. Johnston appointed adjutant. 
In anticipation of trouble in some parts of Lower Maryland, the 
First Regiment, with two companies of cavalry, all under the 
command of Col. Cowdin, was sent with five days' rations to 
search for arms and military stores of the rebels, and cut off theii* 
communication with Virginia. After thirty days' absence, the 
regiment returned, having done good service. 

Oct. 14, Col. Cowdin was detached from the regiment, and 
put in command of the first brigade of Hooker's division, just 
then created by Gen. McClellan's new arrangement of the army ; 
Lieut. G. H. Johnston appointed acting assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral ; and Lieut. George E. Henry, aide-de-camp. Lieut-Col. 
Wells succeeded to the command of the regiment, which left 
Bladensburg Oct. 25, and proceeded down the Maryland shore of 
the Potomac to Posey's Plantation, opposite the rebel batteries at 
Dumfries and Shipping Point. This march was exceedingly hard : 


it was hastened, as the rebel steamer "Page" had been trouble- 
some a day or two before, and troops were needed at that pomt. 
No orders having come for winter-quarters, the regiment was 
not slow in providing comfortable log-houses for the coming win- 
ter. This camp was named, in honor of the division-general, Camp 

In February, Gen. Naglee was placed in command of the bri- 
gade, and Col. Cowdin returned to his regiment. The advance of 
McClellan's army began to pass down the river about the middle 
of March ; but the First Regiment did not leave camp until the 
7th of April, when it went on board the steamer " Kennebec " for 
Fortress Monroe. On the morning of the 16th, it moved to 
the front before Yorktown, and encamped in line of battle ; 
Gen. Hooker's division having the centre of Gen. Hcintzle- 
man's corps. Here began a routine of fatigue and picket 
duty. On the 2Gth, three companies, — I, H, and A, — un- 
der command of Lieut-Col. George D. Wells, were detailed 
for special duty, whose object was a rebel redoubt just erected, 
the guns of which were exceedingly annoying to the pickets and 
working-parties. The expedition was successful. The rebels evac- 
uated Yorktown May 4 ; and, in close pursuit of their retreating 
columns, Gen. Hooker's division the same evening bivouacked 
within five miles of Williamsburg. The next morning, advancing 
at an early hour, the division met the pickets of the enemy. The 
First were deployed as skirmishers. An engagomcnt took place, 
in wliich tlie regiment took a prominent part, and lost many men. 
For services on this occasion, it was specially complimented by 
Gen. Hooker ; and Col. Cowdin was appointed a brigadier- 
general by the President for liis gallantry in the engagement. 
On the 6th, the enemy evacuated Williamsburg: the regiment 
was detailed for provost-duty until the 15th, when it resumed 
the march ; a troop of cavalry having been ordered to relieve 
it. On the 24th, it crossed the Chickahominy at Bottoms Bridge 
close upon the heels of the enemy, and on the 25th encamped 
on Poplar Hill. Heat, exposure, and want of rest, now began 
to tell upon the health of the troops. In the First, out of a 
thousand and fifty men who had left Boston one year before, 
not more than six hundred were fit for duty. On the 4th of June, 
they moved to Fair Oaks, where the battle had been fought a few 
days previous. During their stay here, they were on picket-duty 
at the extreme front every third day. On the 25th, an attempt to 
advance our picket-lines brought on a general engagement ; the 


First driving the enemy's skirmishers through the woods for a 
long distance, and holding the wavf line several hours before being 
relieved. In this engagement the regiment lost heavily, — six 
officers and fifty-five enlisted men. On the 29th, the movement 
towards the James commenced : the First moved to the front, and 
relieved the skirmishers of the Jersey brigade. When the entire 
line had fallen back and taken another position, this regiment 
followed, being the last one to leave the bloody and desolate 
field of Fair Oaks. At Savage Station, the regiment supported 
Battery K, United-States artillery. On the 30th June, the battle 
of Glendale was fought, during which the regiment charged the 
enemy at the point of the bayonet, turning the head of their 
column. In this engagement the regiment again suffered severely, 
losing sisty-three men. Major Chandler and Lieut. Sutherland 
were killed. On the morning of July 1, it marched again, and 
took part in the battle of Malvern Hill ; the next day, through a 
pelting storm, it reached Harrison's Landing, where the army 

From this time until the army commenced its retrograde move- 
ment, nothing of note affecting the regiment occurred which can 
be recorded here. This movement began Aug. 15 ; and Aug. 26, 
the command of the army having been transferred to Gen. Pope, 
the regiment was again at "Warrenton Junction, and on the 27th 
was in pursuit of Jackson's forces, who had, on the previous even- 
ing, made a raid on the railroad at Catlett's Station. They came 
up with the enemy about half-past one o'clock, p.m., at Kettle run. 
A brisk engagement ensued, lasting until dark, when the enemy 
retreated to Manassas Junction. Next day they continued their 
march down the railroad, passing Manassas Junction to the south 
side of Bull Run, near Blackburn's Ford, where they encamped 
for the night. Next morning, the regiment crossed the run, 
moved forward to the battle-ground of 1861, and became engaged 
with the enemy in what is known as the second battle of Bull Run. 
The loss in this engagement was severe ; they having been detailed 
by Gen. Siegel as skirmishers. After holding the enemy in clieck 
several hours, the brigade was brought up, and charged into the 
woods, driving the rebels before them, until, meeting an over- 
whelming force, it was compelled to f^iU back ; the First losing in 
killed and wounded more than one-third of the command. The 
regiment was under fire nearly all of the next day, and that night 
fell back to Centreville. Sept. 1, Col. Cowdin being in command 
of the brigade, and Lieut-Col. Baldwin in command of the regi- 


ment, tliey stai:ted in the midst of a heavy storm towards Fairfax 
Court House. At Chantilly a skirmish took place, in which the 
regiment, supporting a battery, was under a heavy fire, and re- 
mained in line of battle until three, a.m., of the 2d, when it 
resumed the march to Fairfax Station ; the next day reaching 
Fort Lyon. 

Gen. Pope having been relieved of his command, and Gen. 
McClellan re-instated, Gen. Hooker was assigned a corps. By the 
express wish of the latter, his old division was allowed to remain 
within the defences of Washington for a few weeks to rest, and to 
be refitted for the field : this accounts for the First Massachusetts 
not having been at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam in 
Maryland. Sept. 26, Col. Cowdin having been appointed brigadier- 
general, and assigned to command the second brigade, Abercrom- 
bie's division, the command of the regiment devolved upon Lieut- 
Col. Baldwin. On account of the frequent and successful raids of the 
rebel cavalry under Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, it was thought advisable 
to establish well-guarded outposts on all the roads leading to the 
Federal capital. The First Regiment, with a battery of artillery, 
was ordered to garrison Munson's Hill, a commanding eminence 
within six miles of Washington ; but, as the utmost vigilance could 
discover nothing in that vicinity indicating an intended approach 
of the enemy on Washington, this with other outposts was aban- 
doned, and the troops ordered to join in the advance on Richmond 
by the way of Falmouth and Fredericksburg. Gen. Carr now 
commanded the brigade, and Gen. Sickles the division, at Centre- 
ville. The First Regiment was detached from the brigade, and 
ordered back to Fairfax Court House to do provost-duty. The 
duties here were light, and without any particularly exciting inci- 
dents. The regiment remained here until the 25th of November, 
when it was ordered to rejoin its brigade on the Rappahannock in 
front of Fredericksburg. On the 11th of December, with the rest 
of the army, the First took position and remained on the lieights 
opposite Fredericksburg during the bombardment of the lltli and 
12th. On the 13tli, it crossed, and took part in the battle of that 
and the two succeeding days ; recrossing when the army fell back 
on the morning of the IGth, and reaching its old camp in the 
afternoon. After the evacuation of Fredericksburg, the regiment, 
under command of Lieut.-Col. Baldwin, returned to its old quar- 
ters between the Acquia-Creek Railroad and the Rappanhannock 
River ; and here Col. McLaughlin took command of it on the 19tii 
of December. 


In the latter part of January, 1863, another advance upon 
Fredericksburg was ordered by Gen. Burnside; but the execution 
of the order was found impracticable on account of the inclem- 
ency of the weather and the impassable condition of tlie roads. 

At his own request, Gen. Burnside was now relieved of the 
command of the army, and Gen. Hooker appointed to succeed 
him. A thorough inspection of the army was ordered by Gen. 
Hooker. Of over one hundred and fifty regiments, but eleven 
were considered worthy of special commendation. One of these 
eleven was the First Massachusetts. 

April 27, the army received orders to be in readiness to march 
at any moment. May 1, the regiment was detailed as rear-guard ; 
crossed the United-States Ford, and halted a few minutes ; again 
formed line, and joined the brigade, which had halted two miles 
nearer the Chancellorsville House. Heavy firing being heard in 
front, the brigade advanced at double-quick down the Chancellor- 
ville plank-road to check the advance of the enemy, who had 
attacked and driven the Eleventh corps. The First Massachusetts 
was ordered to a position to the right of this road, and to hold it 
at all hazards. Here the men soon improvised quite a good 
shelter for themselves, which they held until the nest morning 
against two fierce assaults. Holding the same line of works was 
a Maryland regiment upon the left of the road. The rebels ad- 
vaiicing witli a bolder front than usual, this regiment gave way, 
and tied to tlie rear. The regiment upon the right flank then 
also yielded. Both flanks being thus open to attack, the First was 
obliged to fall back, — about a quarter of a mile, — and again 
formed a lino of battle in the road leading from the ford to the 
Chancellorsville House. 

May 5, about noon, preparations were made by Gen. Hooker to 
abandon his position, and fall back across the river. At half-past six, 
P.M., the First received orders to report to Capt. Randolph, cliief of 
artillery. Third Corps. The regiment then moved out of the 
woods, proceeded towards the river, and arrived at the ford at 
midnight ; crossed at two, a.m. On the Gth, it rejoined the bri- 
gade, and moved to its old camping-ground at the Fitz-Hugh 
House, near Falmouth. It was while the regiment was occupying 
its advanced position on the plank-road that Stonewall Jackson 
was mortally wounded. The circumstances, as related by Col. 
McLaughlin, are as follow: — 

During the early part of the night, a rebel came down the plank-road, 
driving a pair of mules. He was halted, and asked where he was going ; 


when he replied, that he had been ordered by Capt. Stewart (C.S.A.) to 
go and get a caisson the Yanks had left alongside the road. He was immedi- 
ately arrested, and sent to the rear. 

At half-past eight o'clock, p.m., a cavalcade of a dozen or more horsemen 
drove down the plank-road ; when ray men immediately opened fire upon 
them : they turned about, and rode furiously back up the road. From the 
official report of the rebel Gen. Lee, I am led to believe that Gen. Stone- 
wall Jackson formed one of the cavalcade, and that he was killed by my 

Until the first week iii June, the hostile armies confronted 
each other; Geu, Hooker's at Falmouth, Gen. Lee's at Freder- 
icksburg. The movements of the enemy induced the belief that 
he was designing an invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
By a cavalry reconnoissance at Beverly Ford, papers disclosing this 
intention were obtained, and sent to the authorities at Washing- 
ton. In furtherance of this design, a combined attack upon the 
defences at Winchester was made by Gens. Ewell, Early, and 
Johnson. Gen. Milroy, overpowered by numbers, abandoned his 
defences ; and the way into Maryland was thus opened. 

The Army of the Potomac was strengthened as much as possi- 
ble, and put in rapid motion on the right of Gen. Lee's columns, 
to act on the offensive to cover Washington, on the aggressive 
to drive the enemy from Maryland. 

The weather was oppressive, the water scarce, and the daily 
marches of the troops unusually long. The narrative of fatigue 
and suffering in this campaign is common to all the regiments of 
the army. 

On the 22d of June, Gen. Hooker's forces held the line of the 
Potomac from Leesburg up. On the 27th, the army was in the 
vicinity of Frederick, Md. ; and one column of the enemy had ad- 
vanced as far as York, Penn. Gen. Hooker was now superseded 
in the command of the army by Gen. G. G. Meade. 

From Frederick, the Third Corps, to which the First Regiment 
belonged, proceeded to Taneytown, where it was joined by Gen. 
Sickles. The second division of the corps arrived at Emmetsburg, 
on the Pennsylvania line, July 1. On approaching Gettysburg, 
after dark, a mistake was made in the road, the advance guard 
coming upon the enemy's pickets. They quietly retraced their 
steps, came upon the right road, and rejoined the remainder of the 
corps at two, .-v.m., July 2. 

At daylight, the men were formed in line of battle. At eleven, 
A.M., the First Regiment was ordered forward, and deployed as 


skirmishers in front of the brigade. The enemy advancing in 
force, it fell back according to instructions, and took position 
in the brigade line. The engagement soon became general ; 
and, in the bloody conflicts of this and the succeeding day, the 
Third Corps acted an important, conspicuous part. Its losses in 
officers and men were very severe. In the First Regiment, Col. 
Baldwin and Adjutant Mudgo were disabled. The entire loss of 
the regiment was one hundred and twenty-three. 

On the 6th of July, the First joined with the rC'st of the corps 
m the pursuit of the disappointed and discomfited forces of 
Gen. Lee. Few incidents of special interest to the regiment are 
to be noted in this pursuit until July 23, when the enemy pre- 
pared to resist our advance at Manassas Gap. Tlie First Regi- 
ment was sent forward to support the picket-line. Skirmishing 
commenced at three, p.m. The enemy were driven from the gap, 
and the regiment bivouacked on Wapping Heights that night. 

July 30, orders were received for regiments to prepare to pro- 
ceed to New York, as resistance was threatened in that city 
to officers of Government in enforcing the draft. The men 
obeyed with alacrity ; passed through Washington at seven, p.m., 
the same evening; and arrived at Governor's Island, New-Yoik 
Harbor, Ang. 2. The regiment was rejoined by Col. McLaughlin, 
who had for some weeks been absent on sick leave. Aug. 15, 
it was ordered to report to Brig.-Gen. Jackson, commanding Draft 
Rendezvous at Riker's Island. 

Companies A, B, and G, under command of Lieut.-Col. Bald- 
win, were detached, and ordered to David's Island, to guard rebel 
and wounded prisoners. These companies were relieved from 
this duty Oct. 15, and tlie regiment ordered to report to Gen. 
Halleck at Washington. Arriving there the ITtli, they went 
thence to Union Mills, Va., and reported to Gen. French, com- 
manding Third Army Corps, and were by him assigned to their 
old position, first brigade, second division. Third Corps. 

From this time gradual advances were made, until their old 
camping-ground between the Rapidan and Ruppaliannock was 
again reached. 

Nov. 7, the Third and Sixth Corps captured the enemy's re- 
doubts at Kelley's Ford, which caused him to evacuate all his 
works on the Rappahannock, and retreat to the south side of 
the Rapidan. 

Nov. 27, the Third Corps fought the battle of Locust Grove, cap- 
turing several hundred prisoners, and forcing back tlie enemy's 


lines. In this fight, great praise is accorded to Capt. Stone of 
Company D for the skill, courage, and address shown by him 
throughout in the performance of important duty. Dec. 3, the 
regiment reached the old camping-ground at Bi-andy Station, and 
the men began at once to prepare for winter-quarters. 

March 23, the Third Corps was broken up. The first and sec- 
ond divisions were assigned to the Second Corps, and the first 
and third brigades were consolidated. Nothing of interest trans- 
pired until Apfll 14, when the second division was reviewed by 
Major-Gen. Hancock, accompanied by Major-Gen. Meade. At 
this review, the First Regiment was liighly complimented for 
soldierly bearing. 

May 4, crossed the river at Ely's Ford, and continued its 
marcli to the battle-field of Chancellorsville ; the First Regiment 
occupying ground very near to that whereon they had fought the 
year before. Since that battle, tliis field had been in possession 
of the rebels, and on all sides were the evidences of most inexcu- 
sable neglect. Scattered about were seen whole skeletons, skulls, 
arms, and thigh-bones, lying where the men had fallen in battle. 
One member of the First, whose skull lay bleaching on the ground, 
was identified by some peculiarity of the teeth. All the bones were 
carefully gathered and interred, and the regiment moved on. 

Early on the morning of the 5th, the Second Corps advanced 
five miles on the Spottsylvania Road, when it encountered the 
pickets of the enemy. A communication was at once opened 
with the Fifth and Sixth Corps, which had crossed the river above. 
A line of battle was formed, and breastworks thrown up. The 
lines were advanced about five hundred yards ; but, for some 
unknown reason, the second division broke, and fell back in 
confusion to its breastworks. Lieut. -Col. Baldwin, having been 
detailed as officer of the pickets, was captured early on the morn- 
ing of the 6 th. 

The series of conflicts which followed for several successive 
days, and ended only with driving the enemy within the de- 
fences of Richmond, show this campaign to be without a parallel 
in the history of modern warfare. In all these battles, the Second 
Corps, under the indomitable Hancock, played a prominent part. 

From the first battle in the Wilderness, up to the 20th of May, 
when the regiment's term of service was about to expire, the men 
were constantly vmder arms. The history of their toils and suf- 
ferings, their losses and their victories, is a parf of tlie history of 
this wonderful campaign, and cannot be brought within the brief 


space allotted for this sketch. As the division was preparing to 
march on Guinness Station, the First Regiment received orders 
to report to the superintendent of recruiting service, Boston, 
Mass., to be mustered out of service ; the term of its enlist- 
ment having nearly expired. The men whose term of service 
had not expired were ordered to be transferred to the Eleventh 
Massachusetts Yolunteers. The regiment then took up its line of 
march, homeward bound, by way of Fredericksburg ; resting a 
few hours at Washington, Philadelphia, and New'York. From 
the latter city, it embarked on the steamer " Metropolis " for Bos- 
ton, where a magnificent reception awaited it. It was received 
by the Ancient and Honorable Artillery, Roxbury Horse Guards, 
Roxbury Minute-men, Boston Fusileers, two companies from 
Chelsea, and the South-Boston Home Guard, all under the com- 
mand of Gen. Cowdin. The streets were crowded with people, 
all cheering and applauding. Tlie men were marched to the State 
House, where they were received by his Excellency the Governor ; 
thence to Faneuil Hall, where a dinner had been provided by the 
city of Boston ; and the regiment was welcomed by his Honor 
Mayor Lincoln, who introduced his Excellency the Governor, who 
received them in behalf of the State, whose honor they had main- 
tained on so many bloody fields. The Governor said, " The Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, addressing not only the present offi- 
cers and men of the First Regiment, but Gen. Cowdin, and all 
those among the living who have participated in your trials, — 
the veterans in line, and the veterans who have been discharged 
before you, — gives her heartiest thanks. During all the years re- 
maining on earth, may the honest, substantial gratitude of patri- 
otic hearts make your paths happy ! Let thanks to God be raised, 
and prayers, that, in his own good time, he will crown our arms 
with victory." Col. McLaughlin responded, expressing the thanks 
of the regiment for its noble reception. 

The regiment was mustered out of service of the United States 
on Saturday, May 28, at eleven, a.m. 

So ends the history of the First Massachusetts Regiment, with- 
out a spot or blemish. It upheld the honor of the old Bay State, 
and its history will be revered for generations to come. 


On the day when news of the attack upon Fort Sumter came 
to Boston, George H. Gordon, then a member of the Suffolk bar, 
an educated and experienced soldier, was in consultation with 


several loyal gentlemen about raising a regiment. On the Mon- 
day following, April 15, 18G1, he was summoned to the State 
House to take part in the counsels made necessary by the Presi- 
dent's call for militia, made that morning. His advice had been 
sought, and largely followed, in those earlier plans which had en- 
abled the Governor to send the first troops to the defence of the 
national capital. On that day, he received a jjromise from the 
Governor that he should command the first regiment to be raised 
for the war. Consultations were immediately had, and various 
persons were associated in the enterprise. 

On the Thursday following the surrender of Sumter, Wilder 
Dwight, a member of the Suffolk bar, entered the office of Major 
Gordon, and said abruptly, "Will you raise a regiment?" 
Major Gordon replied, " I am already committed to that. I have 
spoken to the Governor upon the subject, and he has promised 
me the command of the first regiment which leaves the State 
for the war." Major Gordon (till a short time before tlie commander 
of the New-England Guards battalion, of vrhich Dwight was a 
member) then explained what had been done. At the interview 
now mentioned, the difficulties in the way of raising a regi- 
ment on principles deemed essential were discussed, which were 
mainly in the fact that there was, as yet, no authority to raise 
troops for the war ; and, for the brief period of service allowed, 
only militia regiments could be received, with officers chosen 
by tlie enlisted men, which Major Gordon deemed incompatible 
with discipline in active service. It was determined, however, 
to raise a regimental fund ; and, in an hour, five thousand dol- 
lars were secured by Dwight, soon increased to nearly thirty 
thousand, to raise a regiment to be commanded by George H. 

George L, Andrews was soon associated with the two ; and these, 
with Greeley S. Curtis, James Savage, Charles R. Mudge, R, 
Morris Copeland, Henry L. Higginson, Samuel M. Quincy, Adin 
B. Underwood, and others, began their preparations. 

Major Gordon, the colonel, after graduating at West Point in 
1846, had fought under Gen, Scott in every battle from Vera 
Cruz to the city of Mexico ; had been subsequently severely 
wounded ; was breveted " for gallant and meritorious conduct; " 
and, after nine years of service, had returned to civil life, 

George L. Andrews had graduated at West Point in 1S61, — 
liighest in his class ; had been employed as engineer on the coast 
fortifications; and had been acting assistant professoi; of civil 


and military eugiaecring and the science of war at the Mili- 
tary School. 

Wilder Dwight, a graduate of Harvard in 1853, had travelled 
abroad, studied in the offices of Caleb Gushing and Samuel Hoar, 
and had already taken very high rank in his profession. 

A few days after the interview, placards were posted, announ- 
cing the raising of a regiment; and recruiting-offices were opened. 
On the 25th of April, Andrews and Dwight left for Washington 
to obtain a promise of the reception of the regiment ; and with 
considerable difficulty, on account of the Secretary's alleged want 
of authority to accept troops for the war, obtained permissio;i, and 
immediately telegraphed it to Boston. This was the first au- 
tlioriti/ to raise a regiment for three years ; and the work was 
immediately pushed vigorously forward. 

Camp was established at Brook Farm, West Roxbury, May 11, 
1861, and named, in honor of the Governor, Camp Andrew ; but 
three entire companies, and parts of others, had lieen raised Ijcforo 
the end of April. The minimum was speedily reached; \\\q de- 
tachments being mustered in by Capt. (afterwards Gen.) Amory. 
The necessary number had been mustered in about the middle of 
May ; but all were remustered as an entire body a few days 
later, and Col. Gordon was mustered as colonel by Capt. Amory 
prior to any other colonel of a Massachusetts three-years' regi- 
ment. His commission, however, was made to date a little later 
than that of the commander of tlic First. The regimental date 
of muster was finally settled to be May 24 ; that of the First Regi- 
ment being, according to the Adjutant-General's Report, June 15. 

The regiment now remained in camp until the eighth day of 
July, waiting for orders, and subjected to severe, stead/ drill 
and discipline. Its equipment was perfect ; and no volunteer regi- 
ment could surpass the training it received under accomplished 
and educated officers. Its flags were presented by ladies, friends 
of the regiment ; addresses being made on the several occasions 
by George S. Ilillard and T. Lothrop Motley. Of the regimental 
fund, thirty -five per cent was eventually returned to the sub- 
scribers, or, with their consent, transferred to the Twenty-fourth. 

On leaving, the roster was as follows : Colonel, George H. Gor- 
don ; Lieutenant- Colonel, George L. Andrews ; Major, Wilder 
Dwight ; Adjutant, Charles Wheaton, jun. ; Quartermaster, R. 
Morris Copeland ; Surgeon, Lucius M. Sargent, jun. ; Assistant 
Surgeon, Lincoln R. Stone ; Chaplain, Alonzo H. Quint ; Captains, 
Francis H. Tucker, Greeley S. Curtis, James Savage, jun., Edward 


G. Abbott, Samuel M. Quiucy, Richard Gary, William Cogswell, 
Adiii B. Underwood, Richard 0. Goodwin, Charles R. Miidgc ; 
First Lieufenants, William B. Williams, Henry S. Russell, Marcus 
M. Hawes, George P. Bangs, William D. Sedgwick, Charles F. 
Morse, Thomas L. Motley, Edwin R. Hill, Robert G. Shaw, Jan., 
Henry L. Higginson ; Second Lieutenants, Ochran H. Howard, 
James Francis, Thomas R. Robeson, Charles P. Horton, Rufus 
Choate, James M. Ellis, Robert B. Brown, Anson D. Sawyer, 
Fletcher M. Abbott, Stephen G. Perkins. All of the officers had 
been selected by Col. Gordon, and the line-officers had raised their 
own companies by enlistments. Of these officers, promotions 
raised three to the rank of brevet major-general, two to brevet 
brigadier-general, three others to that of colonel, seven to that 
of lieutenant-colonel, three to that of major, nine to that of cap- 
tain. Fourteen of them are dead. 

On the 8th of July, the regiment left camp, and, after an en- 
thusiastic reception in Boston the same afternoon, started for 
Martinsburg, Va., to join Gen. Patterson. It went by way of New 
York (where a grand welcome awaited it), Elizabethport, N.J., 
Harrisburg, Reading, and Hagerstown, Md. ; crossed tlie Potomac 
on the 12th, and the same day became a part of Gen. Patterson's 

In that short and unsatisfactory campaign, it was, at first, the 
only three-years' regiment. It did what it had to do in moving to 
Bunker Hill, then to Charlestown, and, on the 18th, to Harper's 
Ferry, to which place it was then sent alone, and where Col. Gor- 
don was made and continued post-commandant. The whole force 
moved there in a few days ; most of it was mustered out ; other 
regiments came. Gen. Banks's late command had abandoned the 
Virginia side, except that three companies of the Second, under 
Lieut.-Col. Andrews, were left in the armory l)uildings, with 
some cavalry out beyond. The Second was stationed, without 
tents or wagons, up Maryland Heights, with a battery overlooking 
the river ; the only force in front of the hills. Nothing very 
active, beyond a brisk skirmish, took place while hero. 

In the fall, Gen. Banks's force lined the Maryland side of the 
Potomac. The Second left Maryland Heights Aug. 17 ; was at 
Hyattstown a week, and at Darnestown and Seneca Creek until the 
4th of December, excepting a march to the spot opposite Ball's 
Bluff, where it was suddenly ordered, in the night following that 
disaster, to picket the river, and cover the return of the wounded. 

During the winter of 1861-62, it was in camp four miles east 


of Frederick City, steadily busy with drill, and officers' recita- 

On tlie opening of the spring campaign, it left camp, Feb. 27, 
1862 ; crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry ; and was the ad- 
vance (witli a small force, cavalry), nnder Col. Gordon, in driving 
the enemy from and occupying Charlestown. From Winchester 
the enemy was eventually dislodged, without a battle. From that 
place, the Second was ordered to Eastern Virginia, and moved 
March 22 : but the breaking of a pontoon-bridge broke the 
division at Snicker's Ferry ; and the battle of Winchester, heard 
while waiting, recalled the regiment. In the pursuit of Jack- 
son, commenced on the 25th, the Second was in advance. On the 
1st of April, it had a series of sharp skirmishes with Jackson's 
rear-guard at different times in the march of thirteen miles, and, 
in each case, steadily pushed the enemy. On this day was the 
first man wounded. The pursuit of Jackson carried the regiment 
as far as Maguaghcy Town, south of Harrisonburg, a little more 
than a hundred miles beyond the Potomac. Peremptory orders 
from the War Department here sent the whole force back to 
Strasburg to girrtsoii point. 

Jackson, being strongly re-enforced, returned. Banks was 
weakened one-half by the sudden removal of Shields's division. 
He repeatedly remonstrated with the department, and alleged 
his danger, but with no satisfaction. When, on the 23d of May, 
Jackson fell upon Col. Kinly at Front Royal, a few miles east- 
ward, Banks's only course was to make a rapid retreat, in hope 
to save his command and trains, to the Potomac River. How the 
Second was sent back on tlie road to save the trains ; succeeded in 
part, and thenceforward covered the rear under Col. Gordon's eye 
(then commanding brigade) ; met the repeated attacks of the 
enemy, and repulsed them ; and, past midnight, was the last of the 
force in front of Winchester, — is matter of history. It is in refer- 
ence to one of these affairs that the rebel Eston Cooke says, ^' The 
enemy [the national troops] turned savagely upon Jackson ; " and 
in reference to a stand by tlu-ee companies of tiie second (I, Capt. 
Underwood; B, Capt. AVilliams ; C, Capt. Cogswell), " A sudden 
fire on their right, left, and front, at the same moment, revealed 
an ambuscade of importance," which required " three regiments 
of the Stonewall Brigade" to meet. 

After a few hours' rest in front of Winchester, the enemy at 
daylight appeared, and battle opened. Col. Gordon's brigade 
was on the right, and sustained a severe fight. Two companies 



of the second (D, Capt. Savage; and G, Capt. Gary) were thrown 
forward as skirmishers, and took position behind a stone wall, 
where, says Eston Cooke, " they opened a galling and destructive 
fire," so much so as to silence several of the enemy's guns ; and 
although other guns opened on them with "solid shot," "in spite 
of missiles and crashing stones around them," says Gooke, they 
" still gallantly held their position." 

For over three hours, the attack was met against overwhelm- 
ing odds. The enemy at last moving a heavy fire around our 
right, retreat was ordered. Passing through Winchester, the rear 
of one of the columns under heavy fire, and continuing as rear- 
guard to tlie Potomac, the regiment had, in thirty-three hours, 
marched fifty-six miles, most of it as rear-guard ; met the enemy 
three times, and fought in a pitched battle besides. Its conduct 
on that hard day evinces the skill of its officers, the bravery of its 
men, and the results of severe training. It met the fullest expecta- 
tions of its State. Gol. Gordon was eventually made brigadier for 
his services in this retreat, and Lieut.-Gol. Andrews became colo- 
nel. The losses were, seven killed, and nine wounded mortally, 
two officers and forty-five enlisted men wounded not mortally, 
and ninety-four (including seventeen wounded) prisoners. 

On the 10th of June, the regiment recrossed into Virginia, and, 
with a few days' rest at Front Royal and at Little Washington, was 
daily on the road, in Pope's campaign, to the battle of Gedar Moun- 
tain, on the 9th of August. Being, as a part of Gen. Banks's 
whole force, near Culpeper that morning, it was ordered forward 
about six mil^s to support Crawford, against whom the enemy, 
who had crossed the Rapidan, were appearing in force. When 
position was taken, the Second was on the right. The battle open- 
ing. Gen. Banks swung forward his left. The Second was soon 
ordered to move to Crawford's position, and did so. A tre- 
mendous fire opened, and was replied to. Great loss was expe- 
rienced and inflicted ; but the ground was firmly held until the 
enemy moved three brigades upon tlie front and flank of the 
brigade of ten and a half regiments. The Second sto])ped the line 
advancing in front, and stood until the force on its right was 
completely scattered by the flank attack. It fell back, in obedi- 
ence to orders, to its first position. In that battle, the rebel re- 
ports give the names of ten brigades : we had five. The battle 
had been terrible. Of twenty-two commissioned officers, six came 
out unhurt. It had five officers killed, and one mortally wounded, 
seven wounded, and three prisoners ; of enlisted men, thirty-six 


killed and thirteen mortally wounded, ninety-one wounded, and 
fifteen prisoners. The total loss was thirty-five per cent of all 
engaged. That night, however, the regiment was placed at the 
extreme front, in the centre of the new line. On that sad day for 
Massachusetts, among its losses were numbered Savage, Abbott, 
Gary, Williams, Goodwin, and Perkins. 

When Pope retreated to the Rappahannock, the corps was sta- 
tioned at Rappahannock Crossing. Thence the Second moved up 
or down the river every day, always in sound of, and often under, 
fire. It was not brought into action at the second battle of Ma-^ 
nassas, though in sound of every shot, being in the division 
charged with the removal of the immense stores on the road. 
This duty was performed ; and, by a detour and forced march, the 
division reached Centreville, and soon Alexandria. 

In the campaign under McClcllan, it moved into Maryland, and 
eventually to Antietam. In that action it bravely did its part 
in Mansfield's corps, following up the success of Hooker on the 
right. The regiment was actively and successfully engaged. It 
lost one officer killed (Licut.-Col. D wight), and three wounded ; 
eleven enlisted men killed, and six mortally wounded ; and 
fifty others wounded, — in all, twenty-five per cent of those en- 

In the absence of movements which followed, the Second was 
placed at Maryland Heights. Subsequently, while the army 
moved southward, the corps (Twelfth) under General Slocum 
guarded the Upper Potomac (the Second being near Sharpsburg) 
until the 12th of December. Here a detachment under Capt. 
Cogswell crossed the river, and skilfully broke up a guerilla-band, 
killing its leader. On the 12th of December, the whole force was 
moved by steady marches to near Fairfax, Va., where it formed 
part of the reserve grand division under Sigel. While here, it 
had active work to do by reason of guerilla and other raids. On 
the 19th of January, 1803, the division started for Stafford Court 
House ; and it remained there until Hooker's movement to Chan- 
cellorsville. While here, it was one of the eleven regiments, 
found, by careful inspection of the whole army, to merit the 
highest commendation for superiority in every department of 
soldierly excellence. Col. Andrews had been appointed brigadier 
in the autumn, and Major Quincy became colonel. 

The movement to Chancellorsville commenced on April 27. 
The corps, with two others, moved to Kelley's Ford ; then to Ger- 
mania Ford, on the Rapidan, when the Second, with the Third 


Wisconsin, being in advance, surprised and captured the entire 
force of tlie rebels at that place. 

On the 2d of May, wlien Jackson was moving to our right, 
the division was sent out a mile and a half to attack his 
wagon-train. It had hardly readied it when it was ordered back. 
Jackson had rolled up the Eleventh Corps. The Twelfth was 
formed across its old line, and, with Best's splendid artillery, held 
the position, and stopped the enemy. Night ended the conflict ; 
ut, in the morning, it was resumed. The Second, for the first 
imc fired away all its ammunition, including that of its 
wounded, and took more from the dead rebels. It broke three 
hues of the enemy, and waited for ammunition. That was not 
furnished ; but, after long delay, the regiment was relieved. That 
night, it was placed on the extreme left of the whole line ; and 
afterwards, in Hooker's retreat, returned to its old ground at 
Stafford Court House. In this affair it had one officer killed, and 
four wounded ; twenty-two enlisted men killed, and eight mortally 
wounded ; and eighty-six wounded and eight prisoners, — in all, 
thirty-three per cent of its force. After its return. Col. Quincy 
resigned, on account of his severe wound at Cedar Mountain ; and 
Lieut. -Col. Cogswell became colonel. Col. Quincy received the 
lieutenant-colonelcy of a regiment of colored troops, with a staff- 
appointment, and eventually became brevetted brigadier. 

In the movement across Beverly Ford in June, when cavalry, 
with a few picked infantry regiments, were selected, the Second 
took part. The enemy was surprised, and driven back a mile. 
The Second took a good number of prisoners, with a loss of one 
enlisted man mortally wounded, two wounded, and two prisoners. 
The object being accomplished, the force recrossed the river. 

But it was to go to Gettysburg. It crossed the Potomac at 
Leesburg, and, passing through Frederick, was near Gettysburg 
on the 1st of July. 

On the morning of the 2d, after some slcirmishing, another 
change was made, and breastworks of logs were thrown up on the 
bank of a deep stream in the woods. When, in the afternoon, 
heavy firing commenced on the left, the regiment, with the 
division, was ordered to leave the works, and go to the assistance 
of that wing. Arriving there, the command was exposed to 
artillery fire, but took its new position with the loss of only one 
man wounded. Scarcely was the movement completed, when the 
enemy being repulsed, and it growing dark, the division was 
ordered back to its logr-defences again. 


Arriving near them, circumstances led Lieut.-CoL Mudge 
to fear that the enemy had occupied the ground ; and Com- 
pany F was sent in as skirmishers to ascertain the state of 
the case. Meanwhile the regiment was promptly placed in line 
of battle, at right aiigles to its old line, in the edge of the woods, 
on the opposite side of the meadow from where the enemy might 
be expected. The night was dark, with an occasional gleam of 
moonlight ; and, with the exception of occasional dropping shots 
from distant skirmishers, all was still as death. 

The skirmishers soon reported a rebel line of battle at abouL 
four hundred yards' distance, in the woods, which had not only 
got into our works, but had formed their line directly across 
them ; and several prisoners were brought, in who confirmed 
this statement. Lieut. -Col. Mudge, not fully satisfied that 
such could be the case, withdrew the first company, and sent in 
another, with orders to go forward till it met the enemy : 
this was at once done. The company advanced to within ten 
feet of the enemy's line, captured twenty prisoners, received a 
volley of musketry, and returned to the edge of the wood, with 
a loss of only two men wounded, and two taken prisoners. 

It having been thus ascertained beyond doubt that the enemy 
was in position and in force, the new line was protected by 
rails and logs as far as possible, skirmishers were pushed well 
forward, and daylight was anxiously waited. The time was 
improved by posting two batteries of " Parrott " and " Napoleon " 
guns to command the wood ; and at daylight they opened a rapid 
fire, which was kept up for over an hour : but, although severe, it 
failed to dislodge the enemy, who still held his position, favored 
by the nature of the ground, which was steep and rocky, and cov- 
ered with dense woods. 

The batteries had ceased firing, and by this time the action had 
been renewed in other parts of the field. The fire of the sharp- 
shooters posted in trees on the other side of the meadow was very 
close and annoying. 

At about seven o'clock, orders were given to the Second Regi- 
ment and one other to advance across the open meadow, and 
take the position of the enemy. It seemed certain destruction ; 
but such were orders : and Lieut.-Col. iMudge gave the com- 
mand, — " Rise up, over the breastworks, forward, double- 
quick ! " With a cheer, with bayonets unfixed, without firing a 
shot, the line advanced as rapidly as the swampy ground would 
allow. Col. Mudge fell dead in the middle of the open field, as 


Oil foot, sword ill hand, he was cheering on the men. Three 
color-bearers were shot in going two hundred yards: but the 
colors kept on, — into the enemy's line, over the breastwork ; and 
the regiment held the old line. But from behind every tree 
and rock the rebel fire was poured in. Another color-bearer was 
shot dead waving the colors. The regiment on the right fell 
back in disorder. Ten of the officers of the Second were killed or 
wounded, and a regiment of the enemy was flanking it. Major 
Morse gave the order to fall back just in time to prevent the 
remnant of the regiment from being surrounded. Slowly and 
sullenly it retired to the other side of the meadow, and, taking 
position behind a ruined stone wall, opened fire on the enemy 
wherever he showed himself. 

In that advance of about four hundred yards, and in about 
twenty minutes' time, the Second iiad lost, out of two hundred 
and ninety-four men and twenty-two officers, a hundred and 
thirty-four killed or wounded. Soon after this attack, the regi- 
ment went into its log-defences, and the men lay on their arms 
on the ground again. As soon as it had left the woods, the 
artillery opened again with good effect ; and, at the same time, an 
attack was made by a part of the Second Division on the enemy's 
flank and rear ; and after seven hours of hard infantry-fighting, 
including the time the Second had been engaged, the rebels were 
driven from the works, and, at about three o'clock in the afternoon, 
the regiment held the ground already covered by its dead and 
wounded. The latter were at once cared for, and the former 
brought off, — some from under the fire of sharpshooters, and 
some under the cover of night. 

During the following night, it lay in the works, constantly 
wakened by skirmishing fire and volleys of musketry ; but, in 
the morning, the enemy had disappeared. Ordered on a recon- 
noissance outside the lines, the movements of the Second and 
other regiments only served to establish the fact of the rebel 

The losses were forty-four per cent. Lieut.-Col. Mudge, Robe- 
son, Fox, and Stone, were killed, or mortally wounded. But the 
regiment had behaved nobly. " I never saw a finer sight," said 
the general of division to the chaplain, " than when that regiment 
came out under that terrible fire, faced about, and formed as 
steady as on parade." 

The regiment was in the marches which took the corps to Kel- 
ley's Ford, on the Rappahannock. From that place it was sud- 


denly taken, as one of the regiments selected for steadiness, to 
Alexandria, and then to New- York City in the time of the riots. 
It- was there a fortnight, camping in City-hall Park ; and re- 
mained while the draft was enforced. Returning, it was sent to 
Raccoon Ford, on the Rapidan, where it lay under the enemy's 

On the 24th of September, the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps left 
the river. Ignorant at first, they soon found they were to go to 
the army of Rosecrans. It was immediately after the battle of 
Chickamauga. On the morning of Oct. 4, the Second found itself 
at Stevenson, Ala. ; but, on the same day, it was started back to 
repair the railway broken by the enemy behind it. Hard marches 
up and down followed, at last temporarily ceased by being placed 
to guard the important bridge at Elk River. 

While there, efforts were made to secure the services of the old 
regiments. A sufficient number of the Second re-enlisted, to 
secure its continuance. According to orders, the re-enlisting 
men were sent home for thirty days. The regiment, under Col. 
Cogswell, arrived in Boston on the 19th of January, 1864. The 
reception it met with was worthy of its fame, surpassed by no 
welcome to others. On the first day of March, it was again in 
Tennessee ; being stationed at Tullahoma. 

April 28, it commenced its march in the great campaign to 
Atlanta. The division was in front of tlie enemy at Buzzard's 
Roost, below Chattanooga ; moved tlu'ough Snake-creek Gap with 
McPherson, and found itself at Resaca. It was in reserve in 
the fight of the afternoon of the 14th of May ; but, at night, the 
corps (now the Twentieth, under Hooker) was ordered to tl\e re- 
lief of the Fourth Corps. In the morning, the Second was selected 
to go out on a reconnoissance ; found the position of tlie enemy, 
and returned, with two men wounded. The whole corps then 
advanced, and drove the enemy into his inner works ; and the 
brigade three times repulsed strong sallies. The loss of the 
regiment was one killed, and twenty-two wounded. That night, 
the enemy evacuated. Pursuit was commenced in the morning. 
On the 19th, the corps skirmished for five miles of advance ; found 
the rebels in force at Cassville, and threw up breastworks under 
the enemy's guns. 

Here the officers and men not re-enlisting left for homo, their 
full time having expired. 

On the 23d of May, the regiment left Cassville. Near Dallas, 


the regiment, with a section of battery, was specially detailed by 
Gen. Hooker to destroy a bridge just repassed by the corps, and 
thus prevent the enemy's crossing. The regiment was, by Wiis 
service, kept from j^articipating in the bloody battle of New Hope 
Church. It was sent a few days after to Kingston, as escort to 
one hundred and seventeen army wagons loaded with wounded 
men of its corps ; but rejoined the corps in front of Lost 
Mountain, June 8. On the 11th, by a movement to the left, it 
confronted Piney Mountain, and threw up a heavy line of defences 
under tlie enemy's batteries. In the succeeding movements, it 
was ill various skirmishes, and was an inactive spectator of the 
attack on Kenesaw Mountain. It participated in the movements 
on Atlanta, and was in the second line at the bloody and decisive 
battle of Peach-tree Creek ; losing only one officer (First Lieu- 
tenant Lord) and one enlisted man in the skirmish line. 

In front of the enemy's inner line before Atlanta, to which he 
had been driven, the Second found itself on the 22d, and built 
breastworks close to the enemy. On the 30tli, Lieut.-Col. Morse, 
field-officer of the day, at daybreak surprised and captured the 
enemy's pickets in their rifle-})its ; and the regiment was ordered 
forward. It immediately occupied the commanding hill thus 
gained, and hastily threw up breastworks. Tlie position was 
within two hundred yards of one of the enemy's principal forts, 
and a close and hot fire of liis artillery, infantry, and sharpshoot- 
ers. Several attempts were made by the enemy to retake the 
hill, but without succc: s. For six hours, the regiment replied 
steadily and eifectively to the rebel shots, firing two hundred 
rounds per man. It met with luit little loss. 

When Atlanta fell, the Second was placed on duty there as 
provost-guard, with its colonel (Cogswell) in command of the 
post. Its losses subsequent to the battle of Resaca had been 
three officers wounded, three enlisted men killed, twenty-two 
wounded, and six prisoners. 

Lieut.-Col. Morse behig made provost-marshal of the post, Capt. 
Brown was in command. After arduous duties, it was the last 
regiment to leave Atlanta in tlie great march to the sea. 

It was on the 16th of November, ten days after the army had 
moved forward, that the Second left the city. Moving by way of 
Decatur, it joined the rear of the Fourteenth Corps, but reached 
its own corps, near Millcdgeville, on the 22d. In the progress of 
the campaign, the Second had its share of skirmishes, destruction 
of bridges, railways, &c., and, of course, marching. On the 


morning of the 9th of December, it found itself about fifteen 
miles from Savannah, and halted near where the enemy had built 
a fort, and had planted a battery in the road. Proper disposition 
of troops led the enemy to retire. The next day, the regi- 
ment went into camp, in line of battle, four miles and a half from 
Savannah, and half a mile from the enemy's works ; made a 
recounoissance the next day (with the One Hundred and Seventh 
New- York), and found the situation of matters ; crossed to 
Argyle Island, in the Savannah, in flat-boats, on the 15tli ; and, 
on the IGth, were all day under fire from a rebel battery and a 
rebel gunboat. On the 19th, the brigade crossed to the South- 
Carolina shore, and, skirmishing with the enemy, drove him three 
miles ; threw up breastworks in the night, and remained, with 
more or less skirmishing, until the ^Ist, when Savannah had been 
evacuated ; and, on tlie next day, went into camp ten miles from 
Savannah. Here Col. Cogswell was bre vetted brigadier-general, 
and assigned to the command of the third brigade, third division ; 
and Lieut. -Col. Morse took command of the Second. 

On the 17th of January, 18«J5, after very imperfect refit as to 
clothing, tlie regiment moved on the march northward. It 
•encountered the difficulties of the swamps ; experienced much 
wet and cold weather, and some skirmishing. There is not space 
to give the details. The regiment reached Fayetteville on the 
11th of March, and passed in review before Gens. Sherman 
and Slocum. On the 15th, it moved forward again, and, in the 
evening, formed cavalry in position, went into line of battle, and 
the men lay on their arms. 

On the next morning, the brigade (the Second being on the 
left), supported by cavalry on its flanks, advanced on the enemy, 
drove back his skirmishers, who contested the ground stubbornly, 
and finally took position across the main road. The enemy, being 
in superior force, and witii artillery, made repeated attempts to 
force back the line ; but, by great exertion and some loss, every 
attempt was nobly repulsed. The brigade, relieved by Gen. Cogs- 
well's, was transferred to the right, and again advanced, driv- 
ing the enemy a mile to the works he had thrown up, and hold- 
ing the position, with considerable loss. In this battle (Averys- 
borough) the regiment lost two officers killed (Capt. Grafton and 
Lieut. Storrow), one wounded (Lieut.-Col. Morse), five enlisted 
men killed, and seventeen wounded : number carried into action, 
a hundred and forty-one. 

'' The Second and Thirty-third Massachusetts Regiments," 



says the staff-officer who wrote the " Story of the Great March," 
m his account of this battle, " are the only representatives of tlie 
glorious Bay State in our army. A nobler record of heroic deeds 
may never be found than is the history of the Second." 

The enemy being defeated, advance was resumed. On the 24th, 
the regiment reached Goldsborough, and camped near the Weldon 
Railway. The great march through the Carolinas was ended. 

On the 10th of April, the regiment, temporarily consolidated 
into ten companies under Capt. Phalen, moved towards Raleigh; 
on the 20th, received news of the suspension of hostilities. On 
the 29th, the surrender of Johnston was announced to the troops; 
and, on the 30th, commenced the march to the capital. 

After being in camp at Alexandria a few days, the regiment 
took part in the grand review of Sherman's army on the 24th 
of May. It then went into camp at Bladensburg. On the 9th of 
June, the old brigade, division, and corp organizations, being 
broken up, it parted with its gallant companions. With other 
Eastern veteran regiments, it formed a part of Gen. Bartlett's 
division. On the 14th, it began provost-duty, as part of the gar- 
rison of Washington, and went into camp at Capitol Hill. 

On the 14th of July, orders mustered the Second out of service. 
On the 15th, it started homeward. At New York, it paid its 
respects to its old general. Hooker, and was cordially received. 
The regiment reached Readville, Mass., where it remained until 
the 26th of July. On that day the men received their final dis- 
charge, and tbe Second Massachusetts left its name to history. 

This regiment furnished many subordinate officers to other 
regiments, or departments of service, besides eight majors, six 
lieutenant-colonels, four colonels, two brevet brigadier-generals, 
and three brigadiers who were brevetted major-generals. Its whole 
number of officers from the beginning, of all grades, was eighty- 
eight. Of these, twelve were killed ; four died of wounds ; two 
died in service, of disease contracted in the line of duty, and one 
since ; twenty-two wounded, not mortally ; twenty-seven received 
higher commissions in other branches or corps, of whom five 
were killed ; and, of the remainder, five left service from disease. 
Of the original thirty-seven officers who left Camp Andrew, four- 
teen are dead. The Adjutant-General's Report gives one thousand 
seven hundred and one enlisted men : of these it reports one hun- 
dred and sixty-six as killed, or died of wounds ; seventy-eight dead 
by disease ; thirteen died in Southern prisons. The number 
wounded, not fully ascertained, was near five hundred. 


This brief account, in which details arc necessarily omitted, 
is a stoiy of a regiment which never failed in its duty. Its char- 
acteristics were perfect instruction, thorough discipline, hardy 
endurance, and entire bravery. It was always a reliable regiment. 
"I want to spare it," said a corps commander; " but, when I come 
to a hard place, I have to put in the Second Massachusetts." The 
commanders of every grade, brigade, division, or corps, never ad- 
mitted the superiority of any regiment in the army to this ; and 
its position was, tacitly at least, admitted, wherever it served. 



The Draft. — The Third Regiment volunteers. — In Camp. — In the Field. — The Fourth 
Regiment. — Organization. — Departure fi)r the Front. — Its Services. — The Fifth 
Regiment. — Formation. — Preparations to march. — Active Duties. — The Sixth 
Regiment. — Its Organization and Services. — Return to Massachusetts. — The Eighth 
re-enlists. — In Camp Lander. — Embarked for Newbern, N.C. — Services in the Field. 
— Its Return Home. 


'ITH the return of autumn, 18G2, the President's order for 
a draft of nine-months' men was published. This brought 
into the field the first Massachusetts troops for that period of service. 
The pioneer march of tiie Third Regiment has already been 
narrated in the record of the three-months' troops. Upon its re- 
turn from Fortress Monroe, July, 1861, it was mustered out of 
service, and again took its place in the militia of the State. The 
Third did not wait for drafting, but, when the emphatic call 
came, immediately volunteered, and went into Camp Joe Hooker, 
at Lakeville. The first company arrived Sept. 16 ; and, before 
the week expired, the tenth company was also there. The organ- 
ization was completed under the following officers : — 

Colonel ..... Silas P. ruchmond. 

Lieutenant- Colonel . . . James Bai'ton. 

3fajor ..... John Morissey. 

Surgeon ..... Alfred A. Stocker. 

Assistant Surgeon . . . Woodbridge R. Howe. 

Chaplain ..... Charles A. Snow. 

Oct. 8, orders were received to start for Newbern, N.C, and 
report to Gen. Foster ; but the march was delayed, for the want 
of overcoats, nntil the 22d, when the steamers " Merrimac " and 
" Mississippi "sailed with the troops, in the quiet of evening, hon- 
ored with the signals of a proud and tender farewell. 

After a passage of four days, they debarked at Beaufort, N.C. ; 
were borne by the cars to Newbern, thirty-six miles distant, the 
same night, Oct. 26 ; and went into camp on the banks of the 
Neuse River, a mile from the city. 



The arms distributed on the 29th were poor " Austrian rifle 
muskets," and were received with marked dissatisfaction. 

Drilling, picketing, and short expeditions ; garrison duty by 
Company I at Plymouth and Elizabeth City, N.C. ; and a fight 
near the former place, in which two were killed, — make up the 
outline of regimental history till Dec. 11. 

On that day, the Third moved with the expedition to Golds- 
borough, which occupied eleven days, and included a march 
of one hundred and fifty miles. The Third was in the fights of 
Kinston, Whitehall, and Goldsborough, and displayed such cour- 
age, that, by the order of Gen. Foster, those names, with the dates 
of the battles that made them historical, were inscribed on its 

The remainder of the month was devoted to the almost unno- 
ticed but perilous and indispensable picket-duty. 

The regiment was attached to Gen. Heckman's brigade, and the 
subjoined note from him tells the story of that connection : — 

Headquaktees First Brigade, Naglee's Division, 
Newbern, N.C, Jan. 12, 1863. 

To Col. S. P. Richmond, commanding Third Regiment M.V.M. 

Colonel, — la the report of my assistant adjutant-general, who inspected 
your regiment last muster, the arms you now have were condemned. I have 
made every effort since to have the arms changed, to retain you in my brigade ; 
but time would not permit : another regiment has been assigned. Accept 
ray regrets that your regiment was not in condition to remain (as regards 
equipments) . 

The soldierly appearance and conduct of your officers and men have made 
a favorable impression ; and I part with you with regret. 
Very respectfully yours, 

C. A. HECKMAN, Brigadier -General, 
Commandinf] \st Brir/ade, Naglee's Division, ISth Army Corps. 

The regiment now became a part of Col. J. Jourdan's brigade 
for the rest of its term of enlistment. 

The commendation of Gen. Foster is a reliable estimation of 
the discipline and efficiency of the troops : — 

' ' The Third Blassaehusetts Regiment always obeys orders, and performs all 
its duties promptly, and without grumbling." 

Gen. Prince says, — 

" The Third Massachusets Regiment and its commander can be intrusted 
with important duties, with a certainty of their being performed promptly and 

Col. Jourdan says, — 

" The Third Massachusetts Regiment is always ready for duty." 


When the troops were removed, Jan. 26, to Camp Jourdan, 
near Fort Totten, its horribly wretched condition was soon so 
completely changed by their cheerful hard work, that the medi- 
cal director made special mention of it as '• one of the cleanest, 
prettiest, and most healthy camps near Newbern, although for- 
merly considered a very unhealthy locality." 

During March, important detached service was performed by 
the Third, in Gen. Prince's division : under arms at Deep Gully, 
and reconnoitring to PoUocksville, were the most important inci- 
dents in its army life. 

April brought work on intrenchments, an expedition across the 
Neuse River, exhausting marches, skirmishes with the enemy, 
successful co-operation with another column in driving the 
rebels from Washington, N.C., releasing the Forty-fourth Massa- 
chusetts from its unpleasant position, and picket-duty at Deep 

May repeated substantially this experience ; and, June 6, the 
regiment escorted the Forty-fourth Massachusetts to the depot, on 
their homeward march.. 

Writes an officer, — 

Being ordered on the 11th to Boston, Mass., the regiment left New- 
bern. Three companies, with the sick, embarked on the " Tillie '' at New- 
bern ; and seven companies went by raih-oad to Morehead, and embarked 
on the " Spaulding." The regiment was escorted to the depot by the One 
Hundred ancl Fifty-eighth New- York Volunteers, preceded by the band of 
the Forty-sixth Massachusetts. Gen. Foster and Col. Jourdan honored the 
column by a standing review. The Forty-fifth and Fifty-first Massachusetts 
Regiments were in line on the south side of the Trent River, and cheered us 
with music and voice on our homeward journey. 

We landed in Boston the 10th, having had rather a rough passage ; 
but the transports were very comfortable. We met with an enthusiastic re- 
ception in Boston, and were escorted to the Common by the Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Rifle Clul>. The Governor being ab- 
sent, Adjutant-Gen. Schouler reviewed the column from the State-House steps; 
after which we marched to Beach Street, and partook of a collation. At one, 
P.M., the regiment took the cars for Camp Joe Hooker, but were furloughed 
on the cars, being ordered to report in camp on the 22d. 

The regiment reported in camp on that day, where it remained until the 
26th, when it was mustered out of service by Capt. J. K. Lawrence, United- 
States army, and was dismissed by a complimentary and affecting order from 
the colonel. The men dispersed quietly, maintaining their excellent character 
for discipline to the last. 

During the campaign, the regiment was transported by steamers and 


railroad more than two thousand miles, and marched more than four hundred 
miles over the swampy roads of North Carolina ; most of it being done during 
the most inclement season. It bivouacked upon the ground, without shelter, 
when the water froze in canteens ; and also marched when the thermometer 
ranged at one hundred and seven degrees in the shade. During a portion of 
the time, more than two hundred men were furnished for extra duty as me- 
chanics, and quite a large number were detailed as overseers of " contrabands " 
and others. 


The Fourth Regiment was not tardy in answering to the re- 
newed demand for troops. It promptly prepared to march. Its 
officers were, — 

Colonel ...... Henry Walker. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... Eben T. Colby. 

Major Charles F. Howard. 

Assistant Surgeon 

Chaplain . 

James Maldock. 
Edward W. Norton. 
J. F. Gould. 
Samuel E. Pierce. 

We give below, in a letter received from an officer of the Fourth, 
an authentic record of great interest. His glowing eulogy of 
the troops is not only pardonable, but, indeed, a commendable 
expression of appreciation of their gallant conduct. 

Upon Gen. Banks's retreat down the Shenandoah Valley, the Fourth, 
with other regiments, was ordered out. 

Lieut.-Col. Walker, late adjutant, living in Quincy, eight miles from 
Boston, read the order in the newspapers of the morning, while on his way to 
the depot. Setting the bells of his own town ringing, and arranging affairs 
there, he started, and drove through twenty miles of the country, setting all 
the church-bells ringing, appointing places of rendezvous, &c. In forty-eight 
hours, the regiment had eight hundred men in Boston. A question arising 
as to the term of service required under the then recent legislation of Con- 
gress, Lieut.-Col. Walker addressed the men, appealing to their patriotism, 
and sense of duty ; and, in response, over two-thirds of those present promptly 
signed their names to an agreement to go, and trust to the justice of the 
Government. Out of all the other organizations in town, one only, the 
Fourth Battalion, took a like stand. Telegrams from Washington, stating 
that the troops were not needed, came the same day ; and the fiair tliousand 
men, who had gathered almost at a moment's notice, returned to their homes. 
In July, 1862, the call came for two hundred thousand nine-months' men. 


On the very day on which it • became known in Boston, Lieut. -Col. Walker 
offered the services of the regiment to the Governor, with the additional offer, 
that, if camp equipage cotild be furnished, the regiment would be ready to 
go out of the State with a thousand men in a fortnight. It was the first 
regiment offered und'^r this call. Camp equipage could not be furnished ; 
but, within the fortnight, the regiment was more than three-quarters full. New 
regiments were about this time started in Boston and vicinity, with large 
bounty funds, which tempted men to leave other organizations for the sake 
of the money. The Fourth finally went into camp, and was organized, 
Dec. 6, having had over twelve hundred men on its rolls. Lieut. -Col. Walker 
was chosen colonel; and on the 25th o'f December, 1862, the regiment left 
for Nejar York. Here it was detained a week ; Col. Walker refusing to go 
in the vessel provided. By law, it could not carry six hundred emigrants ; 
and here a thousand men were put on board for a voyage to New Orleans. 
Thi3 matter was finally arranged, part of the men being left for another ship. 
Touching at Fortress Monroe, the regiment arrived at New Orleans about the 
'middle of February, and went into camp at Carrolton, where muskets were 
distributed to the men. Shortly after, the regiment proceeded to Baton 
Rouge, and took part in the first Port-Hudson expedition, when Farragut 
passed that pohit in " The Richmond." On the second day out, the rest of 
the army having halted. Col. Walker was ordered by Gen. Emory to take 
the Fourth and Thirty-first Massachusetts and Second Rhode-Island Cavalry, 
proceed to a point on the Clinton Plank-road called the " Cross-roads," and 
hold it at all hazards, as the right flank of the army. This force was after- 
ward augmented to twenty-five hundred men and several pieces of artillery. 
It arrived at the Cross-roads on the afternoon of Saturday, March 11; under 
orders, fell back several miles to Cypress Bayou, reaching there about five, 
P.M., Sunday, 12th; bivouacked there until the afternoon of the next day, 
amid a driving storm, and was then ordered back to the main army, reaching 
it about ten, p.m. The troops were in arms at three, a.m. ; waited until 
noon, and then started again for Cross-roads, reaching there at five, p.m. ; 
here bivouacked until eleven, p.m., and fell back to Cypress Bayou again; 
left there at eight the following morning for the main army, and with that lay 
in camp two days, when all were ordered back to Baton Ptouge. The Fourth 
was detailed to remain behind, and brino; all the ba2;2;ao;e off the o-rouud. It 
did so, arriving some hours after the main army ; having sent every wagon 
and every thing worth carrying ahead. Early in April, with the most of the 
army, the Fourth proceeded to Brashear City. With the Sixteenth New-- 
Hampshire, and part of the Twenty-first Indiana, it was ordered to garrison 
that post. Afterwards it was ordered across Berwick Bay to participate in the 
fight at Bisland, and then to return. The night of the retreat of the rebels, 
the regiment was thrown out in front, close to their works ; and the fact that 
the rebels were retreating .was first discovered by some of its officers, and by 
them communicated to Gen. Banks. It marched on as far as Franklin, and 
then returned to Brashear ; tlie command of which post was assigned to Col. 


Walker. TLe duties here were very arduous. The regiraent, by the medical 
and sanitary reports one of the cleanest and in the department, lost 
many men. The place was the depot of supplies for the whole army : to it 
were sent all the captured men and stores en route for New Orleans. Thou- 
sands of negroes came down, and had to be rationed, and sent to the rear. 
Thousands of head of cattle, horses and mules, were brought in, while the 
hospitals furnished accommodations for seven hundred men. So multifarious 
were the duties, that often there were not men enough left in camp for police 
or camp-guard duty; men performing the latter sometimes two or three days 
in succession. On the 28th of May, Col. Walker received orders to send 
his own, the Fourth, and other regiments, to Port Hudson. At his oivn 
request, he was relieved from command of the post, and rejoined the regiment 
at Port Hudson. Here it lay until the 14th of June, doing its full share of 
picket, fatigue, and foraging duty. In the assault of the 14th, Capt. Bart- 
lett, of Company K, led the storming-party, made up of men from several 
regiments. Of the four ofiScers of the Fourth in the advance, two (Capt. 
Hull, of Company A; Lieut. Sampson, Company I) were wounded ; Capt. 
Bartlett, killed; Lieut. Drake, unhurt. Capt. Bartlett died on the very 
slope of the enemy's works, gallantly leading his men ; and no truer Chris- 
tian and patriot, and no braver soldier, went up from that bloody field than 
he. Said a rebel major, " He died nearer our works that day than any other 
Federal officer." The main body of the regiment, under the colonel, who 
had left his bed to go into the fight, advanced close under the works, and, 
with the rest of the assaulting columns, finally was ordered to Hnlt, and lie 
down. Where the men dropped, there they lay until night, beneath the TiDfe-^ 
June Southern sun ; and many were sun-struck. When darkness came on, 
all the troops, under its cover, went back to camp. The Fourth lost every 
fifth man. After the fall of Port Hudson, the regiment remained in camp 
until Aug. 4, when it started for home. While before Port Hudson, all 
its baggage, papers, clothing, had been captured by the enemy at Brashear 
City, where they had been left under orders. The regiment had nothing left 
but its camp-worn clothes, nearly used up by hard service ; and as its term 
of service was nearly out, and no pay to be had, the men journeyed home in 
their war-worn blouses. The regiraent was mustered out Aug. 28, 1863; 
most of it having been in the LTnited-States service eleven months. Its 
character may be summed up in the words of Major-Gen. Emory : "It was 
one of the best regiments in my whole division. It was well disciphned. It 
was remarkable for its camp, police, and sanitary discipHne. I remember 
signalizing it before the whole division at Baton Rouge, on account of its 
extreme excellence in these re.spects." 




The Fifth was briefly noticed iu tlie narrative of early military 

It won unqualified praises from Gen. Mansfield while aiding 
him in the defence of Washington. Having only a State banner, it 
was presented with a beautiful ensign by Massachusetts men in 
the capital, while on Long Bridge, en route from the Treasury 
Building to Alexandria. It was visited at Camp Massachu- 
setts by the President and Secretaries Chase and Cameron, who 
highly complimented the splendid appearance of the troops. The 
4th of July was appropriately celebrated ; and Gov. Andrew 
visited the encampment the succeeding day, greeting and prais- 
ing the boys. 

On the 16th, the march toward Centreville was commenced 
with Gen. Franklin's brigade. The Fifth, having the honor of the 
right of the division, marched at the head of the column under 
Col. Heintzelman. After an exciting advance over an enemy's 
country, the command came on the 21st to " fall in lively ; " and, 
after ten miles of marching, the field of Bull Run, already covered 
with the smoke of battle, was reached. 

Wlien,-^oon after, the order rang over their ranks, " Fifth Mas- 
sachusetts, forward, double-quick, march ! " the men, in their 
dark uniforms, went forward, under the fire of shot and shell, 
"with 'as much coolness as if they had been on an ordinary 
muster-field." Indeed, they were mistaken by an officer for reg- 
ulars, on account of their excellent behavior. Lawrence, the 
color-bearer, fell, bravely raising his standard in the wild tempest 
of that terrific struggle, when both armies had their sanguinary 
baptism into the war of Slavery with Freedom. 

Returning to camp on the 22d, the Fifth marched towards 
Washington with their wounded colonel, who was determined to 
see his regiment safely home. From the capital the troops pro- 
ceeded to Boston, attended along the way, and on their arrival, 
with the most enthusiastic demonstrations of grateful regard. 
The regiment was mustered out July 30, 1861. 

This regiment sprang again to arms at the call of their beloved 
President for three hundred thousand soldiers for nine months. 
Repairing to Camp Lander, Wenham, the ranks were soon filled ; 
and, Oct. 22, they sailed from Boston for Ncwbern,N.C., with 
orders to report to Gen. Foster, under the following officers : — 


Colonel ...... George H. Pierson. 

Lieutenant- Colonel . ■ . . . John T. Boyd. 

Major ...... William E. C. Worcester. 

Surgeon ...... Willia)ii Ingalls. 

Assistant Surgeon . . . . Dixie C. Hoyt. 

The Fifth reached Newberii safely ; bat before its arms and 
equipments could be forwarded from Morehead City, the point of 
debarkation, orders were received to be ready immediately, with 
three days' rations, to start upon an important expedition. 
Within forty-eight hours after the arrival of the troops, and 
through the hours of all the night, the camp was aglow with the 
fires over which the. rations were cooking. Muskets were dis- 
tributed ; and, at four o'clock of Oct. 30, they embarked on board 
transports for Washington, N.C., which was reached the follow- 
ing day. Here they waited until Nov. 2 for the^rrival of troops 
from Newbern by the overland route. 

At seven o'clock on the morning of the sabbath, the columns 
engaged in the expedition, led by Major-Gen. Foster, took up their 
line of march for Williamstown. 

The regiment formed a part of Col. Horace C. Lee's brigade, 
of the Massachusetts Twenty-seventh, under whose able and appre- 
ciative command it continued during the whole term of its service. 
After a march, attended with slight skirmishes, of one hundred 
and sixty miles, over bad roads and under stormy skies, the troops 
returned to camp. 

The story of their next march, commencing Dec. 10, to destroy 
the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, is well told by their en- 
thusiastic colonel : — ' 

We formed regimental line at six, a.m., Thursday, Dec. 11 ; forming 
on the left of the third brigade. Col. H. C. Lee. At two, p.m., we 
started on the march, having the second post of honor (the extreme left). 
Marched until half-past four, a.m., of the 12th, and bivouacked about nine 
miles from Newbern. At sunrise, we again started in the same position, and, 
after a hard day's march, bivouacked about twenty miles from Newbern. 
Sunrise of the loth saw us again moving in the same position. Arrived at the 
" Church," six miles from Kinston, about ten, p.m. In the morning, we 
were ordered to throw out pickets on the ditterent roads, and to guard the 
baggage-train. Companies H, Capt. Drew, and E, Capt. Kent, were posted 
about three miles from our headquarters, on a cross-road leading to Kinston, 
and, in connection with a company of cavalry, held about six hundred of the 
enemy at bay, and finally drove them into Kinston, and joined us the next 
morning there. Company C, Capt. Daniels, was posted on the road leading 


towards Wilmington. About eleven, p.m., they saw the enemy's cavalry 
coming up the road ; but the boys were wide awake, and a few shots dispersed 
the rebels. Upon examination and inquiry the next morning, it was found 
that there were aljout two hundred of them, undoubtedly on a scouting 
expedition. Companies G, Capt. Grammer, and F, Capt. Cumer, were 
posted on the main road to Kinston to guard the bridge over South-west 
Creek. Company D, Lieut. Harden commanding, was posted to the rear, — 
thus leaving Companies B, K, and I, as guard for the baggage-train ; Com- 
pany A being at this time on detached service at Washington, N.C. 

Monday morning, the 15th, we were ordered to march again, still holding 
the same position. This day we marched about twenty-three miles, being 
obliged to march the six miles from the " Church " to Kinston before joining 
the main column. Tuesday found us still on the left ; but, as the battle at 
Whitehall was concluding, the third brigade was ordered in the advance. In 
passing up the hill opposite that place, the enemy's bullets were still flying 
in the air ; but we fcad only three wounded, of which I sent you an account 
by last mail. Much to our relief, we reached our camping-ground about half- 
past five, P.M. The next morning we were off again, the third brigade still 
in the advance. About half-past twelve, p.m., the cannon in advance 
told us we had reached the field of action ; and so indeed we had. We 
were drawn up in line on the extreme left. Company D was detached, and 
sent skirmishing ; and Company H was sent to protect the party destroying 
the railroad. After remaining thus for about an hour, our two companies 
were ordered in ; and the word was passed, that " the object of the expedi- 
tion " was accomplished, and orders were, "Back to Newbern." "Three 
times three " went up as we came to about-face, and the retrograde movement 
began. • But the echo of our cheers had hardly died away before wo heard 
traitor shouts, and saw the rebel flag displayed directly in our rear (that was 
then), and towards Goldsborough. Capt. Morrison's battery immediately 
wheeled to the front, and we were ordered to its support. Here the regiment 
showed the pluck common to troops from the Old Bay State. Not a man 
flinched, or moved an inch from his post. Yet this was their Jirst time in 
the face of an enemy. On the rebels came, showing a determination to 
charge on and take our battery. But Capt. Morrison's guns were not idle : 
they poured grape and canister into them, mowing them down 1jy scores, and 
driving them back with great slaughter. But the rebels showed a spirit 
worthy of a better cause : they tried again with the same result ; and never 
shall we forget the scenes of that day. It did us good to see the traitor flag 
fall in the dust as we lay there eager for the charge. Perfect storms of shot 
and shell passed over our heads ; our flag was twice pierced by fragments of 
shell ; and yet, strange as it may seem, we had only five men wounded in 
this engagement. We were denied the chance of testing our strength hand 
to hand with them : still we were none the less ready. The oflfiecrs and men 
promptly obeyed all the orders given them. 

After a severe punishment had been inflicted upon the enemy, they broke. 


and fled into the woods in great confusion ; and we wore again ordered to 
resume our march toward Xewbern. In so doing, we were obliged to cross a 
brook into which the enemy had lifted a water-gate, thus hoping to flood us ; 
but they failed in this project. New-England men are not afraid of water : 
still it was not comfortable to wade to our arm-pits, stand an hour on the 
bank, and then march five miles to camp. Nothing more of peculiar interest 
happened on our return march. We had all the way the extreme left, or 
rear-guard, which placed us late in camp every night. 

We reached our camp at Newbern on Sunday, Dec. 21, at half-past 
two, P.M., happy in having done our duty, and ready at all times to respond 
to its call. 

The regiment had marched a hundred and eighty miles in 
ten days. 

Gen. Foster ordered the inscription on its banners of the battle 
names, Kin.ston, Whitehall, and Goldsborough. 

Jan. 21, the camp was fortified, and named by Gen. Foster, 
in honor of the commander of the Fifth, Fort Pierson. On the 
21st of February, Company G was detailed to garrison Forts Hat- 
teras and Clark, at Hatteras Inlet ; where it remained until the 
regiment returned home. Company D wms also detailed for gar- 
rison duty at Plymouth, N.C. ; returning to the regiment on the 
4tli of May. March 13, just fifteen minutes after the order was 
received, this regiment started with others for Deep Gully, eight 
miles from Newbern, where the enemy made his appearance, but, 
learning the enemy had attacked Newbern, immediately returned 
to that place. After attempting the relief of Gen. Foster at 
Washington, N. C, by Pamlico River, it returned to join the 
land expedition under Gen. Spinola ; and, after a brief engage- 
ment, returned again to Fort Pierson. 

April 16 was a memorable holiday. A beautiful flag was 
raised to its staff, a speech made by the chaplain, songs were 
given to the glee club, and patriotic airs were played by the regi- 
mental band. 

The next day, the regiment joined a new expedition to Wash- 
ington, which the rebels abandoned upon the approach of our 

Ten days afterward, they were connected with the expedition 
towards Kinston under Gen. Palmer, for whose success he com- 
plimented with special notice the Fifth Regiment. 

An expedition to Mosely Creek, May 21, was attended by a splen- 
did charge upon the enemy, and his defeat : the forces returned to 
Newbern on the 23d. The hardest part of the struggle was with 


the intense heat, the miry swamps, ajid the pathless jungles, of 
the march. 

Garrison and picket duty occupied the weeks until June 22. 

On that day, tlie regiment left North Carolina, and reported 
next day at Fortress Monroe, to tender its services to the Gov- 
ernment if the emergency required them ; but, in consequence of 
the term of service having so nearly expired, it was ordered to 
proceed directly to Boston. Arriving in Boston Harbor on the 
afternoon of the 25th, and landing on the morning of the 2Gth, 
the regiment received an enthu^astic ovation from tiie citi- 
zens of Boston, and the authorities and inhabitants of Ciiarles- 
town and vicinity. Along the whole route, crowds of people had 
assembled to welcome the return of this favorite regiment to 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Wenham, July 2. 

During its term of service, it had marched about six hundred 
miles over the wretched roads of North Carolina, and sailed over 
two thousand miles in crowded transports. 

Performing every duty required of it with alacrity and fidelity, 
and exhibiting unshaken fortitude when severely tested, it secured 
the high esteem of the veteran troops with whom it was associated, 
and won high praise from its brigade, division, and corps com- 

When leaving Newborn, it received the compliment of an escort 
from the brigade to which it had Ijeen attached, under the com- 
mand of Col. H. C. Lee, who took advantage of the occasion to 
address the officers and men of the regiment as follows : — 

3Ir. Commander, Fellow - officers, and Soldiers, — Altbongii unaccus- 
tomed to public speaking, I cannot, in justice to ray own feelings, part with 
you without expressing my respect for you, and my gratitude for the prompti- 
tude and cheerfulness with which you have obeyed all my orders, whether 
you were commanded to march to the deadly battle-field, or to appear for 
drill or review. 

I had heard, before the regiment came to this department, of its honorable 
reputation ; and I was proud when I learned that it was to be included in the 
brigade under my command. 

That pride has been continually strengthened by the faithfulness with 
which you have performed your duties. 

" You had scarcely time to reaUze that you were on the enemy's soil, when 
you were ordered on a tedious and hazardous march ; and this you have fol- 
lowed up, with brief intervals, by frequent expeditions, leaving but little 
time for rest. 


You may, perhaps, think you have clone more than your share of labor, 
by engaging in more expeditions, enduring longer marches, and performing 
more arduous service, than any other nine-months' regiment, or even the three- 
years' troops, in the same period of time. But you should remember the 
Scripture saying, that "whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth," and accept 
the toils and hardships you have borne, as a proof of the good opinion of your 
commanding general, who calls most frequently into service those regiments 
in whom he has the most confidence. 

I shall follow you to your farms, your workshops, and your counting-houses, 
with the warmest feelings of friendship ; and shall always remember your 
services with gratitude and satisfaction. 

Just before the departure of the regiment, a note was received 
from Gen. Foster, of which the following is a copy : — 

Headquarters Eighteenth Corps, 
Newbern, June 22, 1863. 

Col. George H. Pierson, commanding Fifth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia, — The term of service of your regiment having expired, you are 
about to leave this department. 

Your regiment has at all times faithfully performed its duty : whatever 
it has done has been well done. 

The commanding general desires to express his regret at bidding you fare- 
well, and the hope that he may soon have the pleasure of welcoming many 
of your members back again. 

Very respectfully and truly. 

And by command of 

Southard Hoffman, Assistant Adjutant- General. 

For the third time, the Fifth Regiment, commanded by Col. 
Pierson, left for the seat of war, July 28, 1864 ; having been 
mustered in the same day with eight hundred and eighty-six men. 
The regiment returned with honor to the State at the expiration 
of the term of service. 


The Old Sixth needs no other eulogy than its simple history. 
When its officers gathered, at the suggestion of Gen. Butler, in 
the American House, Lowell, Jan. 21, 18G1, they little dreamed of 
the scenes which, three months later, immortalized the regiment. 

" The streets our soklier-f.ithers trod 
Blushed with their cliildren's gore: 
We saw the craven rulers nod, 
And dip in blood the civic rod. 

Shall such things be, righteous God ! 
In Baltimore?" 


The blood that reddened the pavements of that city flowed 
from the veins of the men of the Sixth. 

There were incidents of permanent interest in that tragical 
experience, unrecorded at the time. 

When, in the haste and confusion at Baltimore, the regiment 
was separated, and the band of musicians driven to seek refuge in 
such houses as were opened for them, until escorted by four 
hundred policemen to the Philadelphia Depot, while Capt. Follans- 
bee led the four companies through Pratt Street, Timothy Crowly, 
the standard-bearer, proudly kept the colors flying over the march, 
whose silence was broken only by jeers, curses, and the sounds of 

Lieut. Jepson still keeps tiie sword crimsoned with the blood 
of the rebel who drew him into the mob. A new sword having been 
received in Washington, the blade of the old one was unwashed, 
and will be a stirring memorial of one of the earliest blows upon 
a traitor's head. 

Here, too, began the expressions of kindest interest liy the 
bondmen, which increased with the progress of the war. Colored 
women tore up their scanty garments to bind the soldiers' 

While at Washington, Chaplain Babbidge (to whom Col. Jones, 
in his anxiety for the flag presented by Gov. Andrew, committed 
it) folded the standard, and wore it across his heart, under his 
coat, for several days. 

Whether marching through Pennsylvania Avenue in columns of 
platoons to awe the secessionists with the brigade-appearance, 
or drilling, then building ovens and tanks, or guarding the polls 
at Baltimore, the troops were the objects of peculiar interest, and 
warmly praised by all loyal hearts. Congress thanked them ; 
Gen. Dix congratulated them ; the people of Bergen, N. J., pre- 
sented a flag ; and the Commonwealth which they had honored 
received them home again, Aug. 2, with a welcome such as Bos- 
ton knows how to give her returning warriors. 

The Sixth led in the march of the nine-months' troops to the 
field of war, under the command of Col. A. S. FoUansbee, of 

The regiment was mustered into service, Aug. 31 ; and, on the 
morning of Sept. 9, left Camp Wilson, Lowell, for Washington. 
At Boston, marching directly across the city to the Providence 
Depot, the troops were deprived of a handsome collation which 
had been provided by the State authorities, and of the Governor's 
eloquent farewell. 


At New York, which was reached by steamer " Plymouth Eock," 
Sept. 10, a bountiful breakfast was spread at the Park bai'racks 
for the men, while the officers were entertained at the Astor 

Col. Howe presided ; and Prof. Hitchcock of the Union Semi 
nary, and others, made addresses. In the afternoon, the regiment 
marched towards Jersey Ferry amid the wildest cheering. Flags 
and handkercliiefs were waved from doors, windows, and balconies : 
a cannon thundered its significant adieu from the roof of the New- 
England House. At Camden, N.J,, Major Henry headed a dele- 
gation, and Mr. Thomas Webster very eloquently addressed the 

In Philadelphia, the officers were welcomed to the Continental, 
and the troops to the Cooper Refreshment Saloon, — that resting- 
place along Jhe great highway to the battle-fields of the war in the 
East, the mention of which will suffuse with tears of gratitude 
the eyes of unnumbered soldiers. 

On each plate was placed a printed address of warmest greeting, 
whose title indicates its character: "Union Saloon's Welcome. 
Hail to the Massachusetts Sixth ! Wednesday evening, Sept. 10, 

After other speeches, and exhibitions of enthusiasm, the Sixth 
started at eleven o'clock, a.m., for Washington. 

The officers of the regiment were, — 

Colonel . . . . . . . A. S. Follansbee. 

JAeutenant- Colonel . .... Melviu Beal. 

Major Charles A. Stott. 

Surgeon Walter Burnbam. 

Assistant Surgeon . . . . . 0. 31. Humphrey. 

G. E. Pinkham. 

Chaplain . . . . . . J. W. Hanson. 

Col. Follansbee reported to Gen. Casey, who ordered the troops 
to Fortress Monroe; and Gen. Dix sent them to Suffolk, Ya., where 
they reported to Gen. Terry on the loth. They were stationed in 
an orchard, which, in Yankee fashion, they immediately began to 
improve ; and soon tents were pitched, streets graded, and every 
thing was made as comfortable as possible. The rebels, it was 
reported on the 17th, were near, and preparation was at once 
made to receive them ; but no attack was made, and the men 
were employed on picket-duty, rifle-pits, and intrenchments. 

During the next eight months, the result of their digging, chop- 



ping, wheeling, and working on fortifications, was seen in one of 
the most formidable line of defences to be fonnd in the conntry, 
stretching nine miles along the Dismal Swamp. 

The observance of the sabbath by the regiment was general ; 
and, wherever the " assembly sounded, several hundred usually 
formed a square in front of headquarters, tlie chaplain standing 
on a box, behind a pile of drums, and discoursing briefly to an 
attentive aiidience, with singing of the first order." Prayer- 
meetings were also held weekly; and " several men made a profes- 
sion of religion during tlie campaign." Tlie Sixth was called the 
" writing regiment," because of the unusually largo correspond- 
ence kept up between the boys and home. 

On the 24th, the regiment was brigaded under Col. R. S. Fos- 
ter. The next day, camp was changed to higher and pleasanter 
ground, and built winter-quarters of " Virginia mud," logs, and 
canvas. The country around furnished sweet-potatoes, grapes, 
(fee, " which would find their way into camp." The monotony 
was broken by the frequent arrival of contrabands, panting for 

Chaplain Hanson graphically describes the meetings of the col- 
ored people for worship to which he alluded, and gives tlie words 
of their original heart-^melodies. 

Nov. 17, a force of about five thousand men, in which the 
Sixth had the post of honor, started for the Blackwater River, 
where the cavalry had skirmished with the enemy. The gantlet 
of rebel fire along the march, " whose ticklish music the troops 
heard for the first time," was run with heroic bearing. Two men 
fell out of the ranks, and were captured. The expedition returned ; 
and the troops, after rest, completed winter-quarters. Two of 
their number died of typhoid-fever during November. 

The 27th was Thanksgiving. 

The Massachusetts holiday was appropriately observed. The 
chaplain had read the previous sabbath the Governor's Proclama- 
tion, and General Orders ; and a " large number of strangers were 
present, and the larders of the men overflowed with comforts. 
Boxes from home, containing tons of luxuries, were constantly 
arriving ; and they did much to moisten the ' hard-tack,' and 
soften the proverbial ' salt mule.' " 

Early in December, an expedition was made to the vicinity of 
Franklin, wliere the cavalry force charged splendidly an equal 
rebel force. 

Dec. 6, huts were built upon new camping-ground on the 


front, before occupied by the Eightj-fiftli Pennsylvania, and called 
Camp Misery : it was soon worthy of a better name under the 
new management. Here young Richardson died of diphtheria, 
" with perfect trust in God." A refreshing supply of stores was 
received from the Sanitary Commission, and Soldiers' Aid Society 
of Haverhill. On the 11th, the regiment was again marching 
toward the Blackwater. Lieut. Barr, a favorite among his com- 
rades, was the next day killed by a rebel sharpshooter, the ball 
entering his heart. 

After hard marches and heavy skirmishing, the troops encoun- 
tered the enemy. A skirmish followed with a force under Gen. 
Pryor on the 28th, in which the rebels were routed. 

Jan. 27, another death by fever occurred; and, on the 29th, 
another by the falling of a tree. 

Two days later, at midnight, another expedition started for the 
Blackwater, the moonlight shining on the waste of mud and water 
through which the marches lay. 

The object of the movement was to attack, rout, and, if pos- 
sible, capture, Gen. Pryor's force. Near Suffolk, the enemy 
made an attack, when the Sixth supported the Massachusetts 
Seventh and Follett's Battery. In tlie severe engagement of the 
regiment, six were killed or fatally wounded. The conduct of the 
Sixth was excellent, and complimented on the field by Gen. Cor- 
coran and other officers. 

February and March were months of frequent storms, and only 
fatigue and picket duty could be performed. 

Feb. 27, Augustus Reed, the gallant " Gussy," as he was 
called, aged nineteen, died. 

April 10, tents disappeared, huts were dismantled, and the Sixth 
" reduced to light marching order." Then followed the threat- 
ened attack of Gen. Longstreet, with its skirmishing, duels 
between gunboats, the artillery, and the rifles of the sharp- 
shooters, for twenty-three days. 

April 24, Col. Follansbee commanded an expedition to make a 
sortie on the Somerton Road. 

May 4, the enemy fell back towards Fredericksburg. 

Nine days later, the eighth and last expedition of the Sixth was 
made towards Blackwater, under the general command of Col. 
Foster, while Col. Follansbee led Foster's brigade. The 15th 
brought skirmishing with the enemy, followed by firing all along 
the line. The engagement cost the Sixth twenty-one killed, 
wounded, and missing. 


Eecords the Adjutant-General : — 

Under command of Gen. Corcoran, the regiment moved to Windsor, May 
20, to protect workmen in taking up tlie rails of the Norfolk and Petersburg 
Road. Here it remained until the 20d ; when Gen. Corcoran notified Col. 
Follansbee, that, in consideration of the nearness of tlie time when its term of 
service would expire, the regiment would that day be relieved. Accordingly, 
at four, P.M., it left for Suffolk, arriving after ten days of most fatiguing and 
exhausting service, which told more on the regiment's health and spirits 
than all the rest of its hardships combined. 

May 25, Gen. Peck and Col. Foster issued very complimentary orders to 
the regiment; and, on the morning of the 2Gth, it bade adieu to the scene of 
its toils and perils, arriving in Boston in the steamer "S. R. Spauldiug," after 
a delightful voyage. May 29, and reaching Lowell the same day, where a 
splendid ovation was received from the people of that city. It was then — 
two days before the expiration of its term of service — dismissed, to report 
for mustering out on the 3d of June. With great order, the men returned to 
their homes. 

Thus ended the second campaign of the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, 
honorably to itself, and with remarkable exemption from death by disease and 
battle, when the number of its engagements, and the unhealthy location of its 
camp on the edge of the Dismal Swamp, are considered. Much of this 
exemption should be attributed to the humane courage of its commanding 
officers, the skill and care of its surgeons, but more to the sterling sense and 
intelligence of the men themselves. Col. Follansbee could have sacrificed 
many of them had he been ambitious to do so, and would have done so 
had he possessed less military skill. 

Officers and men parted with remarkable good will, and with a mutual 
harmony and confidence rarely witnessed ; and as those who composed the 
regiment look back, and review their campaign, they must generally con- 
gratulate themselves that their military experience was, on the whole, so 


The Eighth is emphatically an Essex-County regiment. It 
served with distinction under Col. Monroe and Col. (now Gen.) 
Hinks in the three-months' campaign in 1861. It was recniited 
for the nine-months' service at Camp F. W, Lander, at Wenham ; 
and completed its organization by the election of F. V^ . Coffin, an 
experienced militia officer, as colonel. The roster was as follows: 

Colonel F. J. Coffin. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... James Hudson, jun. 

Surgeon ...... Charles Haddock. 

Assistant Surgeon . . . . J. L. Robinson. 

Chaplain . . . • . . J. C. Kimball. 


On the twenty-fifth day of November, 1862, the regiment left 
Camp F. W. Lander, at Wenham, Mass., for Boston, where it 
embarked on tlie transport steamer " Mississippi," and sailed dur- 
ing the evening of the same day ; and, after a somewhat stormy 
passage, arrived at Morehead City, N.C., on the 30th, and pro- 
ceeded thence by rail to Newbern. On its arrival, — which was 
late in the evening, — the regiment was assigned to the second 
brigade, first division, under command of Cob T. 0. Stevenson, 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers, and went into camp 
on the Fair Grounds, in tents vacated by the Tenth Regiment 
Connecticut Vohinteers. 

Dec. 4, Company A, Capt. Gardiner, and Company E, Capt. 
Porter, were detached from the regiment, for garrison-duty at 
Roanoke Island; and remained absent from the regiment until 
July 12, 1863, when they rejoined it at Maryland Heights. 

Dec. 9, the regiment was detached from the second brigade, 
first division, for garrison-duty in the city of Newbern, — all the 
other troops in and about Newbern being about to leave on an 
expedition to the interior of the State, — and Col. Coffin was 
appointed to the command of the post. 

Dec. 23, the regiment was assigned to the brigade under the 
command of Col. T. J. C. Amory, Seventeenth Massachusetts 
Volunteers ; and, on the same day, was transferred to the first 
brigade, second division, under command of Brig.-Gen. Heckman, 
where it remained until Jan. 11, 1863. The brigade was then 
ordered to the Department of tlic South, and the regiment was 
joined to the second brigade, fifth division, vmder command of 
Col. James Jourdan, One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Regiment 
New- York Volunteers, on account of having condemned arms. 

Jan. 2J, 1863, the regiment changed camp from Fair Grounds 
to Fort Totten ; and, on the same day. Companies G and K were 
detached from the regiment for duty there. 

Feb. 1, Companies A and E, under command of Capt. Porter, 
with two days' rations, proceeded on steamer '' Halifax" up Car- 
rituck Sound to destroy rebel salt-works and capture guerillas. 
Getting frozen into the ice, they were compelled to remain five 
days, during which they suffered much for want of rations ; but 
returned on the 6th, having accomplished their object, with a loss 
of two men wounded. 

Feb. 7, Companies B and F were detached from the regi- 
ment, and ordered to Roanoke Island as re-enforcements to the 
garrison there. 


On the 10th, Company B was detached from the garrison at 
Roanoke Island, and ordered to Elizabeth City as a re-enforcement 
to the garrison at that post, the vicinity of which was then 
infested with guerillas, and with whom the garrison had a number 
of skirmishes, but with a loss to this company of only one man 

Feb. 25, the regiment participated in a review of all the 
troops in and about Newbern ; and, although it had but six com- 
panies present, it received the credit of being one of the best 
regiments in the department for soldierly bearing and deport- 

March 1(3, the regiment, with others comprising the fifth 
division, under command of Gen. Prince, was ordered on a re- 
connoissance towards Trenton, N.C. Having accomplished the 
object of the expedition, they returned the next day, after a 
march of about twenty-five miles. 

March 20, Col. Coffin was ordered to the command of the second 
brigade, fifth division. 

April 8, an expedition, of which the regiment formed a part, 
under command of Brig.-Gen. Spinola, left Newbern to re-en- 
force Gen. Foster at Washington, N.C ; meeting and engaging 
the enemy at Blount's Creek, who were strongly fortified, and 
believed to be in large numbers. The expedition, therefore, 
returned on the 12th, with a loss to the regiment of one man 
wounded, having marched a distance of forty-five miles. 

April IG, Company B was relieved from duty at Elizabeth City, 
and ordered to rejoin the regiment, the above-named place having 
been abandoned by our forces. 

The same day, the regiment, forming part of an expedition under 
command of G(Q\\. Prince, left Newbern for the purpose of recon- 
noitring in the vicinity of the outposts of the enemy. After 
remaining absent six days, the expedition returned, having taken 
a number of the enemy prisoners. 

May 18, the Eighth changed from camp at Fort Totten to Camp 
Coffin, about one-third of a mile distant. 

May 25, it moved from Camp Coffin to Fort Thompson, on the 
Neuse River, about five miles from Newbern, to reconstruct the 
fort destroyed in 1861 ; but, on inspection, the commanding 
general abandoned the idea; and, on June 12, it returned to 
Newbern, and went into camp at Camp Jourdan, named in honor 
of the brigade commander. Col. James Jourdan. 

June 24, Companies G and K were relieved from duty in Fort 


Totten, and reported to the regimental commander for duty : 
and, on the same day, the regiment embarked on transports "Alli- 
ance" and "Highlander," and sailed for Fortress Monroe, arriving 
on the 27th. The next day it was ordered to Boston, Mass., to 
be mustered out of service. The quartermaster's department 
not furnishing the necessary transportation, the regiment lay at 
Fortress Monroe until the oOth, when it was ordered to Balti- 
more, Md., to report to Major-Gen. Schenck, commanding Middle 
Department, Eighth Army Corps, as there were fears of an attack . 
on that city by the enemy. 

July 1, the regiment arrived at Baltimore, and was assigned 
to the second provisional brigade, under command of Brig.-Gen. 
E. B. Tyler. It was ordered to Camp Bradford, where it re- 
mained until the 6tli, when it was assigned to the brigade 
under command of Brig.-Gen. Briggs, and proceeded by rail to 
Monocacy Junction, Md. 

The next day the Eighth proceeded to Sandy Hook, and on 
that night took up the line of march for Maryland Heights. The 
marcli up those rugged heights was hard indeed ; and, it having 
rained for a number of hours, the road, or rather path, was in 
a very bad condition, and the night so dark, one could not tell 
friend from foe. Entirely unacquainted with the route, the regi- 
ment was nearly five hours advancing a distance of little more than 
three and a half miles ; but finally reached the destination, and 
at about half-past two o'clock, a.m., of the 8th, taking possession 
of Fort Duncan, i-aised the stars and stripes where they could be 
seen by the pickets of the enemy at the break of day. The regi- 
ment remained here until the 12th ; when, with the re-enforcemeat 
of Companies A, E, and F, — which had been relieved from duty 
at Roanoke Island, N.C., — the brigade took up the line of march 
in the night to re-enforce the Army of the Potomac, which it 
joined the next day at Funkstown, having marched a distance of 
twenty-five miles in sixteen hours. The brigade was immediately 
assigned to the second division, First Army Corps. The regiment 
remained with the Army of the Potomac during its movement 
from Funkstown to the Rappahannock ; when, on the 26th, it was 
ordered home to be mustered out of service. "While in the Army 
of the Potomac, although the regiment was not engaged with the 
enemy, it suffered much for want of tents, clothing, shoes, &c. 
The men, on leaving Newborn, June 24, supposing their destina- 
tion to be Massachusetts, deemed it unnecessary to provide them- 
selves with a new supply of clothing, as what they had would be 


more than sufficient for their use on the passage home; and, 
being unable to get supplied at Baltimore, the men arrived in 
Massachusetts on the 29th, with clothes tattered and torn, but yet 
showing that they had seen service, and, by their firm tread and 
manly bearing, that they were ready and willing to do their duty 
to their country and to the glorious old flag. 

The regiment received a hearty welcome from its friends, and 
was mustered out of service Aug. 7, 1863. 

Since the organization of the regiment, the number of deaths 
was nine ; wounded, four ; deserters, forty-two. 

Tiic Eighth Regiment, Col. Peach in command, left witli tlio 
hundred-days' men, — his force numbering eight hundred and sixty 
men, — July 26, 1864. Acquitting themselves with their usual 
discipline, and prompt acceptance of any post of duty to the Re- 
public, the troops reached home again in the autumn. 



The Seventh under Col. Couch. — Movements and Achievements. — Ninth Regiment. — 
Composition of the Regiment. — Col. Cass. — Roster of Officers. — Movements in 
Virginia. — Peninsular Campaign. — March into Maiyland. — Battle of Fredericks- 
burg. — Chancellorsville. — Gettj'sburg. — Rappahaimock Station. — Mine Run. — 
Wilderness. — Return Home. — Discharge. — Tenth Regiment. — Its Origin. — Its 
Roster of Officers. — In Maryland. — In Virginia. — At Yorktown. — Peninsular 
Campaign. — Antietam. — Fredericksbm-g. — St. Mary's Heights. — At Gettysburg. — 
Pursuit of the Enemy. — Campaign of the Wilderness. — Crossing the James. — Before 
Petersburg. — Return Home. — Mustered out. 

THE Seventh Regiment was raised in the county of Bristol 
by Col. Darius Nash Couch, wlio was commissioned major- 
general, July 4, 1862. He was a native of Putnam County, N. Y., 
and a graduate of West Point. He won laurels in the war with 
Mexico : and, six years later, made a tour through that country, 
publishing, upon his return, his " Notes of Travel." Resigning 
his position in the army, he engaged in business in New- York 
City, and subsequently in Taunton, Mass., where he resided 
when the Rebellion brought him again into the war-field, at the 
head of the Seventh. Its officers were, — 

Colonel . 
Lieutenant- Colonel 
Surgeon . 
Assistant Surgeon 

Darius N. Couch. 
Chester W. Greene. 
David E. Holman. 
S. Atherton Solnian. 
Z. Boylston Adams. 

Col. Russell of the regular army, who succeeded Col. Couch 
upon his promotion to a major-generalship, was a fine officer, and 
did much to make the Seventh one of the best regiments in the 

In making a sketch of tliis excellent body of troops, we can 
give no more than " a mere outline of its camps, its marches, and 
its battles." The " bravery and good conduct" of the Seventh 
have frequent mention in General Orders. It was mustered into 
service at Taunton, Mass., June 15, 1861 : and arrived in Wash- 
ington, D.C., July 15, and encamped on Kalorama Heights, near 
Georgetown. The following month it went into winter-quarters 

25 193 


at Camp Brightwood. The last week in March, 1862, — having 
marched to Prospect Hill, Va., and returiicd, — it embarked' in 
the steamer "Daniel Webster" for Fortress Monroe ; landed on 
the 29th, and moved seven miles to Camp William F. Smith. 

On the 4tli of April, the troops were again on the march toward 
Williamsbnrg, where they immediately entered the field of battle. 
Thongh weary, and the afternoon was waning, they advanced, 
under a severe and well-served fire, to the support of the ex- 
hausted columns of Gen. Peck's brigade. At nightfall, they 
relieved the One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania Yolunteers, 
standing by their arms during all the dismal night of drenching 
rain, without blankets or fires. Before the sun had risen, a de- 
tachment from Company K, Capt. Reed, with another from Gen. 
Davidson's command, occupied Fort Magruder. 

On the 9th, they started for Bottom's Bridge ; had a skirmish 
with the enemy's pickets on the 21st, driving them in : our forces 
then crossed the Chickahominy. 

On the last day of May and the first of June, they were engaged 
in the fierce battle of Fair Oaks. 

June 2, they supported a battery at Gelding's Farm ; and on 
the 25th, having left camp not far from Savage's Station, engaged 
the enemy near Seven Pines. 

During the five days following, the troops marched twenty-five 
miles, turned to James River, and, after a skirmish with rebel 
cavalry, encamped on the SOtli at Turkey-Island Bend. 

Jidy 1, the marcli was resumed to Malvern Hill, followed by 
picket- duty in the woods. The next day, the weary men 
encamped near Harrison's Landing. On the 3d, they marched 
three and. a half miles, and went into camp again. By the 
17th, having made reconnoissances to Turkey-Island Bond and 
Haxall's Station, the troops crossed the Chickahominy, and 
encamped on its banks. The month of September, 1863, was 
spent in marches from Alexandria to Fairfax Court House, Chain 
Bridge, Tenally Town, into Maryland, crossing the Monocacy 
River at Sicksville, then over t!ie mountains to Burttellsville, 
thence through South-Mountain Gap, and finally to the battle- 
field of Antietam. Here they remained a few hours in line of 
battle in the rear of Gen. Porter's corps, and crossed the Antie- 
tam River to the field of the previous day, to be stationed on 
picket. The 21st, they encamped in the woods on the Williams- 
port Road, and, two days later, near Downesville. 

Oct. 18, passing through Williamsport, the tents were pitched in 


the neighborhood of Clear Springs. Marching over North Moun- 
tain on the 20th, and changing camp from Hancock to Cherry 
Run, Williamsport, Robertsville, and Berlin, they crossed into 

Dec. 11, they started at daylight, and marched to the Rappa- 
hannock about one mile below Fredericksburg ; halted until five, 
P.M. ; then crossed that river under a severe fire from the enemy. 
The regiment was the second to cross, and, acting as support to 
the skirmish-line, advanced about half a mile from the river, 
driving the enemy in front. The troops remained in tliis position 
during the night, on picket ; their brigade being the only troops 
across the river at this point. 

From Dec. 12 till the last days of January, with brief encamp- 
meuts, the regiment was marching; sometimes on the left of our 
line, under fire, and then the rear-guard of the army. They were 
in camp the greater part of the winter, at White-oak Church. 

Leaving this spot April 28, the rain beating upon their ranks, 
the brave men moved towards the Rappahannock, bivouacked for 
the night, and at dawn of day, advancing nearer to tlie stream, 
deployed into line of battle. 

July 3, they acted as support, moviug from right to left, almost 
continually under fire. On the 4th, before dawn, they were in 
the front ; and at noon fell back, and threw up rifle-pits. 

From that memorable day till the last of October, the troops 
were on picket, their tramp echoing on the midnight air, and 
their bivouac on the wild summit of South Mountain ; followed 
by the close pursuit of the enemy with its excitement, and the line 
of battle with its awful pause. Rifle-pits bristled at intervals 
along their way, thrown up by their strong hands ; and from 
the mountain-top, crested by their arms on the 7th of July, they 
moved towards the Potomac, encamping at Warrenton, Stone- 
house Mountain, Bristow Station. Nearly two hundred and fifty 
miles had been travelled to the neighborhood of Warrenton, and 
well-nigh the entire programme of war experienced by the un- 
complaining troops. 

October and November brought the usual variety of marches, 
skirmishes, and encampments along the Rappahannock and the 

Nov. 7, the regiment was detached from the second brigade, 
and sent forward in line of battle to strengthen the First ; and, on 
the 29th, joined the Second Corps, and again took the front. 

Dec. 3, the Seventh marched to Brandy Station, and pitclicd 


tents on the same camping-o-round left on the last Thanksgiving 

Col. Johns, its last commander, has written an account of sub- 
sequent operations : — 

The regiment remained at Camp Sedgwick, which is near Brandy Station, A'a-, 
between the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers, performing the usual routine 
of camp and picket duty, until Feb. 27, 1864. On that day, we moved with 
the Sixth Corps to cover and support the cavalry movement in the direction 
of Charlottesville, Va. ; marched fifteen miles, through Culpeper, towards 
Madison Court House, and bivouacked for the night near Jamestown, Va. ; 
and, the 28th, reached the south bank of Robertson's River, and took position 
in line of battle, where we remained until the night of March 1 in the midst 
of a severe rain and snow storm. The cavalry having returned, we recrossed 
the river, and bivouacked one mile from the north bank, the storm still continu- 
ing. The objects of the movement having been completed, March 2, marched 
twenty-two miles back to our old camp near Brandy Station, and resumed 
camp-duties. Nothing unusual occurred until the night of May 3, when we 
received orders to break camp at three, a.m., the nest morning, and hold 
ourselves in readiness to move. 

We started at four, a.3I., May 4 ; marched fourteen miles, crossing the Rapi- 
dan about one o'clock, and bivouacked for the night 'four miles from the river. 
The day following, marched to the left, and took position on the left of the 
Third Corps. We formed in line of battle ; and about four, p.m., the advance to 
attack was sounded, and the enemy was successfully engaged until dark, when 
we occupied the field, and slept on our arms for the night. Casualties in this 
engagement, eighty-five. At daybreak we advanced again to the attack ; and 
continued to be engaged, with wavering success, during the greater portion of 
the day. The casualties this day were thirty-five. We bivouacked on the 
field for the night, and on the 7th were ordered to the right to resist a 
threatened attack of the enemy in that direction. We commenced throwing 
up rifle-pits, which were not occupied, and at dark moved through the Wil- 
derness to the left ; being on the march during the whole night. Eight 
miles on the road leading to Spottsylvania Court House, the enemy made 
a stand. We formed with the Sixth Corps in line of battle, and at dark 
charged on the enemy, who was in a strong position on elevated ground. 
Their Une was broken, and the Seventh Massachusetts captured the color- 
standard, color-guard, and thirty-two men, of a Georgia regiment, losing but 
one man killed, four wounded, and two prisoners; the latter having been 
recaptured while on the way to Richmond. We held the position gained, 
and bivouacked on the field. The next two days we were engaged in throw- 
ing up rifle-pits, with more or less firing on both sides. On the 11th, we were 
ordered to the front in skirmish-line, remaining on constant duty till the 
13th, when we rejoined the main body, and rested until two, a.m., of the 
14th ; then marched five miles, and formed in line of battle on the left of the 
Fifth Corps. At dark, on the 17th, we marched all night towards the right 


of the army, and at daybreak charged with our division on the enomy's works, 
which were not carried. The attempt was renewed : we were subjected to a 
severe artillery-fire until eleven, a.m. ; when we were ordered to retire, and fell 
back to our own rifle-pits. Towards dark, we moved farther back to the same 
position we left on the night of the 17th, crossed the Ni River, threw out 
pickets, and bivouacked for the night. The casualties this day were six. 
Marched two miles to the left on the 19th, and threw up rifle-pits. 

In the evening of the 21st, at nine o'clock, we commenced a night-majxh 
of fifteen miles towards North Anna River ; crossed it, and threw up rifle- 
pits. On picket-duty, near Noel's Station, May 25. The regiment, on the 
26th, was tlu'own on the extreme left, where the enemy was in formidable 
pcsition. With other regiments, the Seventh covered the withdrawal of the 
Sixth Corps ; recrossed North Anna River, and thence over the Pamunkey, 
throwing up rifle-pits at Hanover Court House, on the 29th ; and, the 31st, 
acting as pickets to cover movements from that position. ^ 

June 1, we marched fifteen miles to Cold Harbor, which we reached at two, 
P.M. The enemy was found in position, and were immediately engaged by the 
Sixth Corps with success, and driven back; we occupying the ground for the 
night. The Seventh was on constant duty at this point from this date until 
June 12 ; being engaged in several assaults by day and night, constantly 
exposed to the enemy's fire, and losing men daily. Having been reduced in 
numbers by the serious casualties of the campaign thus far, the duties of the 
regiment were unusually arduous, the necessities of the position requiring almost 
constant duty in the front line. The 13th, having marched twenty-five miles, 
we crossed the Chickahomiuy, and bivouacked for the night ; and, next day, 
marched four miles to near Charles-City Court House, where we saw the wa- 
ters of the James River. On the 15th, we bivouacked on the banks of the 
James. The term of three years' service of the Seventh expiring this day, it 
was relieved from duty, and ordered to Massachusetts to be mustered out of 
service. In Special Order from division and brigade commanders, the regi- 
ment was thanked for the gallant and efiicient service they had performed. 
On the morning of the 16th, it embarked from Wilson's Landing, James River, 
Va., in the despatch steamer " Keyport," for Washington ; and on the 17th, 
at six, P.M., took special train for New York. At Philadelphia, we met with a 
flattering reception and a hospitable entertainment, by the citizens, at the Sol- 
diers' Home. At New York, we were comfortably quartered and provided 
for at the Park barracks; and, on the evening of the 19th, took special 
train for Taunton, Mass., — the point at which the regiment was organ- 
ized three years ago. Reached Taunton, June 20 ; and the regiment was 
warmly welcomed back by the citizens, who turned out en masse. The men 
were furloughed until July 4, when they paraded, and assisted the citizens of 
Taunton in the celebration of the anniversary of our national independence. 

July 5, the regiment, which had lost in action and by disease sixty-five 
men, was formally mustered out of service, and the men were furnished trans- 
portation to their homes. 



Ninth Regiment. — Composition of the Regiment. — Col. Cass. — Roster of Officers. — 
Movements in Virginia. — Peninsular Campaign. — March into Maryland. — Battle of 
Fredericksburg. — Chancellorsville. — Gettysburg. — Rappahannock Station. — Mine 
Run. — Wilderness. — Return Home. — Discharge. — Tenth Regiment. — Its Origin. — 
Its Roster of Officers. — In Maryland. — In Virginia. — At Yorktown. — Peninsular 
Campaign. — Antietam. — Fredericksburg. — St. Mary's Heights. — At Gettysburg.— 
^•ursuit of the Enemy. — Campaign of the Wilderness. — Crossing the James. — Before 
Petersburg. — Return Home. — Mustered out. 


THE energetic and enthusiastic Col. Thomas Cass was the 
"life and soul" of the gallant Ninth, which was com. 
posed of Ii-ishmen by birth or descent, almost to a man, accustomed 
to military drill. Among the first three-years' regiments, it be- 
came, by discipline and heroism, one of the most efficient that 
left the State for the seat of war. 

It was ordered into camp at Long Island, Boston Harbor, May 3, 
1861 ; from which place, some weeks later, it was transported in 
the steamer " Ben De Ford " to Washington. The brave Col. Cass 
fell, mortally wounded, before Richmond, in tiie battle of June 27, 
1862. He was succeeded in command by Col. Patrick R. Guiney, 
a brave and accomplished officer, who has furnished a brief nar- 
rative, which will follow this roll of officers : — 

Colonel ...... Thomas Cass. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... Kobert Peard. 

Major ...... Patrick R. Guiney. 

Surgeon Peter Pineo. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Patrick A. O'Connell. 

Chaplain Thomas Scully. 

Upon arriving at Washington, June 29, we encamped about one mile 
from the city. Left this camp, July 28; crossed the Potomac, and encamped 
on Arlino-ton Heights, Va., where we remained until the 29th of September, 
when we left to participate in the grand forward movement of the Army of 
the Potomac, and arrived at Miner's Hill, Va. ; which place we occupied until 



Mai'ch 10, 1862, when we marched to Faiifax Court House, where we re- 
mained one week. From theuce we moved to Alexandria, and embarked 
for Fortress Monroe the latter part of this month, and encamped near 

Our regiment formed a part of the reconnoissance toward Yorktown, driving 
the enemy from their works at Big Bethel. On the 4th of April, we ad- 
vanced to Yorktown, participating in the battle before that town the following 
day, also in the subsequent siege. On the evacuation of Yorktown by the 
enemy, the Ninth joined in the pursuit ; arriving at Gaines's Mills, on the 
Chickahominy, May 25. Formed a part of Gen. Fitz John Porter's corps 
at the battle of Hanover Court House, May 27. June 20, marched to 
Mechaniesville, and participated in the battle near that place. 

We remained in position during the night, and, the following morning, 
marched to, and fought the battle of, Gaines's Mills, alone; losing, during 
the engagement, six killed, twenty wounded, and one missing. The same 
day (June 26), participated in the battle of the Chickahominy, where our 
loss amounted to fifty-two killed, a hundred and thirty wounded, and fifteen 
missing. The following morning, we crossed the Chickahominy, and biv- 
ouacked on the banks of the river : where we remained till the foUowino; 
day, when we marched towards Malvern Hill. On the afternoon of July 1, 
we took an active part in the battle fought at that place ; our loss being 
eleven killed, a hundred and forty-seven wounded, and twenty-two missing. 
The following morning, we marched to Harrison's Landing, on the banks of 
the James River; where we remained encamped until Aug. 14, 1862. From 
thence we marched down the Peninsula, arriving at Fortress Monroe after a 
march of five days. 

We reached Acquia Creek Aug. 21. Here we were transported by rail 
to Fredericksburg, where we encamped, and remained some two or three 
days. On the 24th of August, we marched to Ellis's Ford, on the Bappa- 
hannock ; where we remained a few days only, then marched to Warrenton 
Junction. From thence we marched to Manassas, and were present at all 
the engagements near that place ; our loss being only five wounded. We 
marched ft-ora Manassas, via Vienna, to Chain Bridge, on the Potomac ; 
whence we returned next day to our old camp-ground at Miner's Hill, after 
an absence of nearly six months. Left this camp Sept. 12, and marched to 
Frederick, Md., where we arrived the 14th inst. On the following day, we 
marched to Boonsborough, and were present at the battle of Antietam. The 
next day, we followed the retreating enemy to the banks of the Potomac, 
where we encamped. We were present at the battle of Botler's Mill ; also 
formed part of the reconnoissance towards Charlestown, Va., Oct. 22, under 
command of Gen. Humphrey ; loss, one wounded. On the 30th of October, 
marched to Harper's Ferry, Va. ; from thence to Snicker's Gap, where we 
remained three days. Nov. 5, we left Snicker's Gap, and marched to War- 
renton, where we arrived Nov. 10. 


The regiment left Warrenton Nov. 16, and encamped for a few 
days at Hartwood Church. Nov. 20, it moved to Fahnouth, and 
took part in the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. After the 
battle, the Ninth re-occupied its old camp at Falmouth until Dec. 
30, when it made a recoiinoissance toward Kelley's Ford, march- 
ing fifty-four miles in thirty-one hours, and returning to camp 
much exhausted. 

April 27, 1863, the troops moved to Kelley's Ford ; crossed the 
Rappahannock, reaching the Rapidan on the 29th, and arrived at 
Chancellorsville on the 30th. The regiment participated in the 
engagement which took place there May 3 ; when it returned to 
Falmouth, where it remained, comparatively idle, until the com- 
mencement of the series of movements which culminated in the 
Gettysburg campaign. In the great battle and victory which so 
gloriously terminated this campaign, the Ninth participated, 
having been twice actively engaged with the enemy, although its 
principal duties on this field had been those of skirmishers. 

In the subsequent pursuit of the enemy, the regiment passed over South 
Mountain on the 8th of July, and continued the pursuit through Middle- 
town, Boonsborough, &c. ; and, after crossing the Antietam, the army took 
up a position. Afterwards we cautiously advanced on Williamsport, which 
we found evacuated. 

July 17, the regiment crossed the Potomac at Berlin, Md., and encamped 

at L ville, Va. ; and, notwithstanding the extraordinary fatigue the troops 

had undergone, — marchino;, skirmishino', fisihting, almost unceasingly, — the 
men were never in better spirits. The glorious success of Oettysburg, 
coming to them as it did after a series of terrible defeats, inspired them to 
endurance, and strengthened their hopes. 

The following day, they marched to Manassas Gap, and, July 
24, participated in the battle of Wapping Heights. The enemy 
were driven from their position there ; and the Ninth continued 
its march, reaching Warrenton on the 27th, where, after a brief 
encampment, it removed to Beverly Ford. From this position, 
Sept. 14, it changed to a point near Culpeper. Here, Oct. 13, it 
acted as rear-guard tQ the Fifth Corps while the army fell back, 
and then bivouacked at Warrenton. 

The Ninth next moved to Ceutreville and to the rear of Fairfax. 
After several heavy marches, the regiment again reached the 
Rappahannock, Nov. 7, and took part in the battle of Rappahan- 
nock Station. Nov. 19, the regiment crossed the river again at 
Kelley's Ford ; marched to and crossed the Rapidan ; and, advan- 


cing nine miles to Robinson's Tavern, moved on to Mine Run, — a 
mile and a half farther, — and shared in the engagement at that 
place. Dec. 1, the regiment recrossed the Rapidan, and, Dec. 3, 
crossed to the north side of the Rappahannock, and was detailed 
to do guard-duty at Bealton, where it encamped. 

The Ninth left Bealton May 1, 1864, and advanced to Ciil- 
peper Court House, where it rejoined the main body of the army. 
From that point a night's march was made, and the Rapidan was 
crossed at Germania Ford on the morning of May 4. The march 
was continued into the Wilderness to the point at which the battle 
of the "Wilderness was fought. May 5, 6, and 7. Thence the regi- 
ment moved to Spottsylvania, the North and South Anna Rivers, 
Shady Grove, and up to Cold Harbor, near Richmond, partici- 
pating in the several battles of this unparalleled campaign. From 
Cold Harbor the Ninth was ordered liomc, having completed its 
term of service. The men whose term of service had not expired 
were transferred to the Thirty-second Regiment. 

The losses of the Ninth in this its concluding campaign 
were, officers, six killed and fourteen wounded ; enlisted men, 
two hundred and thirty-eight killed and wounded. Major Mahan's 
narrative contains paragraphs which will make the foregoing more 
complete. In reference to the winter of 1864, he says, — 

The duties performed during these winter months were very arduous, and 
required the greatest vigilance, in consequence of the frequent raids of 
Mosby's guerilla-band, and also of the notorious company of "Black-horse 
Cavalry." The latter force consisted principally of the flower of Fauquier 
County, and was the first company of cavalry mustered into the service of the 
Confederate States. It took its name from the fact that its first captain rode 
a noble black charger ; and the company was always known, even prior to 
the war, as the "Black-horse Cavalry," and formed part of the Virginia 
militia. On the night of the 13th of January, 1864, this company made an 
attack on the guard stationed at headquarters of second brigade, first division, 
Fifth Corps, but were repulsed by Company F of the 'Ninth, commanded 
by Capt. O'Leary. 

Several other attempts to cut the railroad and burn the bridge 
at Licking Run were foiled by the determination of the guard 
detailed from the Ninth. 

It was the 10th of June when the regiment's service closed ; 
and it broke camp at daylight, and proceeded homeward vid 
Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. 

On the morning of the fifteenth day of June, tlie regiment ar- 
rived in Boston ; and the veterans met with a most cordial and 


hearty reception. The Millbuiy company of State militia formed 
the escort, and twenty-three civic associations joined in the pro- 
cession. All the public buildings, and many private dwellings 
and stores, displayed the national colors, and were gayly decorated 
with bunting. A salute was fired on Boston Common by Capt. 
Cummings's Battery of Light Artillery, and at Faneuil Hall a 
splendid collation was served by the city of Boston. In the after- 
noon and evening, the regiment was entertained in a becoming 
manner by the Columbian Association. 


The Tenth was raised in the five western counties of the State. 

Capt. Henry S. Briggs, who commanded one of the companies 
of the noble Eighth in April, was called to the colonelcy of the 
Tenth in the latter part of May. On the olst of the month, the 
troops went into camp at Springfield, and subsequently at Med- 
ford. July 25, 1861, they sailed for Washington in the steamers 
" Ben De Ford " and " S. R. Spaulding." 

Its officers were, — 

Colonel Henry S. Briggs. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... JeiFord M. Decker. 

Major William R. Marsh. 

Surgeon ...... Cyrus N. Chamberlain. 

Assistant Surgeon .... William Holbrook. 

Chaplain Frederic A. Barton. 

The regiment reached the Navy-yard at Washington, July 28, 
and, disembarking, marched to Kalorama Heights. A week later, 
the troops removed to a point five miles north of the capital, on 
the road to Rockville, where they were stationed, March 10, 1862, 
with the advance of the army towards Manassas. The regiment 
then marched to Prospect Hill, Va., and, on the 27th, sailed from 
Washington for Fortress Monroe, where it landed April 1, and 
went into camp five miles from Hampton. 

On the 5th, the troops engaged in the siege of Yorktown, and, 
on May 3, joined in the pursuit of the enemy to Williams- 
burg. On the evening of the 5th, they entered the battle-field 
there in time to support the right wing during the closing scenes 
of the contest. The 8th found them on the enemy's track up 
the Peninsula. On the 28th, they reached Savage's Station. 
The attack on G-en. Casey's advanced division was made by the 


rebels on the 31st, forcing it back, and bringing the burden of 
resistance upon Gen. Coucli's division. 

The Tentli was in the smoke of battle the entire afternoon, 
breasting the unequal tide like a rock amid the waves. 

June 25, the troops were again in the fight, supporting the 
advance on the left, just before the retreat to Harrison's Landing. 

In the terrific battle at Malvern Hill, the Tenth Massachu- 
setts, with the Thirty-sixth New-York, fell with resistless force 
upon a brigade of North-Carolina troops, and came out of the 
bloody contest leaving only the fragments of columns behind. 

On the 16th of August, the retreat from Harrison's Landing 
was commenced ; and, twelve days afterwards, the army embarked 
at Yorktown for Alexandria. 

On the 2d of September, the Tenth moved to Chain Bridge, 
and, on the 3d, crossed into Maryland, and entered upon the cam- 
paign in that State. On the 16th, the regiment was at Pleasant 
Valley ; on the 17th, at Harper's Ferry ; and, on the night of that 
day, encamped near the battle-field of Antietam. The next morn- 
ing, the troops were in front ; but the conflict was not renewed. 
The shattered columns of Gen. Lee were now hastening to place 
the Potomac between themselves and the victorious legions of 
Gen. McClellan. The latter, in pursuit, reached Williamsport 
on the 20th. From this date, until the 26th of October, they 
remained comparatively inactive. 

On the 31st, the Tenth crossed the Potomac into Virginia ; 
reached New Baltimore, near Warrenton, on the 2d of Novem- 
ber, and the camp at Stafford Court House on the 18th. This 
regiment behaved bravely at the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 
11, having crossed the Rappahannock at sundown, two miles 
below the city. It was followed by the Second Rhode-Islaijd as 
skirmishers, with the Thirty-sixth New- York on one bridge, and 
the Seventh and Tliirty-seventh Massachusetts on the other. 
Gen. Devens was in command of the brigade composed of these 
five regiments, and lield the south bank of the river until morn- 
ing. Although not in the fight, the regiment performed a harder 
task, which was to stand firm under a heavy artillery-fire. Antici- 
pating the renewal of hostilities, on the 15th, the regiment stood 
in the front line ; but, instead of engaging the enemy, it became 
its duty to cover the retreat of the army, and was thus the last 
regiment to recross the river, encamping in a pine-thicket two 
miles from Falmouth. 

Jan. 20, another advance was attempted. The troops broke 


camp, and approached the river ; but the inclemency of tlie 
weather, and the intolerable condition of the roads, soon termi- 
nated this expedition, and sent the troops back to their camps. 

April 28, tliey were again on the banks of the Rappahannock. 
Crossing over on the 1st and 2d of May with other troops, the 
Tenth made a detour to the right of Fredericksburg to attract 
the attention of the foe to that quarter, and from the point of 
assault. This was carried ; and the Tenth, with the loss of sixteen 
men, joined the brigade on St. Mary's Heights. It advanced to Sa- 
lem Heights, the position of the rebels, and had a hot engagement 
with them, in which the commander was severely wounded ; Col. 
Eustis, of the Tenth, taking his place at the head of the brigade. 

May 5, the Tenth prepared to encamp near the previous winter- 

June 10, the regiment crossed the Rappaliannock to relieve the 
skirmish-line. On the 13th, it evacuated the south bank of the 
river ; and, on the 14th, marched to Stafford Court House. After 
a series of daily, fatiguing marches, the Tenth reached Gettys- 
burg on the afternoon of July 2, and moved at once to the first 
line of battle. July 3, it was in reserve, and marched from point 
to point to strengtlicn the weak parts of the line ; at one time 
passing under the concentrated fire of over a hundred pieces of 
rebel cannon. 

On the memorable 4th, the regiment was on skirmishdine ; and 
on the 5th, pursuing the flying rebels, overtook them near Hagers- 
town; and, continuing the pursuit, reached Williamsport the next 
morning, after the rebel rear-guard had disappeared across the 

On the 10th, the troops crossed the river, and, on the 2oth, had 
advanced again as far as Warrenton, Va. Their stay here was 
short. The two or three months following were without any 
specially noteworthy incidents ; but, on the 7tli of November, the 
Tenth was engaged as support in the battle of Rappahannock Sta- 
tion. On the 26th, it crossed the Rapidan at Jacob's Ford ; and 
after eight days' campaigning in the Wilderness, involving hard 
marching and severe exposure, the Tenth was put on picket 
Dec. 1, and left to cover the retreat of the army. On the 2d, it 
was withdrawn ; and, recrossing the Rapidan before sunrise, was 
again in camp, at Brandy Station, before noon of the 3d. 

Fatigue, picket-duty, and drills were the variety in camp-life 
till the 27th of February, 1864. During the time, about one- 
fourth of the regiment re-enlisted, and were furlouglied for thirty 


Feb. 28, the regiment marched by Culpeper and Thorough- 
fare Mountain to Robertson's River ; and, May 4, moved, with 
the Army of the Potomac, across the Rapidan, " bivouacking 
for the night on the south bank, which was the only sound night's 
rest the regiment enjoyed till it was relieved ; its term of service 
having expired." 

Marching and countermarching, rifle-pits and picket, indicate 
the hard work accomplished. 

May 5, the Tenth was fairly in the Wilderness, followed by 
skirmishing to cover Gen. Eustis's front, and then fierce battle. 
Writes the gallant colonel, — 

Men fell like leaves in autumn; yet the regiment stood firm, never wavered, 
till, the ammunition being expended, it was promptly relieved by Lieut. -Col. 
Harlow and the Seventh Massachusetts. Would I could sound a note to his 
(Harlow's) praise, than whom none is more worthy ! We suffered here a 
loss of one hundi-ed and fifteen, or more than one-third, in killed and wounded. 
There the brave and gallant First Lieut. Ashley, commanding Company I, 
was shot through the head, and instantly killed ; and Lieut. Midgly, a most 
worthy oifieer, fell mortally wounded. We fell back over the crest of a hill 
and supplied ourselves with ammunition, took our position for the night, and, 
as we held the ground, cared for our wounded. 

Moving on the enemy at daylight next morning, the Tenth 
repeated the heroic fighting of the preceding day ; and, indeed, 
the same sanguinary valor distinguished the regiment through all 
the dreadful days of the Wilderness, and beyond it. 

Of the conflict which followed the attempt of the rebels to 
regain the ground from which Hancock in his charge, sup- 
ported by the Tenth, had driven them on the 11th, Lieut.-Col. 
Parsons says, — 

The battle of the 12th of May was one of the severest and closest the regi- 
ment was ever engaged in. The rebels seemed determined to retake the posi- 
tion at whatever cost ; and for twenty-four hours there was one continuous roar 
of musketry. The right of the Tenth was in close proximity to the rebel left, 
and fighting over the same works. The muskets of the rebels were knocked 
aside by the men, and, in some instances, wrenched from the hands of the 
rebels. Many examples of bravery were displayed in this fight ; but it would 
be invidious to mention any, and not all. It was here tliat Major Parker, 
Capt. J. H. Weatherill, and First Lieut. A. E. Munyan, officers distinguished 
for bravery and gallant conduct on many a hard-fought field, were mortally 
wounded. Capts. Knights and Johnson, and Lieut. Eaton, were severely 
wounded, and many brave men were killed and wounded, in the fight of the 
12th ; and to mention all who creditably acquitted themselves would be to 


publish the names of all who were present. A heavy rain was falling all day, 
and all day and all night was the regiment kept under fire. Early on the 
morning of the 13th, the enemy gave up the attempt to retake the works ; and 
we were relieved, and ordered to the rear. The battle-field at this point, 
directly in front of the ground occupied by the Tenth, beggars description. 
The dead and wounded of the enemy were literally piled in together, three, 
four, and five deep, showing conclusively that the ammunition which had 
been expended during the previous twenty-four hours had not been in vain. 
The loss of the enemy at this point was far greater than our own. 

A brisk engagement between the enemy and the fourth l)rigade 
took place on the 18th, of the casualties of which Lieut.-Col. Par- 
sons says, — 

We suffered the loss of Lieut. Bartlett, — ever noted for brave and gallant 
conduct, — who was shot through the head, and instantly killed. Also Capts. 
Bigelow and Pierce, and Lieut. Cotterill, were among the wounded. Sergts. 
Paul, Abbott, and Corp. Harger, were among the number who fell to-day, — 
men of indomitable pluck, heroes in every sense of the word, full of patriotism, 
and fully competent to command. We mourn the loss of many such, who 
fell with their breasts to the foe on the battle-fields of Virginia. 

On the 24th of May, the North Anna River was crossed, and, on 
the 28th, the Pamunkey. From Hanover Court House, a recon- 
noissance to Peak's Station, on the Central Virginia Railroad, was 
made on the 30th ; the Tenth being in advance. This was followed 
by a forced march to Coal Harbor next day, and the battle at that 

From that time until the 19th of June, the regiment was on 
the march, and under fire; crossing the Chickahominy on the 
13th, and the James on the 16th, at dusk, on a pontoon-bridge. 
Marching all night and the day following, the regiment reached 
a position within two and a half miles of Petersburg, and was 
ordered out at ten o'clock the same night to support a picket. 
The 18th was spent in skirmishing, in carrying a line of rifle- 
pits, and in throwing up others under cover of darkness. The 
Tenth was relieved the next evening, and encamped near corps 

The next morning, as we were waiting to receive the order to report in 
Massachusetts, the enemy opened a battery of twenty-pound guns from the 
opposite bank of the Appomattox, and shelled the regiment very vigorously 
for some time. Sergeant-Major George F. Policy was struck with one of 
these missiles, and almost instantly killed. The death of Policy cast a gloom 
over the whole of the homeward trip, commenced that day. By his gallant 


conduct and fearlessness, he had become a favorite with the whole regiment. 
When such men are called to give up their lives, we are forcibly reminded of 
the immense sacrifice this struggle costs us. We buried Policy at City 
Point, June 21, and took the mail-boat for Washington, arriving there the 
22(1 ; and, after numerous delays, reached Springfield on the 25th of June, 
where a cheering and enthusiastic reception awaited the return of the vet- 
erans of many a hard-fought field. 

The regiment formed at the depot, and marched down Main Street to Court 
Square. The street was hned with the national colors, and cheer upon cheer 
rent the air. 

It was welcomed back by the Mayor in a neat and appi-opriate speech, 
which was acknowledged ; and the thanks of the regiment were tendered to all 
who were present to bid it welcome, by the commanding officers. The regi- 
ment was then marched into City Hall, and partook of a bountiful collation 
prepared by the citizens of Springfield. During the festival, we were enter- 
tained with patriotic songs sung by some fifty misses, to the great delight of 
all present. 

The regiment was then furloughed until the 8th of July, when it was 
mustered out. Thus, after three years' and fifteen days' service, the Old 
Tenth "passed into history, and its members returned to the rights of 



Eleventh. — Roster of Officers. — At Washington. — Resignation of Col. Clark. — At 
Yorktown. — Battles of the Peninsula. — Bull Run and Bristow Station. — Chan- 
cellorsville. — March to Gettysburg. — Lieut.-Col. Tripp's Report. — Wilderness. — 
Cold Harbor. — lames River. — Petersburg. — Death of Col. Blaisdell. — Twelfth 
Regiment. — Organization. — At Sandy Hook, Md. — In the Shenandoah Valley. — 
Death of Col. Webster. — Battle of South Jlountain. — Fredericksburg. — Gettys- 
burg. — Mine Run. — Geu. Grant's "On to Richmond." — Return Home. — Mus- 
tered out. 


THIS regiment was raised in the vicinity of Boston, and ordered 
to Fort Warren, May 4, 18G1 ; where it was organized on the 
9th, and sworn into the service of the United States Jnne 13. 
The officers of the organization were as follow : — 

Colonel George Clark, jun. 

Lieutenant- Colonel . • ■ . William Blaisdell. 

Major George F. Tileston. 

Surgeon Luther V Boll. . 

Assistant Surgeon .... Dr. John W. Foye. 

Chaplain Elisba F. Watson. 

June 15, the regiment went to Camp Cameron, and, on the 
24th, started for Washington ; reaching the capital on the 3d of 
July. On the 14th, it was marched to Alexandria, and thence, on 
the 21st, to Bull Run, and participated in the conflict there. From 
■ that disastrous sabbath's work, the regiment returned to Camp 
Wilson, at Alexandria. Aug. 10, it removed to Bladensburg, 
Md. ; and from thence, Oct. 27, to Budd's Ferry. Meanwhile, Col. 
George Clark, who had originally raised the regiment, was com- 
pelled, Oct. 11, by reason of ill health, to resign, and was suc- 
ceeded by Lieut.-Col. Blaisdell. During the winter, the regiment 
performed picket-duty as a part of first brigade. Hooker's divi- 
sion, along the banks of the Potomac, and in front of the rebel 



Latteries at Shipping Point, Va. No part of the soldier's service 
involves more exposure or requires more fortitude than the picket- 

April 5, the Eleventh embarked for the Peninsula, and,, on the 
12tli, encamped at Yorktown, and were again assigned to picket- 
service. On the 26th, the men of the Eleventh dashed upon and 
took a rebel lunette, and, on the 4th of May, entered the enemy's 
breastworks. Next day, they engaged the enemy at Williams- 
burg, and were the admiration of the army. To express the 
grateful appreciation of the Commonwealth, the Governor ordered 
a wQVf State color for the regiment, to be forwarded with his 
congratulations. The annexed tells the rest of the pleasant 
story : — 

Adjutant-General's Office, Boston, May 19, 1862. 
Col. Blaisdell, Eleventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. 

Colonel, — It makes every Massachusetts man feel prouder than ever of the 
old Commonwealth as he reads of the brave deeds of our Massachusetts 

The conduct of the Eleventh Regiment at the battle of Williamsburg was 
gallant in the extreme ; and his Excellency Gov. Andrew tenders to your- 
self, your officers, and your men, his warmest congratulations, and his sincere 
thanks for their bravery and good conduct on that terrible day. 

As a small recognition of their valor, his Excellency has ordered a new 
regimental color to be made, and forwarded to the regiment. 

Respectfully yours, 

WILLIAM SCHOULER, Adjutant- General. 

The^eolors were sent on in July last ; and the old ones which have been 
borne so bravely in ten hard-fought fields were returned, and are now depos- 
ited in the State House. 

Marches, with the interludes of encampments, brought the regi- 
ment to Fair Oaks, June 3, to perform picket-duty, work on thai* 
intrenchments, &c. The troops were engaged in the battle of 
the 25th, in the action at Savage's Station, in that at Glcndale on 
the 30th, and at Malvern Hill July 1 ; encamping in the evening 
of that day at Harrison's Landing. On their return march, the 
troops reached Yorktown on the 15th of August, embarked for 
Alexandria, and thence advanced again as far as Warrcnton 
Junction. On the 2:3th, they went to the battle-fields of Bristow 
Station and Bull Run ; returning to Alexandria, Sept. 3, to be 
employed on the defences of Washington. 



Nov. 1, the Eleventh again took up the line of march to join 
Col. Blaisdell's brigade at Warrenton Junction. On the 28th of 
November, it went into camp at Falmouth, and, after twelve days' 
rest, marched to the Rappahannock, crossed over on the 12th of 
December, and was detailed to guard the pontoon-bridge at 
Franklin's Crossing; ordered to the front on the 13th, but was 
not actively engaged in the battle, and moved back to camp again 
on the 16th. 

Military life here was devoid of any unusual interest until Feb. 5, 
1863, wlien the regiment was ordered to support a cavalry force 
sent to destroy a bridge over the river. April 29, it crossed the 
river, and reported to Gen. Hancock. On tlie 2d and 3d of May, 
the regiment at Clianccllorsvillc had severe but successful engage- 
ments with the enemy, and, for its gallantry in repulsing him, 
received the thanks of Gen. Hancock. Returning to camjj at 
Falmouth, the regiment remained there until the lltli of June, 
when it started on the Gettysburg campaign, reaching the battle- 
field at that place, July 1. In the battles of the 2d and 3d with the 
rebel invaders, few regiments suffered more than the Eleventh, in 
proportion to the whole number of men engaged. 

In pursuit of the enemy, the regiment again crossed the 
Potomac, July 15. At Manassas, July 23, preparations were 
made to attack the enemy in force ; but, during the night, he 
evacuated the position. 

The Eleventh reached Beverly Ford, Aug. 1, furnishing de- 
tails of pickets until the 15th of September ; when it commenced 
the march towards Culpeper, which it reached on the 17th, and 
encamped. On the 8tli of October, it was ordered to James City to 
support Kilpatrick's cavalry ; had frequent skirmishes with ttie ene- 
my, and, after a series of marches, encamped at Catlctt's Station, 
Oct. 21. The next six weeks were consumed by marches between 
this point and Mine Run. Nov. 27, encountering the enemy at 
^Locust Grove, a sharp engagement took place. At dark, the divi- 
sion was relieved by the third division, Sixth Corps. 

Lieut.-Col. Tripp says, — 

We were ordered to report to Gron. Warren on the Plank-road, at two 
o'clock, A.M., the same night we arrived. We reported at four, a.m., formed 
a line of battle in front of the enemy's works, and were ordered to charge 
them. The project, however, was abandoned. On the morning of Dec. 1, 
we were ordered to join Gen. Gregg's cavahy division, and act as rear-guard 
on the Plank-road. 


We performed this duty, and crossed the river on our way baeli to camp, 
Dec. 2, 1863. Reached camp Dec. 3, and at once prepared for winter- 

The regiment performed picket and other service near Brandy 
Station from this date until May 3, lS'o4, when, breaking camp, 
it marched by the old battle-field of Chancellorsville to the Wil- 
derness, where, about four o'clock, p.m., of the 5th, the enemy 
was met advancing in line of battle. The conflict at once opened, 
and raged until dark, only to be renewed the next day, and to 
continue until one, p.m., when the flank of the Eleventh was 
turned by the rebels, and it fell back to a line of breastworks. 
Here the foe in heavy force made another assault on our columns, 
and was repulsed with severe loss. The regiment remained in 
the vicinity, on picket-duty and protecting supply-trains, until the 
10th, when it took up a position in front of the enemy, a short 
distance to the right of Spottsylvania. Here a fruitless attempt 
was made to charge across a swamp, and take the enemy's works. 
Two days later (the 12th), the regiment shared in a general charge 
upon the rebel intrenchments. One line of these was carried, and six 
thousand prisoners taken. The line of works captured from the 
enemy was soon reversed, and a bloody contest was waged until 

On the 21st, the regiment was strengthened by the addition of 
forty-live veterans and recruits from the First Regiment of Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers ; the term of service of that regiment having 

The march to Coal Harbor was attended with skirmishing and 
a few casualties. June 12, the term of enlistment of fourteen 
offlcers and two hundred and ninety enlisted men expired, and 
they left the front for Boston. The eight remaining commissioned 
officers, and three hundred and thirty enlisted men, were organ- 
ized into a battalion of five companies, and immediately com- 
menced its march towards the James River. On the night of the 
15th, it bivouacked within two miles of Petersburg. 

At sunrise next morning, the summer air was rent with the 
screaming shell and shot. The men of the Eleventh were ex- 
posed for half an hour to the fire, standing in the open field 
without the least protection. This receiving fire when nothing 
can be done but watch the fearful missiles is most trying to the 
nerves of troops. 

Skirmishing and picket-duty followed until the 27th, when the 


command moved into the works abandoned by the Sixth Corps, 
which had gone to support cavahy at Ream's Station, on the Wel- 
don Raih'oad. Just previously to this, Col. Blaisdell, of this bat- 
talion, was killed while in command of the Corcoran Legion. 

After an addition of two companies from the Massachusetts 
Sixteenth, the battalion marched to a reserve camp in the rear, 
where it was employed in various duties until the 26th of July. 
Marching was renewed, with the variety, however, of mus- 
ketry, shelling, and artillery fire, and relieving the Eighteenth 
Corps in front of Petersburg. On the 29th, the battalion returned 
to camp. Aug. 12, it was at Deep Bottom, and, on*the 16th, was 
detached to make a demonstration and learn the enemy's position, 
and again compelled to stand in an exposed condition until the 
object of the movement was accomplished. 

Two days later, the battalion proceeded by way of Bermuda 
Hundred to the position held by the Ninth Corps, and were once 
more under fire. From the middle of August to the middle of 
December, the battalion was moving about as reserve, furnishing 
men for fatigue and picket duty in battle, and assisting in the 
destruction of the Weldon Railroad, 

Jan. 1, 1865, the battalion lay in the works in front of Peters- 
burg, Va., until Feb. 5, when it took part in a movement designed 
to extend the lines. 

It assisted in the construction of a line of works until the 
closing campaign was commenced. March 29, the regiment made 
a gallant charge on the enemy's line of works, and a number of 
men, becoming separated from the rest, — though they drove the 
enemy from a portion of his works, — were at length overpowered 
by superior numbers, and compelled to surrender. 

During the pursuit of the enemy, the regiment took an active 
part in the capture of the enemy's trains, and munitions of war, 
and was in the advance when the formal surrender of the Army 
of Northern Virginia took place. 

The regiment moved with the rest of the army to the vicinity 
of Washington, D.C., at the close of the campaign, and performed 
light duty until orders were received for its discharge at Read- 
ville, Mass. ; to which place it was transported on the 13th of July, 
and discharged July 14. 




Of this regiment, Companies A, B, C, D, and E were recruited 
in Boiton ; F, in North Bridgewater ; G, in Abington ; H, in 
Weymouth ; I, in Stoughton ; and K, in Gloucester. The whole 
number of troops was a thousand and forty. On the 26th of June, 
they were mustered into the service of the United States, at Fort 
Warren, with the following officers in command: — 

Col. Fletcher Webster, son of the Hon. Daniel Webster, com- 
manded the regiment until he was killed at the battle of Bull 
Run, Aug. 30, 1862. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... Timothy M. Bryan. 

Major ...... Elisha jM. Burbank. 

Surgeon ...... Jedediah H. Baxter. 

Assistant Surgeon .... John McLean Hayward. 

Chaplain ..... Edward L. Clark. ^ 

The regiment left Boston, July 23, 1861 ; and, four days later, 
went into camp at Sandy Hook, Md. Marching thence by way of 
Monocacy River, the men went into winter-quarters at Frederick, 
Md. Feb. 27, the regiment moved to Shenandoah City, Va. 
With the opening of spring, the Twelfth commenced a succession 
of marches through the Shenandoah Valley, which continued 
until early in August. On the 9th, the troops were in the battle 
of Cedar Mountain, where Capt. N. B. Shurtleff, jun., was killed. 
On the 20th, they were again engaged in the action at the Rap- 
pahannock, and, on the 30th, in the battle at Grovetown, near 
Bull Run. In this severe engagement, besides Col. Webster, 
there were killed, Capt. Kimball, ten enlisted men, and a hun- 
dred and thirty-five wounded and missing. The regiment then 
retreated to Centreville ; which place it reached on the following 

Sept. 14, it was in the battle of South Mountain, and, at five 
o'clock on the morning of the I7th, engaged the enemy at Keedys- 
ville; but at nine, a.m., was ordered to leave the field. It retired 
in good order, having lost, out of three hundred and twenty-five 
men, forty-seven killed and one hundred and sixty-six wounded, 
a number of them mortally. 

The remnant, however, brought from the field tlicir regimental 
colors, and, after supporting a battery, reached their brigade, and 
joined in the pursuit of the enemy across tlie river. 

Sept. 23, Capt. James L. Bates, an officer of much merit, 


was commissioned colonel, and took command of the regiment. 
Nov. 8, the troops reached Rappahannock Station, and went into 
camp. At the battle of Fredericksburg, the Twelfth was in 
Gibbon's division, Col. Lyle's brigade, and held the right of the 
second line. 

The position of this regiment was taken at nine o'clock, a.m. The enemy 
were hidden from view by a thick wood. Our men remained lying down 
until one o'clock, p.m., under a brisk fire of shot and shell ; the sku-mishers 
being hotly engaged, and the balls of the enemy passing over us. 

Duiing these four hours, there was but one man of this regiment injured. 
At one o'clock, the signal to advance was given to the whole division, and 
immediately obeyed. A heavy fire of musketry broke from the whole line 
of woods in our front. Gen. Taylor's brigade stood the fire some thirty 
minutes, when the brigade in which was this regiment was ordered to relieve 
them. As they advanced, they became separated from the brigade by the 
retiring regiments of the third brigade, and continued to advance independ- 
ently, taking a position, and firing until their ammunition began to fail. 
Their brigade had fallen to the rear ; and they were alone until the third line 
came forward. Their solid ranks broke to the right of this lino, which 
opened to the right and left to get to the front, where it was quickly 
formed. The Twelfth Kegiment followed the one in their front — the Six- 
teenth Maine — a short distance, and, being out of ammunition, were about 
to join their brigade in the rear, when tkey were ordered by Gen. Taylor to 
prepare for a charge. The colonel thereupon gave the command to fix 
bayonets, filed to the right of the brigade, and charged with them into 
the wood in their front. About two hundred of the enemy rushed through 
our lines, and gave themselves up as prisoners of war. We carried the posi- 
tion, and remained some twenty minutes, expecting support ; but none was 
in sit^ht : and the men were constantly falling before the fatal fire of an unseen 
enemy. Capts. Ripley, Eeed, Packard, and Clark, were wounded, and a 
hundred of the men had fellen. After consulting with the officers, the 
colonel gave the order to aljout-face ; and they fell back, slowly and reluc- 
tantly, in very good order, bearing their tattered banners with them to their 
brio-ade. After reaching the position to which they were ordered to fall back, 
they were supplied with ammunition and rations. They remained under 
arms durin'>' the nioht, and, early on the morning of the 14th, were ordered 
to another position, where they remained until the night of the 15th, when 
they recrossed the river to Falmouth with their corps. 

During the battle, the Twelfth was under fire six hours ; and its loss was 
chiefly sustained during the last two hours. In that time, its loss was a hun- 
dred and five men out of two hundred and fifty-eight who went into the 

The regiment now became attached to the second brigade, 
second division. First Army Corps. Soon after the withdrawal 


of the army from tho south side of the Rappahannock, which fol- 
lowed the late battle, the Twelfth marched to Belle Plain, Va., 
and commenced at once, near Fletcher's Chapel, building a log 
city for winter-quarters. 

Respecting the winter and early spring of 1863, an officer 
writes : — 

We reinained in this camp until the 20tb of January, 1863 ; when we 
moved out with the division, and started towards the Rappahannock, takin"- 
the direction of Banks's Ford. Marching all day, and far into the night, we 
reached a puhit on the river road, about four miles from the ford, where the 
regiment bivouacked for the night in a ploughed field. Soon after the halt, 
it commenced raining ; and the night proved one of the most uncomfortable 
that it has ever been our kick to experience. By morning, the whole country 
around us was a sea of mud ; but we moved forward about two miles towards 
the river, and again bivouacked in an oak-wood, where we remained until the 
morning of the 23d, when we were ordered to return to our old camp at 
Belle Plain, which we reached that evening, and resumed the usual routine 
of camp and picket duty, which was continued untd the 28th of Aprd, when 
we again broke camp to participate in the aftair before Fredericksburg and at 

At this time, the Twelfth was five miles from Fredericksburg. Remaining 
there until May 2, a march of sixteen miles was made to the United-States 
Ford, where the columns crossed in the deepening darkness, and entered the 
Wilderness, with their faces toward the front. It was a toilsome midnight 
passage through the woods. The regiment was immediately deployed as 
skirmishers, and sent forward a mile into a dense forest, cut up with ravines, 
and crossed by narrow streams. Within less than twenty-four hours of duty, 
a hundred and one prisoners, including two commissioned officers, were 
taken. The nest night was devoted to the construction of rifle-pits by the 
roadside ; the deep silence echoing to the blows of a hundred strong arms 
cutting down trees to strengthen the position in front. With other troops, 
the Twelfth made a reconnois«iuce on the 4th to the right, in front of our 
line, to Ely's Ford. May 6, the march was renewed, encamping on the 7th 
four miles below Fredericksburg. On the 12th, the regiment broke camp, 
and on the 13th reached Bealton Station, and, the next afternoon, arrived at 
jManassas Junction. During the remainder of the month, it was almost con- 
stantly on the march, and, on the morning of July 1, came within sound of 
the cannon at Gettysburg. After a few moments' rest, awaiting orders, the 
second brigade advanced through the town, and, cro:<sing a field, took position 
on the right of the line of the first division, but forming a right angle with 
that line. 

The enemy making a demonstration on our left flank, the brigade rapidly 
changed front forward on its left, and occupied the crest of the hill; and, each 
regiment opening fire as soon as in position, the whole line was soon engaged. 


The position of the regiment was near the right, between the Ninetieth 
Pennsylvania and Eighty-third New- York. A second change of front by 
the regiment enabled it to deliver a destructive enfilading fire into the 
advancing lines of the enemy, at short range, while the troops on its left 
received them with a steady and rapid fire in front. 

This soon brought, the enemy to show the white flag, and to cease their 
fire ; and the rapid change of part of the brigade resulted in the capture of 
some four hundred prisoners. 

The enemy were now observed bringing up heavy re-enforcements against 
our front, and advancing a brigade against our rio;ht ; makin"; another change 
of front of a part of the line necessary, to prevent our right being turned. 
This was quickly and handsomely done by the two right regiments (Ninetieth 
Pennsylvania and Twelfth Massachusetts) , and we were thus enabled to hold 
our ground against a vastly superior force for more than an hour. The 
enemy in the mean time were deploying troops, and overlapping our right. 
Our ammunition was nearly all expended, and our situation was indeed 
critical ; when the first brigade, coming up, formed on our right, giving us an 
opportunity to withdraw to the rear of their line, and enjoy a few moments' 

The brigade was once more marched to the crest of the hill, a little to the 
left of their former position, and ordered to hold it with fixed bayonets against 
assault. It remained in this position, until, the right of the line giving way, 
and exposing its flank, it was ordered to fall back to Cemetery Hill, on the 
opposite side of the town. 

On the morning of the 2d, the division was relieved from the front line 
by Gen. Hays's division, of the Third Corps; and, during that and the next 
day, was used as a reserve for the Second and Eleventh Corps. On the after- 
noon of the 3d, when the last attack was made on the Second Corps, it was 
ordered to that point, and arrived just in time to witness the repulse of the 

July 6, the Twelfth left the battle-field, and joined in the pur- 
suit of Gen. Lee's retreating columns. From this date until 
Oct. 26, nothing of unusual interest transpired. The army then 
crossed the Rapidan, and, on the 28th, advanced in line of battle 
to Mine Run, on the opposite side of which the enemy were in 
force. In that position the regiment remained until Dec. 1, when 
it recrosscd the Rapidan, and went into camp on the south side 
of the Rappahannock, about one mile from Kelley's Ford. It 
remained here until May 3, 1864 ; when, with the army under 
Gen. Grant, it began the advance toward Richmond, On the 4th, 
at noon, it crossed the Rapidan, advanced twenty-one miles, and 

It advanced next day at half-past six, a.m. ; and at seven, p.m., 


encountered the enemy in the dense woods of the Wilderness, 
and had a fierce battle, which lasted until darkness compelled the 
combatants to retire. In this battle, Lieut.-Col. Allen was killed. 
Xext morning, the fight was renewed, during which the - patriotic 
and chivalrous Gen. James Wadsworth fell. For several suc- 
cessive days, the Twelfth was either fighting in the dense thickets 
of the Wilderness, lying in rifle-pits for weary hours, or grand- 
ly charging the enemy, or on the march. Col. Bates com- 
manded the regiment until the 18th of May, when he was placed 
at the head of the second brigade, second division, Fifth Corps. 
This brigade, which included the Twelfth, made a most important 
reconnoissance on the 22d. The fact being discovered that Long- 
street and Ewell had passed to the southward during the night 
changed the movements of the whole army. For this reconnois- 
sance the brigade was complimented in General Orders. The 
brigade crossed the North Anna on the 2od, and was opened 
upon very heavily about sundown, by the rebels, with artillery. 
The men were ordered to lie down ; and then, for nearly an hour, 
the iron hail fell among the brave boys, who could only nerve 
themselves for the terrible suspense between life and threatened 
death. It seems a miracle that only one man (Private Chase) of 
the Twelfth was injured. 

The rest of May, and half of June, was spent in marching and 
counter-marching, in skirmishing and in battle-line, now on the 
banks of the North Anna or Pamunkey, and then in White-oak 
Swamp. The troops reached the James River June 16. 

Col. Bates, in the closing of his report, says, — 

The 17th was ushered in by the firing of cannon and musketry in our 
front. IMarched towards Petersburg, the Xluth Corps heavily engaged ; our 
corps, the Fifth, supporting them. On the 18th, very early on the march to 
the front. Passed over the battle-field of last night, which was strewed with 
the dead of friend and foe ; formed line, and began to intrench. Ordered by 
Gen. Crawford to take the lead, and advance. Sent the Twelfth as skirmishers 
to drive the enemy from the railroad, where they were covered. This was 
performed, under Major Cook, in gallant style : the enemy retreated across 
a creek to their intrenchments. Ordered to charge the works of the enemy, 
in conjunction with Gen. Griffin's division on my left, and the Nintli Corps 
on my right. Advanced simultaneously with Gen. Griffin ; but the Ninth 
Corps did not move : the enemy opened upon us with grape and musketry. 
Advanced to a point about a hundred yards from the works of the enemy, 
and lialted ; the men lying down to escape the terrific fire before us. During 
the night, intrenched in this position ; established a line of skirmishers here, 

/ 28 



and was ordered back a short distance to intrench. The new line was about 
five hundred yards from the line of the enemy. Loss in the brigade, very 
heavy. The Twelfth and Eighty-eighth Pennsylvania occupied the line of 
skirmishers as sharpshooters, keeping the enemy very closely confined to their 

June 25, the terra of service of the Twelfth Regiment Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers expired. I returned to the command of my regiment, which was 
ordered to City Point for embarkation, and turned over the men whose terms 
of service had not expired to the Thirty-ninth Regiment IMassachusetts Vol- 
unteers. Having made the transfer, marched for City Point at three, p.m. 

The regiment was safely transported to Boston, where it was mustered out 
of the service of the United States, July 8, 18G4. 



Thirteenth. — Its Origin. — Officers. — In Maryland. — In Virginia- — Second Battle of 
Bull Run. — South ilountaiu and Antietam. — Fredericksburg. — Chancellorsville. — 
Gettj-sburg. — Across the Rapidan. — Wilderness. — Across the James River. — Re- 
ception at Home. — Fourteenth. — Its Colonel. — Its Roster of Officers. — At Fori 
Albany. — Changed to the First Heavy Artillery. — Fifteenth. — Col. Charles 
Devens. — Mrs. Child's Letter. — Roster of Officers. — Ball's Bluff. — Hampton. — 
Camp Jliseiy. — At Yorktown. — Peninsular Campaign. — At Antietam. — Second 
Battle of Fredericksburg. — At Gettysburg. — Bristow's Station. — Campaign of the 
Wilderness. — Return Home. — Muster Out. 


THE nucleus of this regiment was the Fourth Battalion of 
Eifles, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. It was ordered, 
under Major Leonard, to Fort Independence, Boston Harbor, 
June 1 ; was there recruited to a regiment ; and left for Wash- 
ington, July 80, 18G1. 

Its roll of officers was as follows : — 

Colonel . 

Lieutenant- Colonel 



Assistant Surgeon 


Samuel H. Leonard. 
N. Walter Batchelder 
Jacob P. Gould. 
Allston W. Whitney. 
J. Theodore Heard. 
Noah M. Gay lord. 

Until the spring of 1862, the Thirteenth wa? on patrol and 
outpost duty on the Upper Potomac, in Maryland. 

On the last day of December, 1801, Companies A, B, E, and 
H, in command of Capt. J. A. Fox, marched to Williamsport, 
Md.; and Jan. 5, 18(32, Companies C, D, and I were ordered to 
Hancock, Md., to aid in repelling a force of the enemy. Having 
marched twenty-six miles, through a severe snow-storm, between 
three, p.m., of that day, and half-past one of the next morn- 
ing, they reported to Gen. Lander. But the enemy had left, after 
destroying several miles of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On 



the 30th, these companies left Hancock for Camp Jackson, at 
WiUiamsport, reaching their old quarters next day. 

Tlic month of February was occupied by the regiment in drills, 
guard-duty, picket-service, from Falling Waters towards Williams- 
port, with the ordinary routine of camp-life, relieved only by an 
occasional alarm which called the men to arms. 

March 1, a telegram from Gen. Banks made a stir in the en- 
campment ; and soon the regiment was crossing the Potomac. It 
joined Gen. Hamilton's brigade at Bunker Hill; on the 12th, 
acted as provost-guard in Winchester, Va. ; and, on the 20th, was 
added to Gen. Abercrombie's brigade. On the 25th, the troops 
crossed the Shenandoah to re-enforce Gen. Banks, but immediately 
retraced their steps to Blue Ridge on information that re-enforce- 
ments were not needed. 

Marches wore again the order for several days, until the regi- 
ment was quartered in deserted rebel tents at Bull Run. The 
history of April, in its general aspects, was similar to that of 
March. May 12, marching again commenced ; and the routes 
pursued were from Camp Stanton vid Cedar Creek, Falmouth, 
Alexandria, Manassas Junction, &c., to Front Royal. Col. 
Leonard wrote, June 8, 18G2 : — 

The \uiprecedented number of " absent sick " is owing to the heavy marches 
over the ridges of Manassas and the Blue Mountains, and without any shelter 
for the men except their rubber blankets, and their not having been accustomed 
to it. Two days' rest, with regular rations, have improved us very much. 
The want of proper food — living for a week on hard-bread and eoifee only — 
has aflPeeted the officers as well as enlisted men. 

July 4, by order of Gen. McDowell, the regiment moved 
towards Warrenton, and bivouacked near Gainesville. Resumed 
the march on the 5th. On the 25th, moved camp about one mile. 
On the 28th, took part in the action at Thoroughfare Gap ; and at 
night encamped at Gainesville. 

At daylight on the morning of the 29th, it marched to jManassas Junction, 
vid Bristow Station on the Alexandria and Orange Railroad, and thence to 
a position near the first Bull Run battle-field, where it bivouacked. Early on 
the morning of the 30th, the brigade in which they were was ordered forward 
to the line of the expected battle. Shortly after gaining this position, it was 
discovered that our left had been flanked by a heavy force ; and this regiment 
especially was receiving the enemy's fire from two directions. Soon the sup- 
ported line fell back, passing through the regunental line to the rear. Not 
until thus uncovered did this regiment return the fire of the enemy. 


After nearly half an hour's brisk fighting, many having been disabled, it 
became evident that the Thirteenth could not, unsupported, long hold the 
position, exposed, as it was, to a fierce enfilading fire fi-om both the enemy's 
artillery and musketry. At this time, their colonel received an order by one 
of Gen. McDowell's aides to flank to the woods, then partly occupied by the 
enemy, about one hundred yards distant, across a small brook and ravine 
much exposed to the enemy's fire. While accomplishing this movement, the 
left wing of our whole force gave way generally ; and this regiment retired 
with the other troops to re-form in the rear of the hospital. At night they 
retreated about two miles, and bivouacked, and, eai'ly the next morning, 
reached Centreville. 

The losses sustained by this regiment at this battle were nineteen killed, 
one hundred and eight wounded, and sixty-six missing ; total, one hundred 
and ninety-three. 

Oil the retreat of Gen. Pope's army, Gen. Lee entered Mary- 
land, and moved immediately upon Frederick, the capital. Gen. 
McClellan, at the head of the Union army, also advanced npon 
Frederick, and compelled a total change in the rebels' plan of 
operations. They, retiring towards Hagerstown, were brought to 
a stand, Sept. 14 ; and the battle of South Mountain was fought. 
On the 17th was fought the Ijattle of Antietam, resulting in the 
success of the Union arms. Advancing from Keedysville, on the 
right bank of Antietam Creek, the brigade of which the Thir- 
teenth was a part came under fire of the enemy. 

The colonel says, — 

For two hours, the regiment was spiritedly engaged. Their brigade was 
composed of four regiments, of which the Twelfth Massachusetts was on the 
right, the Eighty-third New- York on the left, and the Thu'teenth IMassachu- 
setts on the right of the left wing. The battle raged fiercely at this point. 
After a full hour's hard fighting, the right wing of the brigade, holding a more 
exposed position and suffering a hea\'y loss, fell back. This regiment was the 
last to retire ; and not until the Nineteenth Pennsylvania, which came up as 
a re-enforcement in the place of the Eleventh Pennsylvania and the Twelfth 
. Massachusetts, had retired from their right, and the Eighty-thu-d New- York 
fi'om their left, did their colonel receive the order to fall back. 

The Thirteenth was with the army under Gen. Burnside at 
Fredericksburg, and took part in the battle there, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Of the conduct of the Thirteenth in this battle. Adjutant Brad- 
lee, in a letter dated Falmouth, Dec. 17, 18G2, writes, — 

The continuous thug of the buUets as they struck around every man as he 
rose up to fire, and the fact that there were less than three hundred men iu 


front of three brigades, every man's actions to be seen by those in the rear, 
and not knowing any thing but what was going on in front, proved the grit of 
what remains of our regiment. At the general advance, shortly after noon, 
our regiment began to fire as rapidly as they could from a kneeling position , until 
the brigades advanced over them, and commenced the battle in earnest, as the 
press has it. The Thirteenth was ordered to rally upon their reserve of two 
companies, and sent nearly half a mile to the rear for ammunition, which they 
got after a long time, and when the Ijrigade had mostly fallen back, and formed 
on us. Gen. Gibbons being wounded. Gen. Taylor assumed command of the 
division, and Col. Leonard of the brigade, and advanced to a position in the 
rear of the road we picketed the night before. By what miracle our men 
escaped, no one can tell ; but cei;taiu it was, that, on our recapitulation of to- 
day, the regiment can account for every man but two, who were doubtless 
deserters, as they were not in the fight. 

The Thirteenth, excepting the sick, who numbered more than 
half the regiment, was, for the next nine months, most of the 
time on the move, with interludes of camp-life, at Fletcher's 
Chapel, White-oak Church, and other points. The Rappahan- 
nock and Deep Run will never be forgotten by the brave fellows, 
who, in spite of weariness and the rain, enlivened the march by 
songs and cheers. 

At the Fitz-IIugh House, the enemy's shells killed Capt. 
George Bush and Lieut. William Cardwell, Company F, and tore 
away the right leg and arm of Sergeant I. S. Fay. 

At Clianccllorsville, May 3, 1863, in a reconnoissance to discover 
the position of the enemy, seven men of the Thirteenth were 

On the 20th, the regiment was transferred to the first l)rigade. 
On the 12th of June, the army commenced its march northward. 
On the 25th, crossed the Potomac near Edward's Ferry, and the 
Pennsylvania line on the 30th ; when a halt was ordered, and a 
line of battle formed, owing to the first division, which was in 
advance, encountering the pickets of the enemy. 

Report from the battle-field of Gettysburg says, — 

IMarched, July 1, at sis o'clock, a.m. After proceeding about four miles, 
heard cannonading in front; our cavalry and flying artillery having engaged 
the advance of the enemy. The first and third divisions, being ahead of us, 
advanced, and we followed rapidly. Before proceeding far, the news came 
to the rear of the death of Gen. Reynolds. We rapidly neared the firing, 
which grew more rapid and severe as we approached. Soon the first division 
was engaged; and Gen. Paul notified the commanders that they were imme- 
diately going into an engagement. We left the road, and moved out to the 


front of Gettysburg, and soon came under the fire of the enemy. The enemy 
so much outnumbering us, our brigade was sent into action l>y regiments, and 
with so great intervals between them, as not to be able to properly support 
each other. The enemy pressed hard on our flanks; but our regiment — com- 
manded by Col. Leonard until he was wounded and retired, and afterwards 
by Lieut. -Col. Batclielder — held its ground for upwards of an hour, when, 
being seriously annoyed by a regiment of the enemy lying behind the banks of 
Chambersburg Pike Road, a charge was ordered, which resulted in the cap- 
ture of one hundred and thu-ty-two of the enemy, seven of whom were com- 
missioned officers. They were safely carried to the rear. A division of the 
Eleventh Corps, on our right, giving way before a charge of the enemy, with 
very slight resistance, left our flank exposed ; and, no support coming up, a 
retreat was ordered, and we fell back through the town to the heights in the 
rear, where the command was re-organized. About one hundred were taken 
prisoners in passing through the town. Our loss in killed, wounded, and 
missing, in the day's battle, was one hundred and eighty-nine. We took into 
action two hundred and sixty muskets. 

July 2. — We supported batteries on Cemetery Hill until nearly dark, when 
we were ordered to the left, and ran the gantlet of a very heavy artillery-fire;, 
reaching the point of attack as the enemy were driven back. ^Ve returned to 
our position on the right, and about nine, p.m., were moved over the hill in 
front of the batteries and near the town, where we were much annoyed by the 
sharpshooters firing from the windows of the houses. 

July 3. — Soon after daylight, we were ordered to the rear of the batteries. 
As we rose from the stone wall, and moved off, we received a volley from the 
pickets of the enemy, which fortunately did no damao-e. We held a position 
in support of batteries, until, the enemy making a desperate attack on the 
centre, our division was sent to re-enforce the Second Corps ; reaching the 
point of attack just as the enemy fell back broken and defeated. We 
then relieved the Second Corps, built earthworks in the edge of the woods, 
and, after sending out a strong picket, bivouacked. 

From the 6tli of July until the 27th of November, the Thirteenth 
was marching over mountams and through the gaps ; across the 
Potomac ; acting as rear-guard to the corps, July 22 ; and antici- 
pating hourly the attacks of guerillas ; on the 27th, on picket-duty 
near Bcalton Station ; and Aug. 1, with the rest of the l)rigade, 
encircling with rilic-pits the heights on which the " White House " 
stands ; then over Raccoon Ford ; through Manassas, with the 
roar of cannon all day sounding in the rear ; Oct. 24, fording 
Broad Run, and encamping on the battle-ground near Bristow 
Station ; and finally pitching its tents on the heights south of the 
Rapidan,near Culpeper, on Thanksgivings — a day full of pleasant 
thoughts and memories to the sons of New England. The next day, 


Nov. 27, the Thirteenth crossed to the Orange Court-house Road, 
and moved out into the Wilderness, going to the left of the Second 
Corps, and picketed through the night ; and, early in the follow- 
ing morning, went into line of battle. Gen. Meade finally 
abandoned his intention to storm the works of the enemy, on 
account of the great risk involved. The regiment reached Ger- 
mania Ford, Dec. 1 ; and thence, on the safe withdrawal of the 
army, marched to Stevensburg, and, by Christmas, to Mitchell's 
Station. The narrative from that date is as follows : — 

We remained here doing duty on the extreme front of the army as a por- 
tion of a brigade doing outpost duty, picketing the river and near it, having 
severe duty to perform ; and, from the smallness of our number and the 
importance of the position, the regiment was worked severely. We had 
the pleasure of being visited by division and corps commanders, and were 
reviewed by Lieut. -Gen. Grant on his route to Garnett's Peak, the outpost 
signal station of the army fronting the enemy. The brigade to which we were 
attached had this signal station under their charge ; and a large number of 
deserters and contrabands came into our lines, crossing the fords in our front. 
It was here that the first positive information was received of the successful 
escape of some of our officers through the tunnel under Libby Prison, — an 
officer of an Illinois regiment having found his way through Rebeldom to our 

On the 16th of April, 1864, Lieut. -Col. Batchelder received an 
honorable discharge. 

April 26, the regiment broke camp, and pitched tents a mile in 
advance. On the night of May 3, moved towards Culpeper, 
Lieut.-Col. Hovey commanding. 

On the morning of the 5th, moved to the front, and, early in the 
afternoon, engaged with the enemy. The limits of this sketch will 
not permit a detailed account of this campaign, which, for the en- 
durance and heroic daring of soldiers, is without a parallel in the 
history of modern warfare. It may be added, however, that from 
the 4th of May, when the regiment entered the Wilderness, up to 
the 6th of June, the troops had been under fire every day and 
night ; and a distinguished United-States senator says of the 
Thirteenth, ^^ that it ivas ahoays noted for g-ood conduct.^' 

It crossed the James River on the 16th of June, and moved 
towards Petersburg. The report concludes, — 

We did our share of picket and detail duty, assisting in building Fort War- 
ren, and working night and day. The regiment during this time was under 
command of Major Pierce, Lieut.-Col. Hovey being reheved on account of 
severe illness. 


The regiment left City Point for Washington on the morning of July 15, 
and arrived in Boston on the mornino; of the 21st. The time of the re"-imenfc 
expired July IG. 

The reception of the regiment in Boston was more than ordi- 
narily enthusiastic ; and the towns from wiiich six companies of 
the regiment came extended most kindly greetings and hearty 
favors to the veterans of the Thirteenth. 


This body of troops, called " the Essex-County Regiment," 
from the part of the State where most of the members were 
recruited, was stationed, early in June, at Fort Warren, on gar- 

Its colonel, William B. Greene, was in Paris when the civil 
conflict called for the sons of Massachusetts. He immediately 
embarked with his family for this country, and, upon his arrival, 
offered himself to the Commonwealth for duty in the field. 

The regiment was mustered into service July 5, 1861 ; and 
left Boston for Washington, Aug. 7, with the following officers : — 


Lieutenant -Colonel 



Assistant Surgeon 


WiUiara B. Greene. 
Samuel C. Oliver. 
Levi P. Wiight. 
David Dana, jun. 
Samuel K. Towle. 
Stephen Barker. 

The lieutenant-colonel is a son of Gen. Oliver, Treasurer of the 

The Fourteenth, on its arrival at the national capital, was 
ordered to Kalorama Heights, Md. It was ordered, a week 
later, to cross the Potomac River, and to garrison Fort Albany, 
then regarded as the " key to Washington." 

Tiie regiment shortly after also furnished a garrison for Fort 
Runyon, at the head of Long Bridge. Similar service near 
Washington was assigned the Fourteenth till the dawn of the 
new year. An order from the War Department, Jan. 1,1862, 
changed this regiment to that of the First Heavy Artillery, whose 
honorable record will appear in its proper place in this volume. 




The men of this regiment were from Worcester County. Their 
first commander was Col. Charles Devens. His subsequent pro- 
motion, and his prominence in the political affairs of the State, 
call for some notice of his life. He was born in Charlestown, 
April 4, 1820: entered Harvard University in 1834; and, after 
graduating at its Law School, commenced the practice of his pro- 
fession in Franklin County, Mass., in 1841. In 1847-48, he was 
in the State Senate; and, from 1849 to 1858, was United-States 
Marshal for the District of ]\Iassachusetts. For the part he took 
officially in the rendition of the fugitive slave Sims he was 
severely censured. That he acted conscientiously, and is a 
modest, true man, will appear from a recent statement by 
Lydia Maria Child. Intimate friends did not know the facts 
from any allusion to them by himself; nor was the generous act 
recorded by Mrs. Child the offer of a millionnaire, but that of a 
gentleman whose heart was larger than his means. The letter of 
Mrs. Child will also be a vindication of a large number of citizens 
of Massachusetts, whose words and acts may have seemed to some 
hostile to universal liberty, but whose hearts, beneath legal forms 
and party theories, were true to humanity and freedom. 

Of all the bad effects which slavery produces on character, I think that of 
meanness is the most conspicuous ; but its various demoralizing effects, all 
over the country, cannot be estimated. Nothing can be more disastrous than 
frequent collisions between the law of the land and the moral convictions 
of the people. In New England, reverence for law amounts almost to a 
religious feeling; and, when "iniquity is framed into u law," the sin is like 
that of poisoning the sacrament. Kind and conscientious men not unfre- 
quently get entangled in this conflict of duties ; and lucky it is for them if 
' they can preserve their integrity after they have subordinated the higher to 
the lower law, though with the idea that they are thereby performing a civil 

I have met with one remarkable case of this kind ; and, for the sake of its 
moral influence, I think it deserves to be recorded. Some months before the 
war broke out, a friend showed me letters from Thomas Sims, expressing an 
earnest desire to obtain his freedom. His master had promised to let him 
buy himself for eighteen hundred dollars. It was a large sum ; but I tried 
to raise it by writing many letters, most of them to persons more or less impli- 
cated in the rendition of Sims. Many of the letters were answered ; others 
brought in contributions. The Hon. John P. Bigelow, who was Mayor of 


Boston at the time the elty was so deeply disgraced hy that inhuman transac- 
tion, sent me twenty dollars, with expressions of regret that the execution of 
the law had compelled liim to take such a course. A short time after I com- 
menced these operations, I was astonished by the following note from Worces- 
ter, Mass. : — 

Mrs. Child, — I have heard that you are trying to raise money to redeem 
Thomas Sims from slavery. If you have received any contributions, please 
return them to the donors, as I wish to contribute the entire sum myself. 
Yours respectfully, 


In making my applications, I had chanced to overlook Mr. Devens, though 
I knew he had acted as United-States Marshal at the time of the rendition of 
Sims. According to his request, I returned the contributions I had received ; 
and, in writing to thank him, I informed him of the high price demanded. 
He rephed, that the sum was subject to my order whenever I chose to call for 
it. The feeling of indignation which I formerly had against him was changed 
to respect and admiration ; but, when I wrote him, I could not refrain from 
giving him a little patte de velours, merely saying that he reminded me of 
the senator in " Uncle Tom." 

There were impediments in the way of communicating with Thomas Sims ; 
and, liefore the affair could bo safely- arranged, the outbreak of the civil war 
rendered negotiations with Southerners impracticable. Mr. Devens, though 
well established as a lawyer, immediately volunteered his services for the 
defence of the country, and received a major's commission from Gov. Andrew. 
He is still in the army, having fought bravely through the war. He was 
severely wounded at Fair Oaks, and again at Chaneellorsville, and in numer- 
ous battles has fairly earned his present rank of brevet major-general. 

In a recent letter to me he writes, " It is a satisfaction to me that I have 
had a reasonably active part in the great struggle which has resulted in the 
mancipation of all the slaves. I agi-ee with you, that suffrage ought to be 
given to the negroes, though with certain restrictions as to education ; the 
same restrictions being applied to all white men who shall vote liereafter. 
The liberty of no race can be safe if deprived of this right as a race. Injus- 
tice, followed by civil commotion, will be the inevitable result of such a 

Thomas Sims married after he was returned to slavery ; and^when the 
United-States army arrived in his vicinity, he contrived to convey himself, wife, 
and child, into their camp. When he again arrived in Massachusetts, Gen. 
Devens sent him, through me, a present of one hundred dollars, to assist him 
till he could get into business. I call that man a true hero in the highest and 
best sense of the term ; and I think all your readers will agree with me. 


When, in the spring of 1831, Mr. Devens was appointed juajor 


of a battalion of rifles, he was practising law in the city of Worces- 
ter. With these troops he performed garrison duty at Annapolis 
and Baltimore, Md., until he was called to the command of this 
regiment, whose roster was as follows : — 

Colonel .... Charles Devens, jun. , Worcester. 

Limtenant- Colonel . . George H. Ward, Worcester. 

Major .... John W. Kimball, Fitchburg. 

Surgeon .... Joseph N. Bates, Worcester. 

Assistant Surgeon . . S. Foster Haven, jun., Worcester. 

Chaplain . • , • William G. Scandlin, Grafton. 

The annals of the Fifteenth were ably and modestly written by 
Lieut.-Col. Kimball, which, with the omission of the less impor- 
tant particulars for the want of space, are quoted in his own 
words : — 

The Fifteenth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, was organized 
in Worcester County, in the month of June, 1861, under the call for three- 
years' volunteers to put down the rebellion then existing in our country. 
For a nucleus, the regiment had three companies of State miUtia around vfhich 
to rally. Seven companies of entirely new organization being added, the 
whole was mustered into the service of the United States, June 12, 1861, as 
the Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, under the command of 
Col. Charles Devens, jun. During the process of recruiting, organizing, and 
drilling, the regiment was encamped in the city of Worcester, at Camp Scott ; 
which the regiment left, Aug. 8, 1861, direct for Washington, full in num- 
bers, thoroughly and entirely armed and equipped. Arriving in Washington, 
Aug. 11, quarters were obtained in public buildings used at that time for 
the accommodation of the thousands of troops which were crowding- into the 
city. Next day, they were ordered to Camp Kalorama ; and thence, on the 
25th, to Poolesville, Md. Here was the first experience in bivouac. Undes; 
a cloudless sky, bright with its ten thousand lights, the men, wearied by the 
unusual toil, threw themselves upon the grass-grown earth, to forget in sleep 
the then called hardships of a soldier's life. The march next day was 
eighteen miles ; the bivouac at night a piece of woodland, near the town of 
Dawsonville. Poolesville was reached on the 27th August, and the regi- 
ment ordered into camp by Gen. Charles P. Stone, commanding corps of 
observation, on a large common, or plain, near the town. Nothing of im- 
portance occurred to break the monotony of the established camp until the 
battle of Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21. Of the events of that disastrous day, it is 
sufficient to say, that, after an obstinate resistance from morning till night 
against superior numbers, our forces were driven from the bluff to the river. 
The only means of transportation across the river were two boats, — one capable 
of holding sixty men ; the other, a small lifedjoat, not more than sixteen. Into 
these the troops crowded. The large boat soon sunk, filled with men, many 


of tbem wounded ; and, for want of proper means of piopelling the smaller 
one, it was but of little service at that critical moment. The only chance of 
escape left was by swimming, made extremely hazardous by the galling fire 
which the enemy poui'ed into the river. 

Of the six hundred and twenty-five men of the regiment who in the morning 
crossed the river, but three hundred and thirteen returned uninjured at night. 
Two officers were killed, four wounded, seven taken prisoners. Our morning 
reports, immediately after the battle, show a loss among the enlisted men of 
twenty-six killed outright, sixty-six wounded, and two hundred and twenty- 
four missing in action. 

Nothing of note occurred during the fall and winter months. Orders to 
march were received Feb. 25, and camp was broken. The troops marched 
successively to Harper's Ferry, where they were quartered in buildings ; 
thence to Bolivar Heights, Charlestown, and Berryville. On the 22d, they 
were transported to Washington, and the next day ordered to Alexandria ; 
whence, March 29, they embarked on board transports for Hampton. The 
Fifteenth landed here April 1, and, on the 4th, commenced its march up the 
Peninsula, and went into camp beyond Big Bethel. This camp was known 
as Camp Misery ; a name entirely in keeping with the condition of the camp, 
which, by a long rain-storm, was made truly miserable. Here the labor of 
felhng timber and making roads commenced, in order that the artillery and 
trains might be brought to the front. Until the evacuation of Yorktown by 
the enemy, the regiment was actively employed on picket-duty, supportmg 
artillery, throwing up earthworks, &c. During the siege, the first company 
of Andrews Sharpshooters became attached to the regiment. While before 
Yorktown, Col. Devens left the Fifteenth to take command of a brigade, having 
been appointed a brigadier-general. The command of the regiment was 
immediately assumed by Lieut.-Col. Kimball. Shortly after. Col. Ward, 
who had lost a leg at Ball's Bluff, and who was a very brave and meritorious 
officer, took command. 

On the evacuation of their works by the enemy, May 4, the 
Fifteenth embarked for West Point, arriving there in time to re- 
enforce Gen. Franklin, who was engaged with the enemy. The 
troops then advanced until they reached the Tyler Estate, near 
the Chickahominy ; which point they gained May 22. The heat 
at this time was intense ; and, for want of proper rest, many of 
the men fell out from the ranks in an exhausted condition. 

Early in the afternoon of May 31, rapid and heavy firing was heard, dis- 
tinctly heard, from across the river. The troops under Gen. Sumner, including 
the Fifteentli Begiment, were immediately ordered under arms, and marched 
to the assistance of Gen. Casey. Crossing the river on a bridge of logs, 
called Sumner's Grapevine Bridge, the column advanced about two miles, 
and formed near Fair-oaks Station, in anticipation of an attack. The rcgi- 


mcntbad barely time to load, before the battle, winch raged fiercely until after 
dark, commenced. The first position taken by the Fifteenth Regiment was in 
support of a battery of light artillery, commanded by Lieut. Kirl)y of the 
regular service, which was playing with great effect upon the concealed enemy. 
This position was trying to the men in the extreme : as but a small portion 
were engaged, the balance could only stand firmly before the storm of bullets, 
to resist the cliarge, should one be attempted. Three times did the foe, 
flushed with the victory of the morning, and confident of success, rush upon 
the battery almost to the cannon's mouth, but each time were driven back in 
disorder, leaving many brave men within a few yards of our bayonets. Before 
they could rally from this terrible fire of canister and musketry, a charge 
upon them was ordered. With wild shouts and cheers, the unwavering line 
advanced into the almost impenetrable thicket ; but the enemy had fled : their 
dead and wounded alone were left, the evidences of a glorious victory. That 
night, the troops rested upon their arms on the battle-field, the horrors of 
which were made doubly revolting by the unceasing groans of the wounded. 

In the battle of Fair Oaks, the regiment sustained a loss of five killed, 
seventeen wounded. The battle-field became the permanent camp at Fair 
Oaks. A breastwork of logs was thrown up, behind which the regiment 
stood in line of battle many weary hours, both day and night, during the 
entire month of June, in anticipation of an attack. 

On the 27th, the expected attack was made. Although not brought into 
action, the regiment was under fire. On the 29th, it marched to Savage 
Station for the purpose of destroying the ordnance-stores, prior to abandoning 
that post. Having performed this work, it awaited the troops then slowly 
falling back from Fair Oaks. In the engagement of the evening of that day 
the Fifteenth took an active part, and was posted on picket until nine, p.m.; 
when it was quietly withdrawn, and the retreat continued to Glen Dale. In 
the rear again at Glen Dale, the regiment was engaged with the enemy on the 
evening of June 30, as the result of which the trains were enabled to reach 
a place of comparative safety. 

July 1, the pickets were withdrawn, and the retreat continued 
to Malvern Hill. 

On the arrival at Harrison's Landing, the soldiers were 
thoroughly worn out by the unceasing fighting and marching of 
the week. A suitable place was selected, and a permanent camp 
established, known as Camp near Harrison's Landing. During 
the month of July, but little was required of the regiment ; the 
intense heat of the weather rendering constant drilling highly 

Aug. 15, the array moved for Newport News, where the regi- 
ment embarked for Alexandria. On the 29th, it arrived at Chain 
Bridge, when an order was received requiring the division to 


which the Fifteenth was attached to march immediately to Cen- 
treville. By a forced march during the night, this point" was 
reached just in time to cover the retrograde move of the army 
towards Washington. *j 

Sept. 2, tlie Fifteenth crossed tlie Potomac ; halted two days at 
Camp Defiance, near Rockville ; met and routed the enemy's cav- 
alry at Hyattstown on the 8tli ; and, on the 9th, entered Frederick 
City. It arrived at South-Mountain Pass the night of the battle 
there,, and relieved a brigade. The next morning's sun revealed 
that the enemy had left during the night, and pursuit was imme- 
diately commenced. Sept. 16, preparations were made for the 
impending battle, and the regiment ordered to be in readiness 
the next day. On the morning of the 17th, the great battle of 
Antietam commenced ; and, at nine o'clock. Gen. Sumner's corps 
was ordered to the front to follow up the success already achieved 
by the troops under Gen. Hooker. 

It has been the subject of much remark, that troops never went into battle 
more cheerfully than did ours that morning ; so confident were all that the 
shattered enemy would be driven, ere night, across the river. At half-past ten 
o'clock, the Fifteenth, in the front line of the division, became engaged, and 
for twenty minutes sustained a terrific fire from the enemy, at the expiration 
of which time the disheartening order to fall back was given. We have 
neither time, space, nor heart to record in detail the disasters to the Fifteenth 
on that day. It was repulsed, in common with all other regiments attached 
to the division. In the history of our State, we claim to be mentioned as 
having fought a good fight; as an evidence of which, we ask only that the 
list of casualties occurring in the regiment that day may always be coupled 
with the ofiicial report of the commanding ofiicer. The record stands thus : 
Twenty-four officers, and five hundred and eighty-two non-commissioned officers 
and privates, went into the fight; five officers were killed, six were wounded, 
one of which number has since died ; sixty enlisted men left dead on the 
field, two hundred and forty-eight wounded, twenty-four missing ; total, 
three hundred and forty-three killed, wounded, and missing. Included in 
this number is the loss sustained by the Andrews Shai'pshooters, which was 
two officers killed, eight non-conmiissioned officers and privates lulled, and 
seventeen wounded, one of whom has since died of his wounds. 

The National and State colors, hardly to be recognized as the same once so 
bright and beautiful, were brought off" in safety by hands other than those 
wlio bore them into the fight, together with a battle-flag of the enemy, since 
delivered at headquarters. Army of the Potomac, by virtue of an order re- 
quiring that all trophies be thus turned over. The enemy, held in cheek by 
our artillery, did not follow up their success ; and a stand was made by the 
remnants of the regiments, which position was not attacked by any force of 


infantry. On the night of the 18th, the enemy evacuated, the terrible battle- 
field-falling into our hands tlie next morning. 

Almost all of the wounded were found in and about a barn near the field, 
where, as well cared for by the enemy as circumstances would permit, they 
ftnpatiently awaited our arrival. The robbed and disfigured bodies of our 
noble dead were laid by kind hands in the humble graves hastily dug and 
prepared for their reception. Sept. 22, nothing loath to leave the scene of 
carnage, the regiment marched from Sharpsburg to Harper's Ferry, forded 
the Potomac, and occupied the same ground as a carap left more than six 
months before. 

From this point, the line of march lay along the east side of the 
Blue Ridge, occupying, from day to day, the gaps through which 
demonstrations on the part of the enemy might be expected. Nov. 2, 
the regiment encountered the enemy's cavalry at Ashby Gap ; but 
they fled without firing a shot. On the 9th of November, the regi- 
ment entered Warrenton, and encamped. Nov. 15, the Union 
army evacuated Warrenton, and, on the 20th, reached Falmouth. 

On the 5th of February, 1863, Col. Ward rejoined his regiment, 
having been absent (sufifering from the loss of his leg) since the 
battle of Ball's Bluff, Oct. 2^1. 1861. Nothing worthy of note 
occurred until the campaign under Gen. Hooker commenced. 

On the 2d of May, a little before sunrise, the second division 
of the Second Corps, of which the Fifteenth was a part, crossed 
the river at the same point where the Second Corps had crossed 
in December, 1862, with little or no opposition. 

The Fifteenth was soon after directed to take a position on the extreme 
right of the first brigade, and commenced moving to a point on the right of 
the city ; and, at the same moment, the enemy's batteries opened from three 
different points with solid shot and shell, which they kept up while the regi- 
ment was going the distance of half a mile. At the same time this movement 
was going on, the enemy were hurrying up their infantry at double-quick, 
and filling the rifle-pits on the crest of the hill in our front, almost in rifle 
range. It was our good fortune to have a slight embankment for a cover, 
where we remained for two hours, until the position known as Mai-y's 
Heights, in rear of the famous l^ank-wall rifle-pit where so many brave 
men laid down their lives at the first battle of Fredericksburg, was flanked 
by Gen. Sedgwick's Sixth Corps ; and the enemy in our front began to fall 
back. A canal, sonic thirty feet wide, and too deep to ford, prevented our 
advancing directly in front ; and we were obliged to return to the city before 
doing so. During the time we had remained there, the enemy had placed 
two guns in such a position on the bluff, on the south side of the r'wav, that 
they had an enfilading fire on our line while returning to the city ; but 
either through their great haste to join their fleeing comrades, or bad prac- 


tice, they did us little hann : but two men slightly wounded during the 
whole shelling. After following up the enemy two miles, the second division 
were ordered back to the city, — the Fifteenth to the north bank of the river, 
supporting Battery A, First Rhode-Island Artillery, which covered the pon- 
toon-bridge, where we remained until the following day about dusk, when 
Companies A, B, E, and G moved into the rifle-pits above and below the 
bridge to cover its removal. 

The regiment camped near the banks of the river until the 8th inst., 
when we moved half a mile to the rear to get better ground for camping- 
purposes. Here the regiment remained, doing picket-duty along the river, 
until Sunday, the 14th of June. It moved about nine o'clock, p.m., towards 
Stafford Court House. 

The march northward now commenced. On the 26th, the army 
crossed the Potomac at Edward's Ferry, when the following order 
was issued : — 

Headquarters Second DmsiON, Second Corps, 
Edward's Ferry, Va., June 26, 1863. 

General Orders, No. 105. 

The Fifteenth and Nineteenth Massachusetts Volunteers, for marching 

to-day in the best and most compact order, and with the least straggling from 

their ranks, are excused from all picketrduty and outside details for four days. 

By command of 


July 1, about noon, heavy cannonading was heard to the northward ; and 
the troops were soon marching rapidly towards the Pennsylvania line. At 
night, they bivouacked behind a barricade of rails, three miles south of Gettys- 
burg. Nest morning, about sunrise, the Fifteenth got into position behind 
Cemetery Ridge, where a large part of the Secoiid Corps was massed. No 
demonstration was made on either side until one, p.m. ; when the enemy 
opened fire with artillery on the Second Corps. The Fifteenth, with another 
regiment of the brigade, was now moved out to a position full three hundred 
yards in front of the main line : here a barricade of rails was hastily thrown 
up. About sunset, the enemy made a furious assault upon our lines. Hav- 
ing driven in the Third Corps, they speedily gained the flank of this advanced 
detachment of the Second. The batteries on the ridge opened on their ad- 
vance with grape and case-shot ; but, through some deplorable mistake, most 
of the shots fell short, and tore vnth destructive effect through the ranks of 
the Fifteenth. Exposed thus, front, flank, and rear, the regiment was forced, 
after considerable loss, back to a position behind the ridge. Next day, at 
one, P.M., the rebels opened upon our lines with a hundred pieces of 
artillery. This terrible fire was continued for about two hours ; and, though 
the air seemed filled with the fragments of bursting shells, comparatively 
little damage was done. At three, p.m., the rebel infantry moved to 



the assault. Our men sprang promptly to meet them, glad at a prospect 
of work, relieving them from their painful recumbent position, which a 
broiling sun rendered the more intolerable. This contest lasted an hour or 
two, during which both armies showed a determination to hold their ground, 
regardless of the results. A slight wavering of the rebel line was detected ; 
and at the suggestion of Col. Hall, commanding third brigade, the colors of 
the Fifteenth were ordered to advance, when the remnant of the regiment 
rallied promptly around them, and the whole line, as if moved by one im- 
pulse, rushed forward, and carried the position. The regiment was sent out 
to picket the field ; and at daylight, on the morning of the 4th, skirmishing 
commenced, and continued until the regiment was relieved at eight o'clock. 
The regiment went into action with eighteen officers and two hundred and 
twenty-one enlisted men. During the three days, it lost three officers (Col. 
Ward and Capts. Murkland and Jorgensen) killed and eight wounded, and 
nineteen enlisted men killed and eighty-five wounded, many of which have 
since died. Saturday, July 4, was spent on the field. 

At two, p",M., of the 5tli, the regiment left the battle-field, and 
marched in pursuit of the discomfited rebels. On the 18th, it 
crossed the Potomac, and, on the 23d, hastened over paths fright- 
fully rough to the assistance of the Third Corps, which had 
become engaged with the enemy at Manassas Gap. 

The march was continued, vid Warrenton Junction and Beal- 
ton Station, to the Camp near Morrisville. 

On the 31st, the regiment, with a part of the Second Corps, 
was ordered to the fords of the Rappahannock to assist in de- 
stroying two small steamers which had been captured by the 
enemy a few days before. The object of the expedition success- 
fully accomplished, the Fifteenth returned to camp. Oct. 14, the 
regiment took part in the action at Bristow's Station, when the 
enemy were severely repulsed, and with heavy loss to them, but 
comparatively little to the Fifteenth. It was again engaged at 
Robertson's Tavern. Here it was deployed as skirmishers, joming 
on the right of the second brigade. 

Nov. 30, moved out in front of the enemy's fortifications, which the Second 
and Third Corps, and one division of the Sixth, expected to assault at 
eight, A.M. The enemy, having anticipated the movement, were re-enforced 
to such an extent with both artillery and infantry, that the assault was 
abandoned, and the line withdrawn after dark. 

Next, under orders to relieve another regiment, the Fifteenth 
marched to Ely's Ford ; crossed the Rapidan on the 2d of Decem- 
ber, and, on the 5th, moved to a position near Stevensburg, and 
there, for the third time, built winter-quarters. These were 


neither regularly built, nor ornamental in design, but were well 
arranged and comfortable within. 

During April, 1864, preparations for the spring campaign were 
in full operation. This opened on or about the 1st of May. 

A field return on that day gave the strength of the Fifteenth Regiiuent, 
present for duty, as about three hundred officers and men : of this number, 
two hundred and seventy-five were I'ank and file. In the battle of the Wil- 
derness, the regiment lost about one-half its number in killed and wounded. 
The simple statement, that, in all the marches and battles from the liapidan 
to Petersburg in which the Second Corps was engaged, the Fifteenth Regi- 
ment bore its part, is in itself sufficient history. 

On the 22d of June, the regiiiient, dwindled down to five officers and 
about seventy muskets, confronted the enemy near the Jerusalem Plank-road, 
before Petersburg. A break, or gap, in the line of battle, allowed the enemy 
to throw a large force on the flank and in the rear of the second division, 
Second Corps. Hidden from view by a dense undergrowth, the manoeuvre 
was not comprehended until too late. The first intimation of the position of 
affairs was a demand from the enemy to surrender. Taken thus by surprise, 
and overwhelmed by numbers, the remnant of the regiment was captured 
almost entire. Four officers and about sixty-five men were marched off pris- 
oners of war : one officer and some five men escaped to tell the story. This 
officer was wounded the same day, and shortly after the disaster, with the few 
remaining men, whose number was increased by the arrival of convalescents, 
was placed for a few days in another command, until officers of the regi- 
ment, who had been wounded in the campaign, and who were on theu* way to 
the front from hospital, should arrive. 

On the twelfth day of July, the regiment was ordered to proceed to the city 
of Worcester, Mass. , to be mustered out of service ; its term of three years 
having expired. One company, not mustered in until Aug. 5, 18G1, was 
left in the field : the balance, increased by detachments of sick and wounded 
men whose condition was such as enabled them to travel, men on detached 
service, &c., entered the city of Worcester about one hundred and fifty strong. 
The reception these men received will never be forgotten as long as life and 
memory shall be granted them. 

His Excellency Gov. Andrew and staff, together with his Honor 
Mayor Lincoln and the city authorities of Boston, welcomed the regiment 
home, thanking the men in eloquent words for the j^art they had borne in 
their country's struggle, and alluding with tender respect to the honored dead 
who had fallen in the fight. Both state and city were represented in the 
military escort and procession. The city, decorated with flags, wore a holi- 
day aspect ; and tlio crowded streets and welcoming shouts gave proof of the 
heartiness and spirit of the people. 

One week later, the regiment was formally mustered out of the service of 
the United States, and to-day exists only in memory. Its members yet held 


to service by reason of re-eulistraent, or non-expiration of term of service, 
were transferred to the Twentieth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers. 
Four officers were prisoners of war. 

During the year 1864, one officer only of the regiment was killed ; namely, 
Lieut. Simonds, of Fitchburg. A brave soldier, a pure man, his character 
and deeds will ever be remembered by his comrades. 



Sixteenth. — Where raised. — Officers. — Col. Wyman. — Capt. Lombard's Account. — Pen- 
insula. — Fredericksburg. — Wapping Heights and Locust Grove. — Chancellorsville. 

— Gettysburg. — Wilderness. — Death of Capt. Rowe. — Cold Harbor. — Petersburg 

— Mustered out. — Seventeenth. — Where recruited. — Officers. — Near Baltimore. — 
Join Gen. Foster. — Expedition from Newbern. — Operations in North Carolina. — Mus- 
tered out. — Return Home. 


THIS regiment was composed of troops raised in Middlesex 
County. It was ordered, June 25, to Camp Cameron, Cam- 
bridge ; ond in August left for the seat of war, officered as 
follows : — 

Colonel . . , . • , . Powell F. Wyman. 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... George A. IMeachara. 

Major ...... Daniel S. Lamson. 

Surgeon ...... Charles C. Jewett. 

Assistant Surgeon ' . . . . Edward A. Winston. 

Chaplain Arthur B. Fuller. 

Col. Wyman, a graduate of West Point, whose service in the 
regular army was highly honorable, was in Europe when the 
great struggle commenced. Hastening home, he offered himself 
to the country, impatient to lead a regiment to the field of conflict. 
He was placed in command of the Sixteenth. The history of this 
noble regiment is well presented in the sketch given of it by 
Capt. Lombard, which, omitthig unimportant particulars, is given 
below. He says, — 

The Sixteenth left the State, Aug. 17, 1861, and proceeded to Baltimore, 
where it remained until Sept. 1 ; when it was ordered to Monroe, 
Ya. It remained at the latter post until May, 1862 ; when it triumphantly 
marched into Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Suffolk, it being the first Union 
regiment which entered those cities. It marched, and joined the Army of the 
Potomac at Fair Oaks, June 13, 1862, and shed its first blood on the 18th 
of the same month in an action known as "Woodland Skirmish." For its 



gallantly and good conduct at that time, Gen. Hooker complitnented Col. 
Wyiiian and the regiment with the remark, "I can trust them anywhere." 
In this skirmish, Lieut. F. P. H. Rogers was mortally wounded. From a 
long and intimate acquaintance with Lieut. Rogers, I learned the more to 
esteem him. His whole heart was in the cause he had espoused. All were 
sad that so good and efficient an officer should thus early fall. 

The regiment was next engaged at Peach Orchard, June 25. On the 30th, 
at Glendale, the Sixteenth won for itself true glory. At this time, Color-Sergt. 
J. F. Capelle distinguished himself in the manner with which he carried the 
colors in action, and his conduct while there. In the early part of the battle. 
Col. Wyman fell. Without a syllable from his lips, he passed from this to 
the unknown world. He was a true patriot and noble commander. All the 
traits of a good soldier were illustrated in his character. No pen can describe 
the feelings of the officers and men when they knew he was no more. The 
heart alone knows the bitterness of such a moment. In Gen. Hooker's letter 
to Gov. Andrew on the death of Wyman, we find the following sentence : 
"There is no doubt but at Glendale the Sixteenth Massachusetts saved the 

At Malvern Hill, July 1, Bristow Station, Aug. 27, the ' Sixteenth took 

Auo;. 29 and 30, we were eno-ao-ed at the battle of second Bull Run. 
Lieuts. Darricott and Banks were killed. Lieut. Darricott was a faithful of- 
ficer, and by his heroic endurance while in feeble healtli won for himself the 
respect of both officers and men. Lieut. Hiram Banks (a brother of Gen. 
Banks) joined the regiment at Fortress Monroe. His career was indeed 
glorious. His more than ordinary ability, firmness, and decision, gave him 
marked distinction among his fellow-officers. 

Dec. 12, 13, and 14, at Fredericksburg, where Northern blood drenched 
the banks of the Rappahannock, perhaps no one officer more distinguished 
himself than the lamented Arthur B. Fuller. Chaplain Fuller was then out 
of service, having been discharged for disability; but being there, and seeing 
the heroism of our troops, he could not resist the op[X)rtunity to prove by acts 
his love for the cause, and by example his unfeigned patriotism. No hero 
deserves a brighter page in history than this departed patriot. 

The first battle fought by the Army of the Potomac in 18G3 will ever be 
rememl)ered, — Chancellorsville. In this engagement, Capt. A. J. Dallas 
was killed, and Lieuts. Hiram Rowe and Samuel G. Savage mortally wounded. 
In Capt. Dallas's character, strict integrity, morality, and patriotism were 
most prominent. Lieut. Rowe was promoted from the ranks, a young man 
of great promise, honest, a strict disciplinarian, brave to a fault and in every 
sense a good soldier. Lieut. Savage was one of the few men who " know 
themselves." He entered the service a corporal; and, by strict attention to 
duty, he won the respect and confidence of his superiors, and was promoted for 
good conduct on the field. 

The name of Gettysburg is immortal. We cannot think of the first, sec- 


ond, and third days of July, 1863, without feelings of sorrow, yet mingled 
with pride, — sorrow for the dead and suffering soldiers and mourning friends, 
pride that victory had perched upon our banners. Capts. King, Roche, 
and Lieut. Brown, fell upon the field, Capt. Johnson mortally wounded, and 
several other officers slightly wounded. Captain L. Gr. King was a good 
officer, true to the cause he so early espoused ; never flinching, but always 
foremost in the fight. He was possessed of great powers of endurance. 

Capt. David W. Roche was one of Ireland's most noble sons, possessed of 
the real Irish impetuosity and courage. All who knew him honored him for 
his devotion to his adopted country, and love for our flag, under wlueh he so 
freely offered up his life. 

Lieut. Brown was particularly distinguished for modesty, coolness, and 
true courage. None knew him but to love and honor him. 

The name of Capt. C. Robinson Johnson will awaken in the heart of 
every soldier of the Sixteenth a feeling of respect and love which can only die 
when the last patriot of the Sixteenth is no more. . . . 

Wapping Heights, Locust Grove, and Mine Run, end the list of battles for 
1862 and 1863. Two years and six months of the three years had passed. 
The record is a proud one. All could say in truth, " We have done what we 
could to sustain the honor of the old Commonwealth." I now commence that 
part of our history fraught with the most important results, and by far the 
severest atid hardest year's service, — 1864. 

The new year found the regiment encamped at Brandy Station, Va. ; where 
it remained until May 8. This was a day of labor. The old huts were 
levelled, grounds cleaned, and tents pitched. At dark it received orders to 
move at midnight. Rations were issued, and all things were ready. Prompt 
to the hour, we marched, and bade adieu to our old camps ; and, amid the 
shades of night, we cast the last lingering look on the ruins where we had 
passed so many happy hours. 

May 4. the Sixteenth crossed the Rapidan, and at three, p.m., encamped 
on the battle-ground of Chancellorsville. IMany things contributed to remind 
the men of their last year's experience on this spot. The bones of their fallen 
companions, whitened l)y the winter's frosts, lay scattered through the woods ; 
while here and there " were blooming in innocent beauty the violet and other 

The next day, the Sixteenth met the enemy's skirmishers on the Brock 
Road, in the Wilderness. The entire corps was hotly engaged until eight, p.m., 
without any material change of lines. 

Next morning, jMay 6, the sun rose on a cloudless sky, but was soon ob- 
scured by the smoke of battle. At six, a.m., the entire line was advanced 
about one mile, the battle raging fiercely until eleven, a.m.. wlien the heavy 
re-enforcements of the enemy were thrown in masses upon our lines. At this 
time, the Sixteenth showed its real pluck, and held the ground until the en- 
tire line both to the right and left had fallen baok. Wo retired slowly, con- 
testing each foot of ground until we reached the works, when we were assigned 


the right of the brigade along the second line of works. At five, p.m., Gen. 
Longstreet's corps made its famous charge upon our line. The advance line 
of battle fought the masses of the enemy until their ammunition was expended ; 
when they were obliged to evacuate the works, and seek shelter at our rear. 
While so doing, the enemy occupied the advance line. In a moment, as if 
by magic, the Sixteenth leaped the works, and charged the enemy, forcing him 
back, and captured a large number of prisoners. The l)rave and impetuous 
lieutenant, William Ross, was the first to reach the captured works. The flag 
of the Sixteenth first waved over them after their recapture. 

Col. McAllister, commanding brigade, particularly mentioned the Sixteenth, 
in his official report, for its good conduct. 

In this day's fighting, Capt. Jos. S. Hills and Lieut. John H. Woodfin 
were killed. 

Capt. Hills was a young man of great promise. He entered the service 
as a sergeant, and was the first promoted from the ranks. No officer in the 
regiment had a more enviable record. In battle he knew not fear, and 
obeyed and executed orders with that alacrity which distinguishes a good 
soldier. Firmness, strict temperance, and morality, were traits in his charac- 
ter which stood forth so prominent, that none failed to observe. Lieut. J. H. 
Woodfin was a good officer, and, like CJlpt. Hills, was promoted from the 

From the 7th to the 10th of May, wo marched from the Wilderness to 
Spottsylvania, moving by the left flank ; each day erecting from one to three 
lines of earth-works. 

May 10, at eight, a.m., the regiment was ordered out as skirmisliers, and 
were immediately engaged. Remained on the line and under fire all day. 

The fourth was now consolidated with the third division, and the Sixteenth 
attached to the second brigade. 

The 12th was a memorable day for the Army of the Potomac and for the 
country. Before daylight, the Second Corps was formed in line of battle, and 
advanced (over the grounds on which the Sixteenth had skirmished two days 
previous) : taking the enemy by surprise, we were in their camps while they 
were yet sleeping. The result of that day's action, in captures of guns and 
prisoners, is well known. The Sixteenth is entitled to a share of the glory. 
After the capture of their line, the, enemy rallied, and the almost bloodless 
victory of the morning was soon turned to a severe battle. At twelve, M., 
the Sixteenth was ordered to the I'ight, along the crest of a hill, where the 
enemy had regained a few rods of the works lost in the morning. Along the 
entire line, this seemed the only contested spot. Our object was, that 
the enemy should capture no more of the works, and that a steady fire be 
kept up, so that no re-enforcements could reach those already there. 

The musketry fire was terrific. It was at this point that a tree, some 
fourteen inches in diameter, was actually cut down with bullets ; it being 
between the fire of the contending parties. Regiment after I'egiment was 
thrown into this deadly position, and were cut down before the terrific fire 


like gi'ass. Indeed, the blood flowing from so many killed and wounded, 
mixing with the rain then falling, gave the running water the a])pearance of 
streams of blood. 

The men fired upwards of three hundred rounds of ammunition, of various 
caliber ; aft'jr which they were relieved to clean their pieces. 

In this action our loss was heavy, including Lieut.-Col. Waldo Merriam, 
then commanding the regiment, killed. He was a brave and good officer, for- 
getting self while serving his country, and ever willing to sacrifice personal 
comforts for his country's good. 

From May 10 to the 20th the regiment was under fire each day, withiu one 
mile of the Spottsylvania battle-field. ' 

Advancing on the 21st, the regiment reached the North Anna 
on the 20d, and crossed next morning under a terrible fire from 
the enemy's artillery. Continuing the march in a south-easterly 
direction, the Sixteenth reached the Pamunkey on the 28th, and 
took up a position thirteen miles from Richmond. On the 29th, 
advanced the lines al)out three miles, and, on the 31st, moved 
across a miry swamp, drove the enemy from their guns, and con- 
tinued the advance across an open field, under a severe fire of 
grape and canister. The men never flinched, and the regiment 
never acquitted itself more honorably. It was relieved at dark. 
In this encounter, Capt. John Rowe was mortally wounded. 

Capt. Rowe entered the service a sergeant ; was promoted for good conduct 
and faithful service. From a long and intimate acipiaintance, I learned to 
prize him for his sterling traits of character, and kindness of heart. In his 
death, the country lost a good soldier, his widowed mother a noble son, and 
his comrades an associate whose life is worthy of emulation. 

From the 1st to the 14th of June, the regiment marched from 
Cold Harbor to Windmill Point ; crossing the Chick'ahominy on 
the 13th, and the James next day. On the 15th, at twelve at 
night, reached the outer works of Petersburg. These works were 
captured by the colored troops. The next day, the regiment was 
employed in turning the captured works. At the close of the 
day, it was hotly engaged with the enemy. In this action, it lost 
several of its best men iu killed and wounded. June 17, the 
Sixteenth was iiuder fire all day, losing several men. The same 
experience was repeated for several days in succession until the 
23d, when the regiment took position near the Strong House, 
where it remained until tiie night of July 11 : it then left the 
front for Massachusetts, to be mustered out, having served the full 
term of three years. The regiment reached liomc on the 22d, 
and w^ere mustered out on the 2Tth, of July, 1864. 



Five officers and a hundred and ninety-six men remained at 
the front, — the men either recruits or veterans. They were 
formed into a battalion, and attaclied to the Eleventh Massachu- 
setts ; and were afterwards made a part of that organization by 
the act of consolidation. 


Eight companies from the county of Essex, one from Middle- 
sex, and one from Sussex, formed the Seventeenth Regiment. 

It was recruited at Lynnfield ; and Aug. 23, 1861, under com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. Fellows, left the State for Baltimore, Md., 
where it remained for several months. Capt. T. J. C. Amory, 
United-States army, was commissioned colonel, but acted as 
brigadier-general much of the time, leaving Lieut. -Col. Fellows 
in command of the regiment. 

The officers were, — 

Colonel . . . . . . T. J. C. Amory. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... Jobn F. Fellows. 

Major ...... Jones Frankle. 

Surgeon ...... Isaac F. Galloupe. 

Assistant Surgeon .... W. H. W. Hinds. 

Chaplain ...... William D. Haley. 

While stationed near Baltimore, Major-Gen. Dix, who com- 
manded the Department of Maryland, ordered, in the autumn, 
six companies to Accomac County, Va., to suppress hostile 
demonstrations. This expedition was entirely successful ; and, 
returning, the troops spent the winter in the usual routine of 

With the opening of spring, the regiment joined Major-Gen. 
Foster's command at Newbern, N. C. The troops were here 
almost constantly employed in skirmishing and on picket ; but 
until Gen. Foster's advance upon Goldsborougii, N. C, in the 
second week of December, 1862, no severe engagement with the 
enemy had tested their soldierly qualities. Lieut.-Col. Fellows 
wrote an interesting letter at the termination of this important 
movement, to make a plain statement of facts which should show 
that the Seventeenth " brought no discredit upon the State." 

On Thursday, lltli inst., an expedition, numbering from thirteen thousand 
to fifteen thousand troops, started from Newbern for the interior. Nothing 
of particular interest occurred until the following Sunday, when, on approach- 


ing Kinston, the advance-guard, composed of the Ninth New-Jersey, and 
Wessel's brigade, were engaged with the enemy, the Seventeenth leading. 
The first brigade was next called ; and I was ordered to report to Gen. TVessel, 
who sent me to support a battery on the right that was in great danger from 
an attack. We were afterwards again ordered forward to support another 
battery, and then, with the Ninth New-Jersey, to advance, and flank the 
enemy. At this point, the regiment was detached from the brigade, and 
ordered to co-operate with the Ninth New-Jersey ; which arrangement con- 
tinued until our return to Newbern. We advanced togetlier, and were the 
first regiments to cross the bridge and enter Kinston, whore we took many 
prisoners. We were then ordered on provost-duty, but subsequently received 
an order to rejoin the brigade, which had not crossed the Ijiidge. On our 
way, I was met by Glen. Foster, who ordered me back, as the rebel general, 
Evans, had taken position on the hill beyond the town, and he (Gen. Foster) 
was " going to knock him out of it." We returned, but the enemy left; and 
we were again ordered on provost-duty. The next morning, the march was 
resumed towards Goldsborough, and the Seventeenth was selected fur the ad- 
vance. This continued through the next day, when, approaching Whitehall, 
we were engaged by the enemy, who were on the opposite bank of the river, 
and protected by earthworks and dense woods. After a fight of three or four 
hours, it being impossible to ford the river, and the bridge across it having 
been burned, we continued on our way, the Seventeenth yet in advance. 
The next day, upon noaring Goldsborough, I increased my line of skirmishers 
by adding Company C to Company F. They were in command of Capt. 
Fuller. They were soon fired upon ; but they drove the enemy before them. 
The main object of the expedition was to burn a railroad bridge, destroy the 
track, and cut olf communication. As the railroad bridge was then in sight, 
and occupied by a large rebel force, I turned to the left, through a wood 
which was occupied by a camp of rebels. We pushed onward, with skir- 
mishers deployed, and gained the railroad, driving the enemy before us. I 
was then ordered to approach the bridge, leaving the skirmishers, under Capt. 
Fuller, to watch the enemy ; but, on approaching the bridge, we were opened 
upon by a heavy fire of artillery in front, and musketry from the woods on 
both sides. We continued to advance, and arrived within ten feet of the 
bridge, using the banks of the road as a temporary shelter. The shells from 
our own artillery falling immediately in front of us, and not being willing to 
lose my men by our own fire, I sent to the officer in command of the artillery 
to change his direction ; which had no ettect. I then went myself, and repre- 
sented that he was doing us more harm than the enemy : this had the desired 
effect. Upon my return, Morrison's battery came up, and took position near 
our flag, on the right flank. I pointed out to the captain the bridge and the 
depot beyond, where a train had just arrived with re-enforcements for the 
enemy. Giving his orders with coolness and judgment, he planted a shell 
directly among them, and kept up a steady fire in that direction. Meanwhile, 
the shot and shell from the enemy's artillery came tliick and fast among us, 


yet not a man quailed ; and my orders were obeyed with as much coolness as if 
they were upon a battalion drill. I sheltered the men in a hollow, directly in 
rear of the artillery, and was then notified that two men from each of the 
two regiments were to be sent to fire the bridge. I called for volunteers ; 
and Barney Mann, our late adjutant, offered to find them. A short time 
after, I saw him wounded, and then learned that he had gone himself, with 
another man. for the purpose : the two from the Ninth New-Jersey were also 
there, and the bridge was tired. I was then notified that the object of the 
expedition was accomplished ; and Gen. Foster gave the credit of it to the 
two regiments. 

The Seventeenth remained in Newbern, doing provost-guard 
duty, during the winter of 1863. Early in the spring, it was re- 
lieved, and, April 7, marched, under the command of Brig.-Gen. 
Spinola, to the relief of Washington, N. C, then besieged by 
Longstreet's division of the enemy, who was posted in a strong 
natural position, and in large force, at Blount's Creek. After 
fighting him two hours, and deeming it impracticable to continue 
the battle against great odds, Gen. Spinola returned to Newbern, 
reaching there on the evening of the 10th. 

On the 17th, the regiment again left Newbern, under Major- 
Gen. Foster, for a second attempt to reach Washington. On the 
same day, however, the siege was raised, and the enemy withdrew ; 
so that nothing was seen of him except his rear-guard, many of 
whom were captured by Gen. Foster's cavalry. 

On the 28th, a movement was made on the enemy at Dover 
Station by a force on tlie railroad, and one on tlic Neuse Road ; 
the whole under the command of Brig.-Gen. J. N. Palmer. A 
skirmish took place ; but the enemy retreated. The Seventeenth 
was engaged, but suffered no loss. 

May 1, it returned to Newbern. July 4, left again, as a part 
of a force, under Brig.-Gen. Heckman, designed to support a raid 
on the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad. The object of the ex- 
pedition was successfully accomplished ; and the force returned to 
Newbern on the 7th. 

On the 25th, the regiment left Newborn, as cavalry support, on 
another expedition against Weldon. At Mount-Tabor Church, it 
came suddenly upon a camp of the Twelfth North-Carolina Bat- 
talion (rebel), which it captured, with thirty-two prisoners. The 
cavalry, however, were not able to reach Weldon, but penetrated 
as far as Jackson, where a fight occurred. They took fifty pris- 
oners, burned the rebel camp, and retired to Winton, whence 
the reo;iment re-embarked for Newbern. It remained in barracks 


on the Trent, when it was ordered 'to move into town, and relieve 
the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, 

The Seventeenth was on provost-duty until Feb. 1, when it 
went to the asistance of the One Hundred and Thirty-second New- 
York Volunteer Infantry, whose pickets and camp, nine miles 
irom Newbern, were attacked. The enemy carried tlio bridge at 
Batchelder's Creek, soon crossed over, and, their force numbering 
fifteen thousand men, succeeded, under cover of the woods and 
fog, in flanking our little force. 

The fog was so thick, that their movements could not be seen. 

Finding resistance useless against the overwhelming force the enemy 
brought against this little body, numbering only a hundred and two men and 
thirteen officers, the order was given to fall back to the crossing of the rail- 
road and Trent Eoad to make another stand. At this time, the remainder of 
the Union force had retreated, leaving the Seventeenth alone to check the 
advance of the enemy. Soon after, Lieut.-Col. J. F. Fellows, Surgeon I. F. 
Galloupe, Adjutant H. A. Cheever, — who was severely wounded, — Capt. 
J. K. Lloyd. First Lieuts. B. N. Mann, L. B. Comins, juu., J. B. Hill, 
and J. W. Day, were taken prisoners, together with tifty-eight enlisted men. 
Three were killed, and three badly wounded. Lieut. Cann succeeded in 
saving the flag of the One Hundred and Thirty-second New- York, which 
they left flying in their camp when they retreated, and, with twenty men, 
partly succeeded in destroying their camp. 

Tlie enemy, under command of Pickett, marched, with little opposition, 
nearly to the works in front of Newbern. After waiting three days, the enemy 
withdrew without assaulting the works. While the enemy were in front, the 
Seventeenth were at the breastworks, and doing the advance picketing. 

On the 18th of April, 1864, eight companies left Newbern in 
transports for Washington, N.C., which was threatened by the 
enemy. After capturing Plymouth, he moved on Washington, 
which was evacuated April 80 ; and the troops returned to New- 
bern, May 1. In the fighting at Washington, the Seventeenth lost 
two men killed. 

The next day, the regiment was relieved from provost-duty, and 
changed its camp. Until July 16, skirmishing, garrisoning Fort 
Spinola, and holding other positions, occupied the men ; when the 
troops whose time had expired embarked for home. Those whose 
time of service had not expired were consolidated into three 
companies, forming a battalion, under command of Capt. Henry 

On the 27th, these men moved to Newport Barracks, twenty-six miles 
from Newbern, on the railroad to Beaufort, N.C., where they remained untU 


Sept. 23, when all of the veterans received a furlough of forty days in 
Massachusetts, and embarked at Fort-Spinola Wharf on the steamer " Dud- 
ley Buck." Arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 25th. New York on the 
27th, and at Boston on the 28th. They were received by the Boston Cadets, 
and escorted to Faneuil Hall, where, after partaking of a collation, the men 
were furloughed until Nov. 7. 

They left Boston on the 10th, arrived at Newport Barracks on the 20th, 
and were on picket-duty. 

Col. Thomas J. C. Amory, who had been commanding the sub-district of 
Beaufort, N.C., for several months, died at Beaufort, Oct. 7, of yellow- 

Capt. Splaiiio's battalion was engaged several months in outpost- 
duty, and guarding railroad lines between Newbern and Morehead 
City. Meanwhile, four hundred and fifty men were transferred 
from the Second Massachusetts Heavy Artillery to the Seven- 
teenth, March 4, 18G5. It was then transferred to the third 
brigade, second division, District of Newbern, under command of 
Gen. S. P. Carter, of Tennessee, Lieut.-Col. H. Splaine, who 
had been promoted, commanded the brigade, and Major W. W. 
Smith the regiment. The forces then moved to Gum Swamp 
and Wise's Forks, and fortified their position. The next morning, 
March 8, an attack was made by Gen. Bragg with fourteen thou- 
sand men, capturing the second brigade entire. Companies 
of the Seventeenth showed great bravery in attempting the 
recapture of a gun which had been taken from the second brigade. 
For three days the fight continued with varying fortunes, when 
the rebels were repulsed by a gallant charge, in which the 
Seventeenth bore its port. The regiment entered Kinston and 
Goldsborongii on the 20th ; and on the 25th a junction was 
made with Gen. Sherman's army. After an encounter with 
Wheeler's cavalry, the regiment entered Raleigh on the 10th of 
April; and the next day the Seventeenth marched alone towards 
Greensborough. It was employed there as provost-guard, winning 
respect by its excellent conduct, until July 11, when it was mus- 
tered out, and the men returned to Rcadville, Mass., to be paid, 
and return to their homes. 



The Mustering of the Eighteenth Regiment, and its OiScers. — March to the Front. — In 
the Campaign of the Peninsula. — From the Chickahominy to Boston. — The Nine- 
teenth. — Colonel Hinks and his Heroic Command. 


EIGHT companies of the Eighteenth, recruited chiefly from 
the counties of Norfolk, Bristol, and Plymouth, were mus- 
tered into the service of the United States, Aug. 27, 1861 ; leaving 
the two companies necessary to complete the organization of the 
regiment to be added subsequently. The next day it left the 
State, under orders for Washington, with a full complement of 
officers, and eight hundred and ninety-one men. Field and staff 
officers were as follow : — 

Colonel .... James Barnes, Spiiiigfield. 

Lieutenant-Colonel . . Timothy Ingi'aham, New Bedford. 

Alajor .... Joseph Hayes, Boston. 

Surgeon .... David P. Smith, Springfield. 

Assistant Surgeon . . Orlando Brown, Wrenthani. 

Chaplain .... Benj. P. De Costa, Charlestown. 

On reaching the capital, the regiment was ordered, Sept. 3, to 
cross the river, and report to Gen. Fitz John Porter. It was as- 
signed by him to the first brigade of his division, commanded by 
Brig.-Gon. J. H. Martindale, and encamped near Fort Corcoran. 
Here it was engaged in drilling, and in working on the intrench- 
ments then constructing for the defence of the capital. Sept. 26, 
the army advanced ; and the regiment moved forward with the 
division, and took position at HalTs Hill. During the months of 
October and November, the two companies in whicli the regiment 
was deficient were added ; making the number of enlisted men 
nine hundred and ninety-five. 



The time allowed at Fort Corcoran and Hall's Hill for the in- 
struction and drilling of the regiment was improved by its officers ; 
and the command attained a high degree of discipline, and a 
commendable proficiency in military drill and exercise. Here the 
regiment was complimented hy the commanding general of the 
division with a new outfit of uniforms and camp-equipage. 

Leaving Hall's Hill March 10, 18G2, the regiment arrived in 
front of tlie defences of Yorktown April 5. • Here, acting as 
skirmishers and in support of batteries engaged, the regiment, 
or a portion of it, was almost every day, during the siege, imder 
the fire of the enemy. Leaving Yorktown May 7, it reached 
Kidd's Mills on the 22d, where it was supplied by Government 
with the Springfield rifled muskets, as a substitute for tlie smooth- 
bore, Avhich, up to this time, had been in use by the regiment. 
On the 2(]th, it marched to Gaines's Mills, on the Chickahominy. 
Immediately on reaching this point, and during a furious storm, 
eight companies of the regiment were ordered on picket-duty. 
Subsequently, during the night, orders came to relieve them, as 
the division, under the commaiul of Gen. Morell, was to move to 
Hanover Court House the following day. The division moved at 
three o'clock in tlie morning of the 27 th ; but the companies of 
the Eighteenth that had already been on duty twenty-four hours 
were ordered to remain behind, and rest a few hours in camp. 

In consequence of this delay, the regiment had not the good 
fortune to arrive at Hanover Court House in time to share in the 
honors of the victory gained by the division. Returning, the 
regiment remained in camp at Gaines's Mills until the 26th of 
June, when, a movement upon the right flank of our army being 
anticipated, an expedition, consisting of light cavalry and artillery, 
with two regiments of infantry to act as light troops, and placed 
under the command of Gen. Stoneman, was started from the 
camp of Porter's corps. The Eighteenth Massachusetts was se- 
lected as one of the infantry regiments for the expedition, and 
thus became temporarily detached from the rest of the division 
during the battles of Chickahominy and Malvern flill. On the 
2d of July, tlie regiment was at Harrison's Landing ; and, on the 
14th following (Col. Barnes, a brave and high-toned man in all 
respects, having been assigned to the command of the brigade), 
the command of the regiment devolved upon Licut.-Col. Hayes. 

Leaving Harrison's Landing, the regiment marched, via Wil- 
liamsburg and Yorktown, to Hampton, where, owing to a severe 
illness contracted on the Peninsula, Lieut.-Col. Hayes was com- 


pelled to leave the regiment for a few days ; and the command 
devolved on Capt. Stephen Thomas, the senior officer present. 
Proceeding vid Acquia Creek, Falmouth, Warrenton, and Thor- 
oughfare Gap, the regiment arrived at Bull Run on the 30th of 
August, in time to participate in the second battle on this already 
noted field. The total loss of the regiment in this battle, being 
fifty-two per cent of the whole number engaged, is a sufficient 
proof of its steadiness and gallantry, and of how well it merited 
the great praise it received from both division and corps com- 
manders. It was the first regiment of the division to advance to 
the attack, and the last to retire from the field. Here fell some 
of those gallant officers whose names henceforth will be borne 
upon the list of those who have made Massachusetts honored in the 
annals of this contest for freedom. Sept. 1, Col. Hayes, having 
joined his regiment, assumed command. Although not having 
for the space of twenty days enjoyed an interval of twenty-four 
hours' rest, the regiment set out upon its march to Maryland, 
reaching the battle-ground of Antietam Sept. 16. On the 17th, 
it was placed in support of batteries engaged ; and the next twenty- 
four hours it was on picket-duty at Stone Bridge. Under com- 
mand of Lieut. -Col. Hayes, the regiment crossed the river, leading 
the advance, and commenced the action of Shepardston. The 
regiment remained encamped near Sharpsburg until the 30th of 
October, when itrecrossed the Potomac, and continued its advance 
until it reached the river opposite Fredericksburg, where it re- 
mained during the bombardment until the 13th of December, when, 
under command of Lieut. -Col. Hayes as the leading regiment of 
the corps, it crossed the river, and engaged in the battle of Freder- 
icksburg. Here it well sustained the reputation for discipline and 
valor it liad previously earned. In a charge made by order of the 
general of the division, the regiment nearly penetrated the enemy's 
fortified position upon Mary's Heights ; but, being unsupported, 
it was compelled to fall back, with a loss, in killed and wounded, 
equal to nearly one-half of its number. Having rallied again, it 
occupied the most advanced position gained by the corps, which 
position it held througliout tlie battle. Here several officers fell ; 
and it is balieved that the dead of this regiment lay nearer the 
enemy's works than those of any other engaged on this part of 
the field. 

On the 31st of December, the brigade recrosscd tlie river, the 
Eighteenth leading, and the men fording the water waist-deep. 
In May following, it was present at and participated in the battle 


of Cliaiicellorsville. July 1, the regiment was within three miles 
of Gettysburg, and participated in the decisive battles of the next 
two days. 

Following up the flying columns of Gen. Lee, the 8th of Sep- 
tember found the regiment encamped at Beverly Ford, Va. About 
this time. Col. Hayes was placed in command of the brigade, leav- 
ing Major White in command of the rcgimeiit. Oct. 12, it moved 
in line of battle to Brandy Station ; but, the enemy retreating, it 
marched to Manassas Junction, and formed a line of battle there. 
It was afterwards ordered back to support the Second Corps en- 
gaged with the enemy at Bristow's Station. Nov. 7, under tlie 
command of Lieut. -Col. White, the regiment was engaged in bat- 
tle at Rappahannock Station ; and on the 20th and 30th, it was in 
line of battle before the enemy's works at Mine Hill. The regi- 
ment marched Dec. 3, to Beverly Ford, and encamped. Here 
about one-third of its force was detailed for outpost-duty. On 
the 1st of May following, the regiment broke camp, crossed the 
Rappahannock, and encamped near Brandy Station. May 3, 
marched near Culpeper. On the next day, the regiment, com- 
manded by Col. Hayes, and consisting of twenty officers and two 
hundred and ninety-six men, forming a part of the third brigade, 
first division. Fifth Corps, left camp near Culpeper, crossed the 
Rapidan, and marched to the Wilderness Church, where it bivou- 
acked for the night. Next morning, in consequence of a report 
that the enemy was moving down the Stone Road, the division 
commenced throwing up a defence of logs and earth near where 
it had bivouacked. Col. Hayes was directed to take the Eigh- 
teenth Massachusetts and the Eiglity-third Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers, move up the Stone. Road, and discover the force and inten- 
tions of the enemy. The two regiments moved up to the picket- 
line ; and two companies of the Eighteenth were detailed to be 
moved forward as skirmishers, and placed under the command of 
Capt. Bent. It was quickly ascertained that the enemy was pres- 
ent in force, and was briskly engaged in throwing up breastworks. 
In this movement, Charles Wilson of Company I, the first man 
lost in this campaign.^ was killed. 

The regiment was now joined on its left by a brigade of the 
fourth division, and on its right by the Eighty-third Pennsylvania 
Volunteers. At the command to advance, the division moved for- 
ward across an open space, and into tlie woods beyond. The 
enemy fell back, leaving his wounded and forty prisoners in our 
hands. The regiment returned through the woods to the breast- 


works. During this movement, Col. Hayes was severely wounded 
in the head by a bullet. 

Next day, the Eigliteenth Regiment was sent out as skirmishers ; 
and, being ordered to move forward in advance of a line of troops 
sent to ascertain if the enemy remained in front, his skirmishers 
fell back to his line of battle, where he was found to be strongly 
posted with infantry and artillery. 

The troops were now withdrawn, and the regiment relieved of 
picket-duty. After dusk, tlie brigade left its position, and, march- 
ing all night, reached Laurel Hill about daybreak. Here no time 
was allowed for the men to rest or take food; but, without halting, 
they were marched forward against an intrenched position. The 
brigade was formed in two lines, the Eighteenth Massachusetts on 
the right of the second line, and the First Michigan on the left. 
The assault was repulsed, and the brigade fell back. 

The regiment was now again joined to tlie second brigade, and, 
on the night of the loth of May, marched to the left of the Ninth 
Corps-'over a very heavy road ; arriving in on exhausted condition, 
in the morning, in front of Spottsylvania. Here it was placed in 
line of battle, and remained until the 17th, when it was moved 
forward to the picket-line, and worked all night throwing up rifle- 
pits, behind which the regiment remained until the 20th. 

The brigade was withdrawn from line, and marched to the North 
Anna River, which it forded on the 23d. As soon as the bri- 
gade had reached the south bank, the Eighteenth was detached 
from it, and sent to occupy a hill to the front and left of the 
crossing. A part of the regiment was disposed on the crest of the 
hill, behind hastily constructed breastworks ; and two companies 
were sent out, under command of Capts. Dallas and Pray, to pre- 
vent the enemy from occupying the woods directly in front of the 
line. Tiiese were actively engaged nearly an hour before the 
furious attack was made by Hill's corps on the division. In this 
attack, Lieut.-Col. White received a severe wound in his hand, 
disabling him ; and tlie command devolved upon Capt. Meservey, 
the senior officer present. 

June 1, the brigade took up a new position, the Eighteenth on 
the right. A swampy and heavily wooded ravine, separating the 
regiment from Burnside's corps, ran perpendicular to the line of 
'battle, and extended nearly to the enemy's intrenchmcnts. 

Here the regiment commenced throwing up a defence of rails 
and logs, but had made little progress, when the enemy, suddenly 
debouching from the ravine, where he liad formed unobserved. 


drove in the pickets, and made a vigorous attack, with the design 
of turning the right flank of the brigade. He advanced the colors 
of his first two regiments to within forty yards of our line, but 
was met with so rapid and accurate a lire, that he halted, lay 
down, and afterwards retired under cover of the darkness. Tlie 
regiment, having exhausted its ammunition, held the position by 
bayonet until re-enforcements arrived. The breastworks so effect- 
ually covered the men, that the casualties were few. The next 
day, the regiment withdrew; and, after frequent skirmishing with 
the enemy, the brigade reached the Cluckahominy at Sumner's 
Bridge on the morning of June 7, the Eighteenth having the 
advance of the column. 

The enemy's pickets being found in force upon the left l)ank of 
the river, the regiment was ordered to drive them across, and 
secure the bridge-head ; which was promjjtly done by Capt. Bent 
with a skirmish-line of fifty men. A short skirmish-lino was then 
formed along the bank, and the remainder of the regiment was 
placed in reserve. t 

On the l(3th of June, the regiment crossed the James River, 
and advanced over a very dusty road to the fortifications .before 
Petersburg. Here Major Weston, having returned, assumed 
command. On the 21st, the regiment, having moved farther to 
the left, erected a line of earthworks, which it occupiT3d until the 
20th of July, when, its term of service being about to expire, it 
was ordered to pi'oceed to Washington. The battalion made up of 
the men whose term of service would not expire with that of the 
regiment were detached from it, and remained a part of the third 
brigade. Fifth Corps. This battalion was marched to the Weldon 
Railroad, and for three successive days was engaged with the 
enemy, capturing fifty prisoners and the battle-flag of the Twenty- 
seventh South-Carolina Regiment. Sept. 30, the Fifth Corps 
made an advance, and captured a line of the enemy's works at 
Preble's Farm. The Eighteenth Battalion, in this action, made a 
part of the advance, and did good service, reflecting great credit 
upon both rank and file. 

Capt. Bent was appointed major United-States Volunteers for 
gallant services on that day. The term of service of the officers 
having expired, the battalion was consolidated with the Thirty- 
second Massachusetts Regiment.* 

* Tliis regiment was one of three to wliieh was awarded the splendid outfit fur- 
nished by Americans in Europe for that number of the best-disciplined regiments at 
the time in the Union army. 



The prominence of Gen. Hinks in the early action of the State 
for the national defence entitles him to a more extended notice 
than could otherwise be given. He is a native of Maine, and is 
now thirty-six years of age. 

A printer by trade, he removed to Boston soon after his majority, 
and established himself in business. His character and success 
won the public confidence ; and he was elected to the General 
Court, and also to the City Council. 

When the Rebellion burst upon the country, he was residing in 
Lynn. For several years he had been an active militia-officer, 
and was among the intelligent observers of national affairs who 
anticipated a severe struggle when the hostile elements at the 
South began to organize tiiemselves into opposition to the admin- 
istration of Mr. Lincoln. His correspondence with Major Ander- 
son was a marked illustration of his foresight, and patriotic 
readiness to meet the struggle. 

The next act of similar significance was his visit to Washington, 
in March, 18G1, to ask an appointment in the army of the United 
States. Mr. Cameron assured him that he should be commissioned 
in place of one of the Soiithern officers who was resigning. 
Scarcely had he been created second lieutenant in the Second 
United-States Cavalry, when the thunder of cannon aimed at 
Sumter awakened the martial spirit of the nation. 

Lieut. Hinks hastened to Boston, April 15, to offer liis services 
to the State. Subsequently, he, with several militia officers, met 
the Governor at the Capitol, when his proposal to let eight com- 
panies of the Eighth Regiment, of which ho was adjutant, form a 
part of the force of a thousand five hundred men called for, 
was accepted ; and he hastened to rally his men in the towns of 
Lynn, Newburyport, Beverly, and Marblehead. Forcibly wrote 
Lieut. Hinks, — 

The patriotic fire spread from man to man, from town to town, from State 
to State, until the whole North was wrapped in one blaze of patriotic devotion 
to the Union ; and men seemed to spring from the earth, completely armed, 
like Minerva from the brain of Jupiter, and crowded forward to protect the 
national capital, and preserve the Federal Union : but, at every point, — at 
Baltimore, at Washington, at Annapolis, at Fortress Monroe, Norfolk, and 
Gosport, — Massachusetts men were to be in the van. 


When the Eighth Reghnent left Philadelphia, Sept. 20, 1861, 
Gen. Butler gave to Lieut. Ilinks, at his own request, the selection 
and organizing of one hundred picked men, armed as sappers and 
miners, with axes, liatcliets, spades, picks, sledges, crowbars, and 
saws, to overthrow barricades, construct bridges, and, if necessary, 
force the passage through Baltimore, as our army did at Monterey, 
clearing the way from street to street of that city. 

He led a strange-looking company that morning, attired as the 
men were in blue flannel frocks, close-fitting caps, a hatchet in each 
belt, and, instead of a musket, shouldering heavy mining-tools. 

At Annapolis, Lieut. Hinks was directed by Gen. Butler to 
board, with his pioneers and Capt. Devereux's Zouaves, "The Con- 
stitution," and lighten and get her off; which was well and quickly 

When Col. Lefferts, of the New- York Seventh, refused to ad- 
vance, and take possession of the Baltimore and Washington 
Railroad, fearing a large rebel force would oppose, Lieut. Hinks 
volunteered, with two companies of the Eighth, to take the respon- 
sibility, and bravely secured the track, rolling-stock, &c. 

When a few miles from Annapolis, he was met by two mounted 
gentlemen, who desired an interview with him. One of them in- 
quired for what purpose he was invading the State of Maryland. 

" For the purpose of going to the capital of the country." 

"You will be opposed by force." 

" I shall by force go forward, then." 

" You \vill never be able to reach the capital by this route." 

'•], shall follow this route until I am stopped." 

"There is a large force at the Junction." 

"There will be a larger when wo get there." 

" Good-day, sir: we shall be at the Junction to meet you." 

" Good-day, gentlemen : it will be a warm meeting." 

And thus the rebel gentlemen and the lieutenant-colonel of the 
Eighth parted. 

Though ordered to proceed toward Washington, he subse- 
quently remained at the Junction, because the troops, who had 
less confidence in the superior command, would not stay without 
him ; and he reluctantly relinquished the opiiortunity to which he 
was entitled, of being the first in Washington with his detachment. 

May 14, he joined Gen. Butler in the march on Baltimore. 
His commission as colonel of the Eighth dated from the IGth. 

While at the Relay House, ladies who were friends of the New- 
York Seventh, with a beautiful and complimentary letter to Col. 


Hinks, presented his regiment with a splendid flag. Gen. Butler 
sent the banner and letter, accompanied by a note of the warmest 

Gov. Andrew's letter of welcome to Col. Hinks upon the re- 
turn of his troops, — Aug. 1, — contained flattering congratula- 


According to the testimony of one high in position, and of influ- 
ence in the Government, " was one of the best and bravest 
regiments of the war." 

It was organized at Camp Schouler, witli the three companies 
of First Battalion of Rifles as the nucleus. To these were 
successively added companies from Boston, Lowell, and Maiden ; 
making the number of companies ten. 

The field-officers were as follow : — 

Colonel Edward W. Hinks. 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... Arthur F. Devereux. 

Major ....... Henry J. Howe. 

Surgeon ...... J. Franklin Dyer. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Josiah N. "Willard. 

Chaplain ...... Joseph C. Cromack. 

Upon the muster-out of the Eighth Regiment, Col. Hinks was 
immediately commissioned as colonel of the Nineteenth, then in 
camp at Lynnfield, and numbering about three hundred and 
ninety men. He was mustered in on the 3d of August, 18G1, 
and rapidly recruited, organized, and officered this regiment, 
which has since proved to be one of the best fig]Uing, best disci- 
plined, and most enduring regiments wliich Massachusetts has 
sent to the war. 

On the 28th of August, 18G1, the Nineteenth Regiment Ijroke 
camp at Lynnfield, and took the cars for Boston, where it em- 
barked for the ."^outh. On the 29th, it was received and enter- 
tained in New York by tlie officers of the Seventh Regiment, and 
by the Associated Sons of New England in that city. It reached 
Washington late in the evening of the 30th, and, on the following- 
day, went into oamp at Meridian Hill ; and here Col. Hinks insti- 
tuted the rigid system of instruction which was observed in the 
regiment as long as he retained command of it. The major 
(^flowe) was appointed instructor of officers and men in guard- 


duty, police, &c. ; the lieutenant-colonel (Devereux) was ap- 
pointed instructor of officers and men in the school of the 
soldier, school of the company, &c. ; while the colonel was in- 
structor of the regiment in the school of the battalion and in 
skirmishing, and of the officers in making papers, muster-rolls, and 
returns. The regiment was drilled, by coiupany or by battalion, 
eight hours in each day ; and an officers' school was held at head- 
quarters three evenings each week. 

On the loth of September, this regiment was assigned to the 
brigade of Gen. F. W. Lander, and immediately marched for 
Poolesville, Md., where it arrived on tiie evening of the 14th, 
and, on the following day, went to Camp Benton, near Edward's 
Ferry. Here the drill and instruction of the regiment were 
continued, interspersed at intervals with picket-duty. Said an 
officer of the regiment (Dr. Dyer) in writing home, Sept. 29, 18G1, 
" Tlu'ough the untiring exertions of Col. Hinks, who is emphati- 
cally a working man, the general condition of the regiment has 
vastly improved : cleanliness and order are strictly enforced. 
Under the superintendence of Lieut.-Col. Devereux, the compa- 
nies have acquired a proficiency in drill not surpassed by many 
older troops. Under charge of Major Howe, the important duties 
of the guard are well attended to. Other departments are in good 
hands, and a system of strict accountability is rigidly enforced." 

On the 21st of October, 1861, Col. Hinks, with his regiment, 
was engaged in the affair at Ball's Bluff; late in the day, covering 
the retreat, and removing the wounded : and he remained in com- 
mand of the troops at Harrison's Island, by order of Gen. Stone, 
until it was finally evacuated by the Federal forces. The report 
of operations made by Col. Hinks at that time occasioned con- 
siderable feeling, and attracted almost universal remark and com- 
ment from the Northern people and press, on account of its plain 
statement of tlie important affair. 

Oct. 23, Col. Hinks was assigned to the command of the first 
brigade, corps of observation, at Poolesville, to succeed Gen. 
Lander, who was wounded on the 21st in the affiiir at Edward's 
Ferry, and had been sent to the rear. With this brigade, he 
remained on duty near Edward's Perry until Dec. 9, when 
he was assigned to the command of a district on the Potomac 
River, from Great Falls to Edward's Ferry, including the post- 
villages of Darnestown and Rockville, where he remained until 
the 8th of March, 1862, when he marched with his regiment to 
join the division then under command of Gen. John Sedge- 


wick, at Harper's Ferry ; and thence to Charlestown and Winches- 
ter ; returning soon after, via Harper's Ferry and Baltimore, to 
Washington, to join Gen. McCIellan's army, en route for the 
Peninsula. While in Washington, the Nineteenth Regiment en- 
camped east of the Capitol, and was much complimented for its 
excellent discipline, exemplary conduct, and correct drill and 
fine parades. 

March 29, 1862, Col. Hinks, with his command, left Washing- 
ton, and, having been compelled by a severe storm to land at 
Point Lookout, Md., arrived at Hampton, Va., on the 31st of 
March, 1862. 

His regiment was now designated to be the first regiment in 
the third brigade, second division. Second Corps d'Armee ; and 
on the 4th of April, 1862, this corps joined in the general move- 
ment of the ai^y towards Yorktown. On the 7th of the same 
month, the Nineteenth Regiment, with the Twentieth Massachu- 
setts Regiment, made a reconnoissance of the enemy's works upon 
Warwick River, discovering several rebel batteries, and determin- 
ing the position of the enemy's works upon the river. During 
the reconnoissance, several men of the Nineteenth were wounded, 
and one killed. This was probably the first man killed in an en- 
gagement with the enemy on the Peninsula in 1862. 

The Ninteenth participated in the siege of Yorktown, being 
assigned a portion of the time to duty in batteries number seven 
and eight. At daylight on the 4th of May, it entered the enemy's 
abandoned works, and raised the first Union flag which floated 
from the rebel fortifications in the vicinity of Yorktown, 

On the 6th of May, it moved up the river with Sedgcwick's divi- 
sion on transports, and on the 7th of May was engaged in the 
affair at West Point. 

Subsequently it was with the Second Corps in the marches to 
the Chickahominy and at the battle of Fair Oaks. On the 25th 
of June, it was ordered by Gen. Sedgewick to prolong Gen. Hook- 
er's line to the right, in the battle of Oak Grove ; wliich movement 
was executed with skill, the troops driving the enemy handsomely 
out of his rifle-pits on the extreme right of our advanced position : 
and the Nineteenth Regiment then stood within three miles and a 
half of Richmond. As soon as the enemy yielded before the cool 
and determined fire of the regiment. Col. Hinks ordered, " Cease 
firing!"' and, springing to the front of the regiment, exclaimed, 
" Now, boys, we will give them a taste of Massachusetts steel ! " 
and immediately commanded, "Forward!" But, before he 



could complete the order to charge, he was interrupted by a 
call from Capt. Candler, aide to Gen. Hooker, wlio brought an 
order to fall back to the Ihie of our defences. "But,'' said 
Col. Hinks, " see what a splendid opportunity I have to make 
a charge, and take colors and prisoners ! " — " The order is 
from Gen. McClellan, and is imperative," said Capt. Caudler. 
" Well, hold on to it, then," said Col. Hinks, " and I will show 
you the handsomest charge you ever saw, bring you a thousand 
prisoners, and be on this spot in fifteen minutes from now ! '' — "I 
cannot do it," said the captain. " I was directed to order you to 
fall back immediately." — "Very well," said the colonel, and, 
gathering up all his killed and wounded, — about sixty in num- 
ber, — fell back through tlie swamp to the Union earthworks, 
which for twenty days previous he had occupied, under a continual 
and harassing random fire of the enemy's guns, and where he 
remained until the change of base of the army was progressing. 
He was warmly complimented by Gen. Sedgewick for his gallantry 
and skill, and the excellent behavior of his regiment, in the battle 
of Oak Grove. 

June 27, Sumner's corps followed the army in the retreat to- 
wards the James River ; and, during the day, the Nineteenth was 
in the engagements at Allen's Farm and Savage's Station. 

June 80, he was again in action at White-oak Swamp, and, 
later in the day, at Glendale, where his regiment moved unsup- 
ported against the enemy, before whom a portion of the Penn- 
sylvania Reserves had given way, and restored the Union line, 
retained possession of this part of the field, and secured from 
capture Kirby's Regular Battery, which was in imminent peril. 
In the action at Glendale, Col. Hinks was severely wounded 
by a bullet through the upper portion of the riglit thigh, re- 
ceiving also a severe contusion in the left ankle, and was 
sent to the rear. For his gallantry and good conduct in bat- 
tle, Col. Hinks was recommended for promotion by Gens. Sedge- 
wick and Sumner ; and his regiment was ordered to inscribe 
upon its colors, "Allen's Farm," "Savage's Station," ''White- 
oak Bridge," " Glendale," " Malvern." During tlie engagement 
of Glendale, Major Howe, a most valuable, efficient, and gallant 
officer, was killed while standing beside the colonel, and at the 
same instant that the colonel was wounded. 

In all the continued fights until the army reached tlie James 
River, the Nineteenth Regiment behaved lumdsomely and with 
the greatest gallantry, and lost very heavily in killed and wounded. 


Said Capt. Edmund Rice (since colonel), the ranking officer 
that reached the James River with the regiment, in his report of 
operations of the regiment at Glendale on the 30th of June, — 

We marched towards the field of action, coining upon it on the double- 
quick and under fire, the action at its height as we came into position. We 
were soon ordered forward into the woods. Marching steadily forward at 
support arms, we entered the woods, cautioned that a line of our own men 
were in front of us, and we were not to fire. We had advanced about fifty 
yards, when a heavy volley was fired into our line, supposed by us to be 
fired at our first line, and seeming, through it, to take effect on us. We ad- 
vanced still farther, under a continuous fire ; when suddenly two regiments 
of the enemy rose from the gi'ound, at a distance of only a few yards, and 
poured a volley upon us, at so short a range, that our men's faces were, in 
many instances, singed with the flash of the enemy's muskets; and, on the 
right of the regiment, our men crossed bayonets with the enemy. Under 
these circumstances, our men did all that men could do, firing upon the heavy 
masses of the enemy unceasingly. Some portions of our line liad already 
given way, unable to withstand the withering fire of the enemy ; when the 
entii'e line was ordered by Col. Hiuks to fall back, and the regiment retired, 
firing as it went. The regiment was speedily re-formed on the outskirts of 
the woods, and ordered to lie down ; the field-officers remaining standing, and 
watching the movements of the enemy. . . . Soon after sunset, troops 
were seen moving in the woods, from whom we received a heavy fire, under 
which Col. Hinks and Major Howe fell, the latter mortally wounded. Our 
men rose, gave one volley in return, and then broke, retiring Ijut a short 
distance, when they were re-formed, where we remained until ordered to 
retire late in the evening. 

By the fall of Col. Hinks and Major Howe, and the wounding of Capt. 
Wass, the command devolved upon me until relieved by Lieut. -Col. Devereux 
on the night of July 11. . 

The officers, without an exception, behaved most gallantly, leading their 
men into the thickest of the fight, their faces almost at the muzzles of the 
enemy's guns, with the coolness and self possession of veterans. 

The honorable wounds received by Col. Hinks are, in themselves, a 
eulogy of his courage and patriotism in his country's cause, and earnest .solici- 
tude for the welfare of his officers and men. 

In honor of the memory of our young but courageous major, Howe, let 
the words dropped from his lips after receiving his mortal wound be the 
highest praise which can be spoken of a true patriot : " Let me die here on 
the field : 'tis more glorious to die on the field of battle." 

Capt. Charles W. Devereux was wounded while faithfully performing his 
duties ; being prostrate at the time from continued illness, fatigue, and ex- 

Lieut. David Lee died manfully at the post of duty. 


Sergeant-Major E. M. Newcomb, since promoted, and killed at Fredericks- 
burg, proved to his superiors that he enlisted for his country's good, and 
from purely patriotic motives. 

I am, general. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) EDMUND RICE, 

Capt. Nineteenth Mass. Vols., Comd'c/ Refjt. 

On the 22d of July, while the army was at Harrison's Landing, 
Sumner's corps was reviewed, and nearly thirty thousand troops 
took part in the parade. Veterans of nearly every fight upon the 
Peninsula composed this corps, which won Fair Oaks when it had 
been lost, and which had the battle of Savage's Station all to 
themselves, and made a clean victory, and at this time consisted 
of Richardson's, Sedgewick's, and Shields's divisions, the last of 
which had so recently won the battle of Winchester. In this 
review the Nineteenth Regiment bore away the palm, as appears 
by the following order : — 

Headquarters Second Army Corps, July 23, 1862. 
General Orders, No. 21. 

The general commanding would hereby announce to this corps d'armee 
the fine appearance on the review to-day of the Nineteenth Massachusetts and 
First Minnesota E,eo;iments. The condition of these reofiments is an honor to 
their States, and reflects great credit upon their commanders. 
By command of Major-Gen. Sumner. 

L. KIP, A.D.C. and A.A.G. 


Col. Hinks, after being wounded, returned to Massachusetts 
for a prief period, and, while convalescing, improved his time by 
eloquent appeals to his fellow-citizens to volunteer at the call of 
the Government, and spoke with great effect in several towns of 
the Commonwealth, inducing a large number of men to enlist. 

Aug. 8, he returned to Harrison's Landing, and, though not 
recovered from his wounds, was immediately assigned to the 
command of the third brigade, composed of the Nineteenth and 
Twentieth Massachusetts, the Forty-second and Fifty-ninth New- 
York, and Seventeenth Michigan Regiments, second division, 
Second Corps ; which division was designated to cover the re- 
treat of the army to the Chickahominy River, upon its evacuation 
of Harrison's Landing on the 16th of August, 1862. 


Aug. 22, he arrived at Newport News ; and the division was 
transported to the army under command of Gen. Pope, and 
shared in the vicissitudes of his campaign. 

Hinks's brigade, however, was only engaged at the battle of 
Chantilly, on the 1st of September ; after which it covered the re- 
treat of the army to Cloud's Mills, and thence proceeded to Rock- 
ville, Md., where it rejoined its division. 

Prostrated from the effects of his wounds and the severity of 
the campaign, he was relieved from the command of his brigade 
by Gen. Dana, who had returned to duty in the field. 

A few days later, however, when the army set out on its march 
against the enemy in Maryland, Col. Hinks assumed command of 
his old regiment in the advance, and led it to South Mountain and 
at Antietam ; at the latter of which, while closely pressing the 
enemy near the old road sometimes called " Dead Lane," the di- 
vision was attacked in flank upon the left, with such impetuosity 
as to throw the regiments there into confusion, and to cause them 
to break from the line. 

Observing the nature of the attack, and the discomfiture which 
had befallen the division. Col. Hinks immediately changed front 
with his regiment, whicli constituted the right of the division, to 
face the sudden attack ; and, the First Minnesota Regiment soon 
after forming upon his right, the enemy was successfully held in 
check by these two regiments, while the remainder of the division 
were rallied upon a new line to the rear of them.* Here, while ex- 
erting himself to hold his men up to their work against the wither- 
ing fire to which they were exposed from the enemy, who attacked 
them both in front and iiank, and in numbers ten times exceed- 
ing his own command. Col. Hinks fell wounded with a bullet 
through the right arm, fracturing and shattering the bono, and 
another through the abdomen, passing from over the right hip in 
front, penetrating the colon, and out on the left side of the spine, 
in the region of the kidneys ; from which wound he has never 
fully recovered. His coolness and gallantry, and the discipline 
and heroism of his command, undoubtedly preserved our lines 
from being permanently broken on the occasion. As soon as he 
observed the flank attack which had caused the division to be 
thrown into confusion, he rode forward and gave the necessary 
orders for the change of front, and as coolly superintended the 
execution of the movement as if on drill, notwithstanding the 
ground over which the regiment moved was covered with officers 

* See McClellan's Report, pp. 279-80. 


and men that fell from its ranks, under the heavy cross-fire of the 
enemy, pending the movement : and, as soon as the change of 
front had 1)een completed, ho rode his horse np to the colors in the 
line, and, by his inspiriting words and gallant bearing in the face 
of the fearful carnage, stimulated his command with such firm- 
ness and determination, as induced them to hold the field alone 
against an attack from which other regiments recoiled. 

A somewhat remarkable incident occurred during the battle of 
Antietam, which illustrates the influence of example by a leader, 
the power of discipline, and of the command of a familiar voice. 
Col. Hinks, observing that the regiment was becoming somewhat 
nervous, and unsteady in movement, after one of its dashes 
against the enemy, immediately halted it, ordered colors and 
general guides upon the line, and, alligning his regiment on the 
centre, closed up the files rendered vacant by the fallen ; then, 
for fifteen minutes, sat upon his horse, and drilled his regiment in 
the manual of arms, regardless, and apparently unconscious, of the 
whistling I)ullets, which occasionally terminated the manual of 
some soldier in the line ; and, when he had concluded the drill 
with " parade rest," the regiment had entirely recovered from its 
indications of unsteadiness, and moved, when the attack was re- 
newed, with all of its habitual precision and coolness while on 

On another occasion, finding that his men were suffering very 
severely from a galling fire of short range, which, from the posi- 
tion of the lines and the conformation of the ground, they could 
not return to advantage, he ordered the regiment to lie fiat on 
the ground, while he sat upon his horse, near the centre of the 
regiment, amidst the heaviest fire, of which he seemed to be the 
special object, watching the movements of the enemy, and, as his 
men remarked, exhibiting no consciousness of danger, but with 
folded arms, and a smile upon his lips, remained thus more than 
half an hour, at a distance of less than a hundred and fifty yards 
from the line of the enemy, pouring its incessant fire upon the 

The losses of Sumner's corps — which numbered about eighteen 
thousand men, or one-fiftli of the army engaged in this battle — 
were nearly thirty per cent of its men engaged, and one-half of 
the whole loss of the Union army in the fight ; while the losses in 
in Sedgewick's division, which numbered only about five thousand 
men, and in which was the Nineteenth, were two thousand two 
hundred and fifty-five, or more than forty-five per cent. 


Col. Hinks suffered very miicli from his wounds received at 
Antietara, and for some time was considered mortally wounded : 
indeed, he was reported, and for some days believed, to be dead; 
and lengthy obituary notices, of the most complimentary charac- 
ter, appeared in the Boston dailies and otlier Massachusetts 

Said the "Daily Advertiser," "He commanded the Eighth 
Regiment through the three-months' service in 1861 with such 
ability and success, tliat he was at once commissioned colonel of 
the Nineteenth for the war, that regiment being largely recruited 
from the old Eighth. In command of his new regiment, he was 
equally successful in securing the respect and confidence of all 
who come in contact with him." . . . 

Said the " Daily Journal " on the same occasion, " Col. Hinks 
was a brave and valuable officer, and is a great loss to the ser- 
vice, as well as to tlie State of his nativity. . . . He displayed 
the qualities of a soldier, as well in the care of his men as in his 
bravery in the field ; and he will be remembered with respect by 
all who have served under liim." . . . 

Dr. Alfred Hitchcock visited the field of Antietam, and in a 
letter to Gov. Andrew, dated Sept. 23, 1862, thus described the 
condition of Col. Hinks : " Col. Hinks, poor fellow ! seemed on 
Monday to have symptoms of sinking. His wound is through the 
abdomen and back, and a miracle only can save him. I advised 
against his proposed removal, as lessening the only possible 
chance for such a miracle to be wrought Ijy Him in whose hand 
our breath is." . . . 

The following is an extract from an official letter written by 
Gen. Sedgewick to Gov. Andrew after the battle of Antietam (see 
Report of Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, pp. 181-3) : — 

Washington, D.C, Dec. 5, 1S62. 
To his Excellency John A. Andrew, Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, — ... I have already forwarded througli the mili- 
tary channels a list of officers and soldiers who were distinguished for 
gallantry and good conduct, recommending them for promotion ; and I would 
again commend to your Excej^ency Col. Lee of the Twentieth, Col. Hinks 
of the Nineteenth, Lieut. -Col. Kimball of the Fifteenth, and Lieut.-Col. 
Palfrey of the Twentieth. Great credit is due to these officers for the splen- 
did condition in which these regiments took the field. The Fifteenth and' 
Nineteenth are, in my opinion, fully equal to any two in the service. The 
Twentieth was badly cut up at Ball's Bluff. Many officers are wounded and 
taken prisoners, and the regiment thereby deprived of their services. 


I have on two occasions strongly recommended tli3 appointment of Col. 
Hinks as brigadier-general. He disciplined and brought into the field one of 
the finest regiments, and has been twice wounded while gallantly leading it 
in battle. I again urge the appointment, and respectfully ask your Excel- 
lency's favorable indorsement. 

I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, 

Your Excellency's obedient servant, 


Major-Gen. Volunteers. 

After the battle of Antietam, Lieut.-Col. Devereux being absent 
on leave, the regiment marched to Harper's Ferry under com- 
mand of Capt. H. G. 0. Weymouth, and went into camp Sept. 21, 

The closing record of the Nmeteenth Massachusetts for the 
year 1862 .was marked by a noble deed of daring. This was the 
crossing of the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg in boats to dis- 
lodge the enemy's sharpshooters, who were picking off the men 
detailed to build the pontoon-bridges. 

A call was made for volunteers to cross the river in boats, and 
dislodge the unseen foe. The Nineteenth Massachusetts and 
Seventh Michigan immediately volunteered on what might be 
regarded as a forlorn hope. They crossed, and drove back the 
enemy ; and the bridges were completed without further molesta- 
tion. Dec. 13, the Nineteenth were ordered to the front to liold 
a line of rifle-pits. This they did until their ammunition failed, 
when they fell back in the line of the brigade. 

The colors of the regiment were carried by eleven different men, 
of whom eight were shot. 

The regiment remained encamped at Falmouth until May 2, 
1863, doing provost and picket duty. The regiment, with the 
division, then marched to the Rappahannock, where a pontoon- 
bridge was being thrown across. The builders being sorely 
annoyed by the firing of the enemy, it became necessary to send 
troops across in boats. Twenty-five volunteers were promptly fur- 
nished from each regiment in the division. These crossed with- 
out resistance, meeting Gen. Sedgewick's force coming up from 
the left. The bridge was immediately laid, and the column 
crossed. After the battle which ensued, in which the regiment 
acted a conspicuous part, it recrossed the Rappaliannock, and 
remained encamped at Falmouth until the 16th of June. When 


the army moved, this regiment, with two pieces of Battery A, 
Rhode -Island Battery, formed the extreme rear -guard. It 
reached the Potomac at Edward's Ferry on the 2Gth, crossed 
the 27th, and arrived at Gettysburg July 1, about nine, p.m., 
within two miles of the battle-field, and bivouacked. At dawn 
on the 2d, it marched to the front, and, after some manoeuvring, 
took up a position just in the rear of the line of battle, on the left 
of Cemetery Hill, being the centre of the line of the army. At 
five, P.M., the Nineteenth Massachusetts and Forty-second New- 
York were advanced in front of the line to the left to act as a sup- 
port for the right of the Third Corps, which was beginning to give 
way. On the morning of the 3d, the Nineteenth was placed in sup- 
port of a battery. This becoming disabled, its captain asked for 
volunteers. These were immediately furnished, and did excellent 
service. At three, p.m., by order of Gen. Hancock, they advanced 
upon the enemy. The fight at this point became furious ; our 
men finally succeeding in driving the enemy back from our 
slight works. 

At this moment, the enemy, as if actuated by one impulse, 
threw down their arms, and gave themselves up prisoners; very 
few attempting to retreat. 

Tlie regiment secured a large number of prisoners and several 
flags. In the battles of Gettysburg, the Nineteenth sustained the 
good reputation it had already won. 

On the retreat of Gen. Lee, the army in pursuit again marched 
into Virginia. 

It is needless here to recapitulate the marches and counter- 
marches and slight skirmishes in which the Nineteenth was 
engaged during the remainder of this campaign. The principal 
engagements in which the regiment took part were, first, Bristow 
Station, Oct. 14, in which Companies E and K, acting as skirmish- 
ers, advanced, and captured a large number of prisoners, among 
whom were one field-officer and several line-officers. 

After the capture of the prisoners, Lieut. Thompson, who had 
command of the skirmishers, discovered a battery of five pieces 
entirely deserted. Three men of Company E advanced, and 
brought in one gun and limber and four horses. Subsequently 
two pieces more were brought in. The conduct of the men in 
this spirited affair was praiseworthy ; and that of the consciipts 
especially -so, as it was their first engagement. The next was that 
of Robinson's Cross Roads, Nov. 27. On the 7th of December, 



they went into camp, about three and a half miles from Brandy 
Station, Ya. 

Dec. 20, over three-fourths of the volunteers of the regiment 
present re-enlisted for three years, or during the war, as veteran 

Feb. 4, 1864, the regiment left camp on a furlough of thirty 
days, and arrived in Boston Feb. 8. It was received in Fanueil 
Hall by Gen. Hinks, their old commander, in behalf of Gov. An- 
drew ; and the same day it was welcomed at Salem by the City 
Government on behalf of the citizens of Essex County. The day 
was one of happy memories to the brave survivors of the noble 
regiment, that nearly three years before quitted the State to tread 
the battle-field of tlie Union. At the expiration of its furlough, 
the regiment reported, with every veteran originally furloughed, 
in the field. 

The month of April was spent in preparing for the remarkable 
campaign of the coming summer. On the occasion of the review 
of the Second Array Corps by Gen. Grant, the Nineteenth Mas- 
sachusetts, Major E. Rice, and the Twentieth, Major H. L. Ab- 
bott, were the regiments selected by Major-Gen. Hancock to drill 
at headquarters, second division, in presence of the Lieutenant- 
Gen eral. 

The officers present all expressed great satisfaction with the 
admirable discipline of both regiments. 

May 3, the regiment broke camp, joined the rest of the brigade, 
crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, marched over the field of 
Chancellorsville, halted near Williams's Tavern, threw up breast- 
works, and remained in reserve during the rest of the night ; Gen. 
Birney's division being heavily engaged in front. Next morning, 
it marched to the relief of the front line, and made a narrow es- 
cape from capture by being flanked. In the several battles of this 
campaign, from the Wilderness to the James River, the regiment 
was actively engaged in connection with the Second Corps, and 
was always conspicuous for daring and gallantry. It reached the 
James on June 14, and crossed. On the loth, it marched twenty- 
five miles ; reached the first line of the enemy's works before 
Petersburg, and rested for the night. From this time up to the 
22d, the regiment was engaged every day with the enemy ; when, 
taking advantage of the faulty construction of the line on the left, 
he made an assault, capturing the majority of the regiment. 
Those who escaped capture, returned convalescents, and recruits 
from the depot, were re-organized by Lieut. William F. Rice, who 


continued, in command until July 26 ; when the regiment under 
orders, with the brigade, took up its line of march for the James, 
which it reached early on the morning of the 27th, and halted in 
the breastworks on the north bank. It was engaged in the fight 
of that day. In the evening of the 29th, it commenced its march 
towards Petersburg, which it reached on the 30th, and was imme- 
diately in reserve of the Fifth Corps. 

Col. Rice, havhig escaped from the enemy, took command of 
the regiment, and on the 12th of August, under orders, marched 
with his command to City Point, and on the 14th occupied the 
battle-ground of the 26th ult. Tlie regiment now acted as a sup- 
port of the first division. It was very much exposed, losing con- 
siderably in men. Next day, it acted as support of a Maine bat- 
tery, and continued engaged till dusk. The regiment again 
returned to Petersburg on the 21st, and on the 23d marched 
to Ream's Station, where it was employed in destroying the prop- 
erty of the Weldon Railroad. On the 25th, it participated in the 
fight at this point. 

Aug. 30, the men whose term of service had expired were dis- 
charged, and that part of the Twentieth Massachusetts which had 
escaped capture on the 25th inst. was consolidated with the 
Nineteenth. Up to the 24th of October, the regiment, as now 
constituted, was employed in garrisoning Fort Rice and Battery 
Eleven. They were then relieved from Fort Rice, and, on the 
27th, were again engaged with the enemy on the Weldon Rail- 
road, capturing five officers and fifty men, and the colors of the 
Forty-seventh North-Carolina Regiment. 

During the month of November, the regiment formed part of 
the garrison of Fort Steadman and Battery Ten. 

The second division was relieved on the 29th of November ; and 
the Nineteenth Regiment went down to the extreme left, and was 
assigned the duty of occupying trenches and other works on the 
left of the front line. 

On the 12th of December it was ordered to the rear, and, with 
the Seventh Michigan, garrisoned Fort Emory. The regiment 
remained here until Feb. 5, 1865, when, having received march- 
ing orders, it moved with the brigade to within one and a half 
miles of the Gravelly Run and Vaughan Road, where the corps 
massed. The regiment was detailed to advance upon the ene- 
my's skirmishers, which it did in gallant style, finding them occu- 
pying a position near the junction of the roads. Five companies 
were deployed as skirmishers, and drove the enemy's skirmishers 


back upon his lines of battle. In that encounter, Lieut. William H. 
Tibbetts, a brave and gallant officer, was killed. Every thing was 
quiet until about four, p.m., of the 6tli, when, the Fifth Corps 
coming up, the enemy opened with great vigor. After an hour's 
fighting, the corps fell back, leaving the regiment (on the extreme 
advance) in a very exposed condition. 

Next day, the corps again advanced, recovered their position, 
and, on the 10th, commenced a new winter camp. 

March 25 was ushered in by the sullen roar of hostile cannon 
at Fort Steadman. Early in the day, the Fifth Corps was in 
motion, and threw itself with vigor and impetuosity upon the 
advanced lines of the enemy, which were carried, and held 
with small force. 

On the 28th, it became known that the Army of the Potomac 
would move on the enemy's works the following day. 

On the 2d of April, captured two small forts, or earthworks, 
and a hundred and fifty prisoners. Shortly after, the regiment 
joined the brigade, and advanced on the Boynton Plank-road to 
within three miles of Petersburg. 

April 7, a general advance was made by the Sixth and Second 
Corps. In this advance, the major of the Nineteenth Regiment, 
first brigade, first division. Second Corps, was mortally wounded. 
The 8th was consumed by advancing alternately in line of battle 
and by the flank. The next day, when near Appomattox Court 
House, it was announced to the corps that Gen. Lee and the Army 
of Northern Virginia had surrendered to Gen. Grant and the 
Army of the Potomac. Gen. Meade rode along the lines, and the 
wildest enthusiasm prevailed. 

On its homeward route, the Nineteenth marched vid Richmond 
and Fredericksburg to Vienna; which place it reached on the 
loth of May. On the 2-3d, the Army of tlie Potomac passed in 
review before the President and Gen. Grant. On the 3d of June, 
the regiment was mustered out of service. July 3, it arrived at 
Readville, Mass., and went into camp for final discharge and 



The Twentieth hi Gen. Lander's Brigade. — In the Peninsular Campaign. — Fredericks- 
burg. — Gettysburg. — Bristow Station. — Petersburg. — Other Fields. — Homeward 
bound. — The Twenty-first leaves Worcester for the Front. — At Pioanoke Island. — 
Second Battle of Bull Run. — Narrow Escape of the gallant Col. Clark. — East Ten- 
nessee. — The Visit Home. — Subsequent Achievements. — The Muster out. 

THE Twentieth Regiment was recruited at Camp Massasoit, 
Rcadville ; and left for the seat of war, Sept. 4, 1861. Field 
and staff officers were as follow : — 


Colonel ...... William Kaymond Lee. 

Lieutenant-Colonel .... Francis W. Palfrey. 

3Iajor ...... Paul J. Revere. 

Surgeon ...... Nathan Hayward. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Edward H. R. Revere. 

This regiment was first stationed on the Upper Potomac, and 
formed a part of Gen. F. W. Lander's brigade, and of Gen. Stone's 
division. It was engaged at Ball's Bluff, exhibited great courage, 
and suffered great loss in men ; as far as can be ascertained, about 
two hundred and eight in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Among 
the latter were Col. Lee, Major Revere, and Adjutant Pierson, for 
some time confined in a cell at Richmond as hostages. Among 
the killed was Lieut. Putnam, the " young, the beautiful, and the 

During the winter, the regiment was on picket-duty near Ed- 
ward's Ferry. 

March 11, Gen. Dana commanding, the brigade marched to the 
assistance of Gen. Banks in the Shenandoah Valley, Va. On 
reaching Berryville, the brigade was ordered back to Harper's 
Ferry. On the 25th, it moved to Washington, and, on the 27th, 



embarked on board a transport for Fortress Monroe. On the 31st, 
it reached Hampton, Va., where the whole Army of the Potomac 
was soon after collected together. 

Sedgewick's division, to which the Twentieth belonged, was 
made a part of Gen. Sumner's corps, and encamped before 
Yorktown, April 7. It was nearly the centre of our lines, and 
the camp of the Twentieth was in a swamp. On the 17th, the 
Twentieth moved so near the fortifications of the enemy, that the 
sound of their conversation could be heard. While here, Capt. 
Bartlett, acting lieutenant-colonel, and several enlisted men, were 

May 1, Col. Lee, having returned to the army, took command 
of his regiment, and, on the morning of the 3d, led the Twentieth 
into the fortifications of the enemy, which had just been aban- 
doned. He was among the first who planted the flag there. 

On the 7th, the regiment was engaged in the battle of West 
Point, supporting Porter's battery, — a position of honor. 

On the 31st was the battle of Fair Oaks. In the afternoon of 
that day, Sedgewick's division, the only one of Sumner's corps, 
succeeded in crossing the Chickahominy. The Twentieth was in 
the rear, and reached the scene of action about five, p.m. It took 
its position upon the left, and opened fire. When preparing to 
charge, the enemy's lines broke in confusion. The battle lasted 
till dark, and the Twentieth slept upon tlie field. 

In the action of the next day, the regiment took part. For 
twelve days succeeding, it was on picket-duty. When relieved, it 
encamped at Fair Oaks until the retreat to tlie James commenced, 
when it was in the rear of the rear column. On the 29th of June, 
there was a skirmish at Allen's Farm, and a battle the same after- 
noon at Savage Station, in which the enemy was repulsed. 

About noon next day, the battle of White-oak Swamp was 
fought; and in the evening of the same day, that of Nelson's 
Farm. The enemy were driven back with slaughter. 

In these engagements the Twentieth took an active part, losing 
several officers and men. Among the former were Col. Lee, in- 
jured ; and Lieut.-Col. Palfrey, wounded in the shoulder. 

At midnight, the retreat was resumed. At six o'clbck, a.m., 
July 1, the Twentieth reached Malvern Hill, but took no part in 
the action at that point. 

The next morning, it reached Harrison's Landing, and remained. 
there until Aug. 16, when the army began its retrograde move- 
ment. Arriving at Alexandria the 28th, the regiment was or- 


dered to TenalljtoAvn, Md. The next day, it recrossed the Potomac 
on its way to the scene of Gen. Pope's defeat. It took position 
near Fairfax Court House, where it remained while one column 
of Pope's army passed by in retreat. It then brought up the rear 
of the column. 

After one day's rest, the march into Maryland commenced, and 
the battle-ground of Antietam was reached Sept. 17. 

In this battle, the Twentieth suffered severely. Licut.-Col. Pal- 
frey was wounded in the shoulder ; and the killed, wounded, and 
missing amounted, in all, to a hundred and thirty-seven men. 

Oct. 16, it took part in tlie reconnoissance toward Winchester. 
Nov. 10, it was with the main body of the army at Warrenton, Va. ; 
being now attached to the third brigade, second division, Second 

On the 15th, the army was again in motion ; on the 18th, 
reached Falmouth ; and, on the 11th of December, the second 
division was marched to the bank of the river opposite Frede- 
ricksburg. The sharpshooters of the enemy, sheltered by the 
houses, rendered every attempt to construct a pontoon-bridge 
unsuccessful. Portions of the third brigade, the Seventh Michi- 
gan, and the Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts, crossed the 
river in boats, and drove the enemy from their hiding-places. 
The Twentieth advanced steadily forward up the street leading 
from the bridge, exposed to a galling fire from windows, cellars, 
and garrets. The enemy fell back. At sunset, the firing ceased. 
The bridge, meanwhile, was completed ; and the Second Corps 
crossed over it during the night. 

In the battle of the lotli, the Twentieth was much exposed, 
fought with its accustomed bravery, and lost heavily ; so much 
so, that, at the close of the second day, there were but two officers 
remaining in the left wing, and three in the right. 

On the return of the army to Falmouth, Col. Lee resigned. 
The regiment remained at Falmouth during the winter months 
of 1868. About the middle of April, Col. Palfrey, suffering 
from the severe wound received at Antietam, took leave of the 

May 3, the second division moved to the same position 
on the bank occupied by the division on the morning of 
Dec. 11, 1862. The engineers being again driven from their 
work on the pontoon-bridge by sharpshooters, a portion of 
the Sixth Corps, which had crossed the river a few days before, 
moved up the south bank of the river into the city, flanking the 
enemy's sharpshooters, who fell back. 


Crossed the pontoon May 4, at eight, a.m., and engaged in the 
battle of that day. Held the city until next morning, when, un- 
der cover of a heavy fog, the Twentieth recrossed the river, and 
returned to Falmoutli. 

About tlie middle of May, Col. Revere returned to the regi- 
ment ; and, on the 15th of June, the Second Corps, under com- 
mand of Gen. Hancock, withdrew from tlie Rappahannock. On 
the 20th, arrived at Thoroughfare Gap, where the corps was en- 
camped for some days. On the 2oth, the march was resumed. 
On the 2!)tli, crossed the Potomac at Edward's Ferry ; and the 
Twentieth encamped at Poolesville, near old Camp Benton. 

July 1, the Second Corps arrived within two miles of Gettys- 
burg. Early next morning, it took position on Cemetery Ridge, 
and was joined by a part of the Third Corps. Space does not per- 
mit here a recital in detail of the events of this decisive battle. It 
is sufficient to state, that, in the fierce and sanguinary engagements 
of the 2d and 3d of July, the Twentieth Massachusetts bravely 
and nobly performed its part. Of this fact, the severity of its losses 
is the best evidence. The Twentieth went into action with two hun- 
dred and thirty officers and men, and came out with one hundred 
and nineteen. Col. Revere was mortally wounded, and Lieut.-Col. 
Macey severely. 

Leaving the battle-field on the afternoon of the Gth, the regi- 
ment pushed on to the Potomac, and on the 14th, near Wil- 
liamsport, came upon the rear-guard of the enemy. On the 16th, 
it went into camp in Pleasant Valley ; and on the 18th crossed 
the Potomac, and, pursuing the same route as the year before 
through Snicker's and Asiiby's Gaps, pushed on to Manassas Gap. 
Leaving the 26th, it reached the Rappahannock on the 30th, and 
went into camp at Morrisville, near Kelly's Ford. Nothing wor- 
thy of record occurred until the 25th of August, when the Twen- 
tieth received one hundred and eighty-three conscripts. 

Sept. 13, the Second Corps, now under command of Gen. War- 
ren, crossed the Rappahannock, and, on the 17th, advanced to the 
Rapidan ; the second division picketing the river in the vicinity of 
Somerville. The enemy occupied a strong position on the other 

Oct. 6, the Second was relieved by the Sixth Corps ; marched to 
the Rappahannock, which it crossed on the 11th ; and, on the 
12th, was engaged with the enemy at Catlett's Station. Next 
day, the battle of Bristow Station took place, in which the enemy 
met with a bloody repulse. The casualties of the Twentieth, 
owing to its complete protection, were slight. 


Nov. 7, the regiment again crossed the Rappahannock, and 
went into camp at Mountain Run, near Brandy Station. 

On the 2Gth, it marched to the Rapidan, and crossed without 
opposition. Next day, it moved through the Wilderness, near 
Chancellorsville, and met Ewcll's corps coming down another road. 
On this and the two following days it was engaged in skirmishing 
with the enemy, when his skirmishers were finally driven over 
Mile Run to his fortifications on the opposite bank. 

Early on the morning of the 30th, tUe Second Corps took a posi- 
tion for the purpose of storming these works, between which and our 
forces lay an open field, swept by the fire of the enemy. In front 
of the second division, sixteen guns were planted. For the men 
who had fought at Fredericksburg and Gettysburg, it was simply 
a question of time whether they should go over, or fall before these 
works ; and with calm patience they waited the order to advance. 
But the terrible sacrifice of life required, and the chances against 
success, induced the commanding general to abandon the move- 

Dec. 2, the Second Corps crossed the Rapidan ; .and, on the 5th, 
the Twentieth went into winter-quarters at Stevensburg. While 
in this camp, two-thirds of the old members re-enlisted for three 
years. The regiment remained here until the 3d of May, 1864 ; 
when. Major Abbott in command, it marched to Ely's Ford. It 
crossed over next day, and. May 5, passed througii Chancellors- 
ville to the Wilderness. On the 6th, it was engaged three hours 
with the enemy. In this action, Major Abbott was killed, and 
Col. Macy wounded. In the fatigues and dangers, victories and 
honors, of this unexampled march from the Rapidan to the James 
River, the Twentieth shared with the Second Corps, of which it 
was a part ; and, so far, a history of the one is a history of the 

Arriving in front of Petersburg June 15, the regiment relieved 
some troops of the Eighteenth Corps in the front line. The 20th 
and 21st, it made frequent charges upon the enemy's position. 
On the 22d, the enemy returned the compliment by charging 
upon the left of the second division, breaking througii and rolling 
up our line, and taking regiment after regiment, until he came to 
the Twentieth ; when a few well-directed volleys and a change of 
front stopped his progress, thereby saving the rest of the line 
from capture. 

The term of service for the regiment expiring July 18, the 
men who had not re-enlisted were sent to Boston to be mustered 



out. The remainder of the men, recruits and veterans, were now 
consolidated into seven companies, and incorporated witli the Fif- 
teenth Massachusetts, which made up the other three companies. 
July 26, the regiment marched to the James, and crossed at Deep 
Bottom, where it remained until the oOtli, when it returned to its 
old camp. Aug. 12, it marched again to the James ; crossed at 
Deep Bottom; became engaged with the enemy, when Major Patten 
received a wound from which he afterwards died. On returning 
to Petersburg, the regiment was ordered, Aug. 23, to Ream's Sta- 
tion, on the Weldon Railroad. A severe engagement took place. 
The regiment was surrounded, and all present, except ten men, 
were killed or captured. 

Sept. 11, Capt. Magnitzky arrived at the front, and took com- 
mand of the regiment ; it being now but seventy strong, and con- 
solidated into one company. Twenty-five convalescents arriving 
from hospitals, it was organized into three companies, and em- 
ployed in the forts until Oct. 24. It was then marched to Hatch- 
er's Run, where it charged the enemy, and drove out the force op- 
posed to it. Advancing two miles to the Boynton Plank-road, and 
finding the enemy in force, it charged upon him. Staying here 
during the afternoon, it returned to our works at night. Nov. 29, 
it was relieved ; and, on the 30th, went into camp near Fort 
Emory. Feb. 5, 1865, the regiment broke camp, and partici- 
pated in the second movement to the left, across Hatcher's Run ; 
and, on the 2yth of March, the regiment started on its final cam- 

On the morning of April 2, an attack was ordered : the enemy's 
works were entered almost without opposition, and many pieces 
of artillery were captured. In the pursuit of the enemy, the regi- 
ment marched this day to within three miles of Petersburg, and, 
the day following, reached the South-side Railroad. 

On the 7th, the Appomattox River was crossed at Danville Bridge, 
and many prisoners, with nineteen pieces of artillery, were taken. 
On the 9th, when within three miles of Appomattox Court House, 
the surrender of Gen. Lee was announced to the regiment. Leav- 
ing Burke's Station, May 2, homeward bound, the regiment 
reached Richmond on the 5th, and the vicinity of Washington on 
the 13th. Here, with the Army of the Potomac, it passed in re- 
view before the President. 

Leaving camp July 17, the regiment arrived at Burkesville 
July 20. Final payment was received on the 28th ; and, aftey 
three years and ten days' service, the Twentieth Regiment, Mas- 
sachusetts Volunteers, ceased to exist. 



The Twenty-first had on its roll of officers the subjoined 
names : — 

Colonel ...... Augustus Morse. 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... Alberto Maggi. 

Major W. S. Clark. 

Surgeon ...... Calvin Cutter. 

Assistant Surgeon .... J. Marcus Wright. 

Chaplain ...... Greorge S. Ball. 

We transcribe, substantially, a part of Major Foster's narrative 
of the honorable career of this regiment. 

The Twenty-first left Camp Lincoln, at Worcester, Mass., for 
the seat of war, Aug. 2-3, 1861, numbering in the aggregate 
one thousand and four men, under command of Col. Augus- 
tus Morse. The regiment was mainly composed of Worcester- 
County men, and, having been selected with care, constituted a 
fair representation of the intellect and muscle of the State. It 
was selected to go on the Burnside Expedition, under command of 
Lieut,-Col. Albert Maggi; and left Annapolis, Md., on board the 
steamer " Northerner," Jan. G, 1862. A stormy and distress- 
ing month was passed on board the " Northener," most of which 
period was spent off Cape Hatteras. Late in the afternoon of 
Feb. 7, the Twenty-first disembarked to take part in the attack on 
Roanoke Island. The action commenced early the next morning. 

Gallantly led by Col. Maggi, it worked its way through a 
deep swamp, which protected the right flank of the battery, 
and which was considered by the enemy as impassable. Hav- 
ing flanked the position, the regiment made a brave, steady 
charge with the bayonet, driving the enemy from their works, and 
capturing the rebel flag which was on the battery. On the 4th of 
March, 1862, Lieut.-Col. Maggi having resigned, Major Clark was 
promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and took command of the 

In the battle of Newbern, the regiment took a prominent part. 
Its right wing pierced the centre of the enemy's intrenchments, and 
captured a battery of light artillery by a bayonet charge. The regi- 
ment was highly commended in official reports for the dash and 
bravery which it displayed in this action : and Gen. Burnside pre- 
sented it the first gun taken by it from the enemy, a brass field- 


piece, as a monument to the memory of a brave man (Lieut. F. A. 
Stearns) wlio was killed early in the action. In reply to Col. 
Clark's report of this spirited and brilliant engagement, Gov. 
Andrew wrote as follows : — 

Executive Depaktjmest, Boston, March 31, 1862. 
Lieut.-Col. W. S. Clark, commanding Twenty-Jirst Mass. Vols. 

My dear Sir, — I have but just received, by the hands of Capt. Frazier, 
the copy of your very clear and concise report of the conduct of the gallant 
regiment of Massachusetts volunteers under your command at the battle of 
Newbern, which you so kindly furnished to me. I had previously perused 
many different accounts of that sanguinary encounter between the Federal 
forces and the rebels ; and although full justice has been done, in nearly all, 
to the heroic valor of our fellow-citizens of Massachusetts, I think I may say 
that I have experienced an additional pleasure from the perusal of your 
modest narrative of the brave deeds of those composing the Twenty-first Regi- 
ment, under your immediate command, who have so fully met the expecta- 
tions of their friends, and added to the renown of our beloved Commonwealth. 

Please accept my official and personal thanks for your own wise and heroic 
conduct in the service of the country, and the assurance of the sincere and 
grateful regard with which I sul3scribe myself 

Your obedient servant, 


Leaving Newbern April 17, and reaching Elizabeth City at 
daybreak on the 19th, after a forced march of near twenty 
miles, the regiment took part in the spirited battle of Camden ; 
fitly celebrating the anniversary of the first blood shed in the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion by a victory. 

May 17, 1862, the Twenty-first made a forced march to Pol- 
locksville to rescue the Second Maryland Regiment, reported to 
be surrounded by a superior force of the enemy. The command- 
ing ofiicer of the Second Maryland issued an order in the name of 
his regiment, thanking the regiment for the alacrity with which it 
marched to the rescue, greeting the Massachusetts men as brothers 
for their kindness in feeding his hungry men. 

The Twenty-first arrived off Fortress Monroe July 8, and 
went into camp at Newport News on the 9th, 

Aug. 2, proceeded vid Acquia Creek to Fredericksburg, where 
the regiment went into camp. During Gen. Pope's retreat from 
the line of the Rapidan, the Twenty-first, for a large portion of the 
time, performed the arduous and dangerous duties of rear-guard. 
Without shelter from the elements, and suffering frequently from 


want of food, for three weeks the men stood to their arms with 
undiminished courage. 

The Twenty-first took part in tlic second battle of Bull Rua, in 
which, on account of the favorable position it occupied, it inflicted 
mucli damage upon the enemy, with little loss to itself. In the battle 
of Chantilly, which took place Sept. 1, the regiment suffered the 
severest loss it had thus far experienced, amounting to about a 
hundred and fifty men in killed, wounded, and captured. Did space 
permit, it would be interesting here to insert Col. Clark's graphic 
account of this battle. Having fallen into an ambuscade of rebel 
regiments in consequence of the darkness of the night, and find- 
ing it impossible to make a successful stand under the circum- 
stances, the regiment fell back hastily, the companies on the right 
in tolerable order. The colonel, in the confusion, being separated 
from the body of his regiment, and having no intention of trying 
the hospitalities of Libby, rushed through the crowd of rebels, 
received a parting salute of bullets, which brought to the earth the 
six or eight men with him, leaving him alone in the race. At this 
juncture, Gen. Kearney, riding up to learn the condition of affairs, 
and being ordered to surrender, turned his horse to gallop away ; 
but, alas ! the fatal bullet which was to end his gallant career, 
too successfully accomplished its fatal mission. Col. Clark suc- 
ceeded in reaching the woods, but, in attempting to make his way 
to Centreville, was in danger constantly of falling in with rebel 
sentinels and pickets. He was, therefore, obliged to keep as 
much as possible in the forests, and avoid every person and 

After toiling on in this manner by day and by night, living on 
green corn and apples, he joined his command at Alexandria 
in the afternoon of the fourth day after the battle. At nine o'clock 
the same evening, his regiment was again on the march, crossed 
the Potomac, and remained in Washington two days to procure 
necessary clothing. 

Sept. 7, the regiment marched with the Ninth Corps to drive 
the rebels out of Maryland. The column commanded by Gen. 
Reno, overtaking the enemy at the passes of South Mountain, 
and driving them from one position to another, had just gained 
the summit, when the rebels, having received re-enforcements, 
unexpectedly turned, and, opening fire. Gen. Reno fell, mortally 
wounded. He was, in many respects, a model ofiicer, — prompt, 
fearless, self-sacrificing, and patriotic. 


Next day, at two, p.m., the Twenty-first started in pursuit of 
the retreating enemy. The forces were now concentrating for the 
great battle about to be fought. Sept. 17, the Twenty-first was 
ordered to support Durell's battery, which it did witli loss, until 
ordered to move to the Stone Bridge with the division, where so 
many brave men fell. The brigade charged across the bridge, and 
held their ground for more than an hour, without ammunition, 
against an attacking force far superior in numbers. 

After the battle, the regiment went into camp at Antietam Creek, 
and subsequently at Pleasant Valley, Md., where it remained until 
Oct. 27, when, under command of Major Foster, it crossed the 
Potomac. Dec. 12, the regiment was engaged at Fredericksburg, 
having crossed the Rappahannock on the upper pontoon-bridge : it 
was ordered to support the Tenth New-Hampshire, then acting as 
skirmishers in the rear of the city. 

Our forces soon advanced against the formidable earthworks on 
the heights overlooking the town, and were met by a terrible 
shower of shot and shell. Still they pressed forward until within 
range of the enemy's infantry, posted behind stone walls, earth- 
works, and natural ridges. The second brigade was then ordered 
to the front, and, forming in double line of battle, gallantly and 
steadily moved across the plain, swept by the fire of the enemy. 
When about sixty rods from the city, Color-Sergeant Collins 
was shot. Sergeant Plunkett, Company E, seized the colors, 
and carried them forward to tlie farthest point reached by 
onr troops during the battle, when a shell carried away both his 

After expending its ammunition, the Twenty-first fell back to 
the line of support, and at dark returned to its position near the 
bridge, where the brigade passed the night and the next day. 
About ten o'clock at night, the brigade was relieved from its 
most wearisome and perilous duty, and ordered to return to camp 
across the river, where it arrived about two o'clock next morn- 
ing. The whole number of casualties in this battle was sixty- 

The regiment remained in Falmouth, doing picket-duty along 
the Rappahannock, during the cold and stormy weeks which fol- 
lowed. At this pause in active operations. Col. Clark, taking a 
short furlough, visited his pleasant home in Amherst, where for 
several years he has been an able professor in the excellent col- 
lege there, and bore with him the subjoined testimonial : — 


Headquakters Second Divisiox, Ninth Corps, 

Opposite Fredericksburg, Va., Feb. 4, 1863. 

To Col. W. S. Clakk, commanding Twenty-first Mass. Vols. 

Dear Colonel, — As you are about to leave us for a season, I beg you to 
carry with you this slight testimonial of my regard for the valuable services 
you have rendered the Grovernment since you have been under my command. 

I am well aware of the estimate placed upon your services by Grens. Burn- 
side and Reno, both of whom were honored friends of mine, and men for 
whom I have always entertained a very high regard. Tliat you should wear a 
star was a matter upon which poor Reno had set his heart ; and, if I had 
no other, that circumstance would be sufiSeient to make me long to see one rise 
upon your shoulder. In my desire, however, to see you promoted, I need 
not go back to your services under that gallant officer. The energy, ability, 
and courage displayed during the Maryland campaign, and in front of the 
walls near Fredericksburg, are known to myself, and ought to be better 
known to the country tlian they probably are ; then, if republics are not 
ungrateful, we might hope to see you command a brigade on your return. 

Trusting that you may have a very happy furlough, I remain, colonel. 

Your friend and obedient servant, 

S. D. STURGISS, Brigadier-General, 

Commandinfj Second Division. 

Jan. 10, the Twenty-first left Falmouth and its mud with 
no feelings of regret, looking for the last time on the field of 
Fredericksburg, where its bravery and patriotism had been proved, 
and sealed in blood. The regiment landed at Newport News, 
Feb. 11 ; where it remained until March 26, when it started for 
the West. It reached Paris, Ky., April 1, and on April 5 
marched to Mount Sterling, where it remained three months, 
gaining one of its greatest victories, — that of teaching a people 
once prejudiced against Yankees to look upon Massachusetts 
troops with respect and alfection. The opinion was universal 
among the inhabitants of that country, that no troops could com- 
pare with those from Massachusetts. 

From July to the middle of November, the regiment was mov- 
ing from point to point in East Tennessee, exposed to severe 
storms, without tents, on half or quarter rations all the time, 
poorly clothed and poorly shod. 

Nov. 15, before daylight, the regiment broke camp in a cold 
and heavy rain, and was formed into line in readiness for ac- 
tion ; and at two o'clock, a.m., started for Loudon Bridge. ThC' 
roads were almost impassable. All through the following night,.. 


the regiment worked its weary way toward Kuoxville. At day- 
light, Nov. 16, it halted ; but soon the rattle of musketry called it 
into action, and it remained under fire until darkness pat an end 
to the contest. Our troops, having narrowly escaped destruction 
during the day, barely escaped capture in the evening, and began 
a third night's march, and, after a night of such exhausting toil 
as cannot be described by pen, reached Kuoxville at daybreak,' 
Nov. 17. 

Here the regiment was placed in position, and sent a large 
detail on picket. During the siege of Kuoxville, the Twenty-first 
did active duty continually ; being one night on picket, and the 
next in the rifle-pits. It made one of the most brilliant charges 
of tlie siege on Nov. 24, when with another picked regiment, 
and the entire party under Lieut.-Col. Hawkes of tlie Twenty- 
first, it attacked the sharpshooters of the enemy, and, driving 
them from the houses and fences of North Kuoxville and from 
the rifle-pits beyond, took and held possession of all tlic ground 
fortified and occupied by the rebels within the outskirts of North 
Kuoxville. In doing this, the troops attacked and drove twice 
their number, and that in face of the rebel army and batteries. 

On the retreat of the enemy, the Twenty-first was ordered to 
pursue. From that time, the regiment saw wearisome marches 
and constant exposure (the tents having been left behind), and 
was reduced to such an extremity, that two ears of coin a day 
were issued to each man as his rations. Thus situated, in the 
woods of East Tennessee, on the 2*Jth of December, the proposal 
was made to the regiment to re-enlist for a new term of three 
years ; and, in thirty-six hours, all but twenty-four of the men 
had re-enlisted. During this time, the utmost enthusiasm pre- 
vailed. Jan. 8, 1864, the regiment started for home. During 
the year, it had marched, in a body, seven hundred and seventy 
miles. Col. Clark resigned, and was honorably discharged. 

We regret that we have not the room for a sketch of the en- 
thusiastic welcome of the brave men at Worcester on the 30th of 
January. At the head of the regiment rode Col. Hawkes ; and, on 
either side, Cols. Clark and Sprague. The streets were thronged, 
and the demonstration hi Mechanics' Hall has been rarely equalled 
in that spacious edifice. 

The speeches of the Mayor, Cols. Clark and Hawkes, and of 
the Hon. A. H. Bullock, were full of thrilling incidents of war- 
experiences, patriotism, and eloquence. We quote a single para- 
graph from Mr. Bullock's address : — 


And now, fellow-citizens, follow these men, from their camp in Worces- 
ter, to Annapolis, to North Carolina, back to Virginia, to Maryland, to 
Tennessee, through four States in rebellion ; everywhere patient, enduring, 
triumphant ; never despairing of their country, never dishonoring their State, 
never losing their flag ; all and everywhere the same, — at the morning drum- 
beat, in the shock of battle, in the funeral-pi'ocession to the bed of a com- 
rade's rest. Remember that all but twenty-four have re-enlisted to see the 
end of the war and the end of its cause, and tell me if they do not make 
their history on their march, and carry it with them ; if their reward is not in 
all your hearts ; and if their praise shall not be known and heard on earth till 
it shall merge in the reveille of the resurrection. 

After a very pleasant visit to their respective homes, the Twenty- 
first assembled at Worcester, and left for Annapolis, vt^here the 
Ninth Corps was o^'ganizing for a new move. It was assigned 
to the first division, commanded by Gen. Stevenson, and composed 
principally of Massachusetts regiments. The corps was ordered 
to co-operate with tlie Army of the Potomac. It crossed the Rap- 
idan at Germania Ford, May 5. Next morning the regiment left, 
and, hearing afar off the rattle of musketry, started for the scene 
of conflict. There was not that " spoiling; for a fight " whicii had 
once been its experience ; but there was in the closed ranks and 
steady march an indication that every man appreciated what might 
be demanded as a sacrifice for Union and Liberty. 

There is no sight more sublime than that of a body of veterans, 
who, hearing the terrible rattle of musketry that tells of the death- 
struggle going on, though yet unseen, prepare to obey the com- 
mand, "Forward I " 

Reaching the now famous battle-ground known as the " Wilder- 
ness," the Twenty-first was even within a few yards of the con- 
tending: parties before any of the troops could be seen. It was 
then formed into line, with the One Hundredth Pennsylvania, on 
the left of the Second Corps, and was subject to the orders of 
Gen. Hancock. When the rebels made a furious charge, and the 
raw troops of the Second Corps gave way, rushing upon the lines 
of the Ninth Corps, throwing it into confusion, the Twenty-first 
and the One Hundredth Pennsylvania were deployed, advanced, 
and, by their celerity and gallantry, prevented the rebels from 
reaping any of the fruits of even a temporary success. The rebel 
line was attacked and the advance repvilscd I)y these veterans, and 
the old line was speedily restored by Gen, Hancock. At two o'clock, 
A.M., next morning, the Twenty-first left the Wilderness, and, after 
a wearisome march by the battle-fields of Chanccllorsville, reached 



the River Spy, near Spottsylvania Court House. In the engage- 
, ment which took place here on the 10th, the regiment, with the first 
division of the Ninth Corps, suffered an irretrievable loss in the 
death of Gen. Stevenson. Though but a short time with the 
division, he had yet endeared himself to all. May 12, the Twenty- 
first took part in another charge. The fighting was obstinate, 
until the rebels, driven from one line to another, brought up in 
formidable works, from which they were not dislodged. The regi- 
ment was engaged with the enemy on the 18th, and at Sandy- 
grove Road on the 31st and on June 1. The battle of Cold 
Harbor was fought June 2. In this action the Twenty-first was 
engaged fiercely, did nobly, and lost heavily in men. The next 
day it repulsed an attack of the enemy, and, after a few days of 
rest, took up its line of march to and across the James River. 
Arriving at a point near Petersburg about noon of June IG, it 
immediately became engaged with the enemy. 

Early the next morning, the second division of the Ninth Army Corps 
charged and captured some extensive works and four guns ; the Twenty- 
first being in the third line. Then a vain attempt was made to take the 
works beyond. In the afternoon, the third division of the same corps tried the 
same thing, with a like want of success. Then the first division, of which 
the Twenty-first was a part, was ordered to try it again. 

An officer already quoted writes, — 

While the division was to charge directly ahead, to the Twenty-first was 
assigned the delicate duty of making a charge diagonally to the line of direc- 
tion of the division ; which thus isolated the regiment, and exposed it to a 
more raking fire. The charge was ordered at about five o'clock, p.m. The 
Twenty-first arose, but sank almost immediately beneath the withering fire 
which met them. Then was there need of all the courage they possessed. 
They rose again, and this time with a patriotic hurrah. The colors were 
swung aloft gloriously by Color-Sergeant Frank Peckham. Brave oificers 
went ahead, among whom was Capt. Charles Goss, who, in that terrible mo- 
ment of trial, brought out all the resources of his soul, proved and tempered 
in more than twenty battles of this war. A noble courage filled him. He 
seemed to forget the times when he had been wounded " nigh unto death ; " 
and when the line was well formed, and advancing nobly, he fell, never to rise 
again till a louder trumpet summon him than was sounded for that advance. 
In that moment of sublime heroism, which few can know, his soul passed 
from a body, before pierced in many places, but now become unworthy to 
claim any longer such a noble, generous, and Christian spirit. Capt. Sampson 
again renewetl his courage in leading the regiment up even to the rebel lines, 
whence we drove the occupants. The lines were ours. Darkness settled 


around. Ouv ammunition was entirely exhausted. Repeated requests were 
sent for supplies or for relief; but none came to our aid. 

Immediately a rebel charge was made. Nothing was there with which to 
resist the charge ; and the whole division fell back in confusion, and the lines 
so gallantl}- taken were again lost. The next morning came ; but the rebel 
army had withdrawn, and we advanced without opposition to works we had 
conquered and lost the day before. 

From this time to the 23cl of June, the duty of the regiment 
was severe. Firing was kept up continually, both from infantry 
and artillery. 

On the morning of July 3, the mine was exploded, and the 
first division led the attack on the works of the enemy, near Peters- 

The colored division was thrown out ; and by lot, among three 
others, the fate came to the first division, I'his was on the even- 
ing of the 29th. They were got into position with some difficulty. 
Heavy artillery was in the front lines. The mine exploded about 
daylight. The first line, somewhat startled, fell back, but soon 
rallied ; and, about five minutes later, the division advanced. 

After alluding to the confusion which followed, the loss of time, 
and the enemy's " withering " fire, driving back the disorganized 
mass, the officer adds, — 

It was certainly the most soiTOwfal and discouraging battle in which the 
Tweuty-lirst was ever engaged. They fell back from their advanced position 
later in the day, and soon were brought out entirely. In the press of the 
crowd, the bearer of the State colors, unable to detach his flag-staff from the 
earth, tore the colors from it as well as possible, and brought them in. Troops 
coming in afterwards brought the staff, which gave rise to the rumor that the 
Twenty-first had lost their colors. But it was soon found that the reguuent 
had the silken rags, and the error was explained. It would be well to say 
that there was another regiment with the Twenty-first in the narrow works, 
and all were lying down on account of the fire from the enemy ; and the staff 
was thus pressed down under many, when our regiment was ordered out under 
fire. The color-bearer did his duty. The regiment lost, killed, First Ser- 
geant Horace E. Gardner, and Corporal William Harrington ; mortally wound- 
ed, Capt. William H. Clark. 

On the ISth of August, it was decided that the regiment was not a veteran 
regiment, because, of the three-fourths that had re-enlisted, fifty-six had been 
rejected for various reasons ; and it was ordered that the organization be broken 
up, and the officers and non-re-enlisted men proceed home to be mustered 
out. Capts. C. W. Davis, Orange S. Sampson, and Edward E. Howe, First 
Lieuts. Jonas R. Davis, Felix M'Dormott, and William H. Sawyer, were 


selected to remain in command of the re-enlitted. The regiment left City 
Point on the 19th of August in a steamer for Washington. That day the 
remnant left was again engaged, and Capt. Sampson fell. He was a brave 
and faithful officer ; had served in the Eighth Massachusetts three months, and 
three years in the Twenty-first, and always with honor. He enlisted as a pri- 
vate, and has been mentioned for bravery more than once in this history. 
Sergeant Simon May and Private Hugh Murphy were killed in the same 

The regiment had for duty on the morning of i^Iay 6, 18G4, two hundred 
and nine enlisted men. 

The re-enlisted of the Twenty-first were organized with the Thirty-sixth 
Massachusetts soon after the departure of their own organization, and their 
subsequent history will be found in that of the Thirty-sixth. 

The organization which left on the 19th arrived in Boston the evening of the 
22d, and were furnished transportation home. They assembled in Worcester 
Aug. 30. The troops were mustered out of the service, and paid off in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 20. The expenses to and fro at muster-out and at pay-day came 
out of the men's own pockets. Capt. Clark, who was mortally wounded at 
Petersburg, lived to see his home again before he died. He also had served 
three months in the Eighth as private before entering the Twenty-first. He 
had been wounded once before, at Chantilly, — it was then thought, fatally ; 
and fell into rebel hands. He never recovered fully, but still was ever with 
the regiment, and always at his post. He was very cool in action, brave, and 
beloved by all. 




The Twenty-second recruited and commanded by Senator Wilson. — He resigns. — 
From Fortress Monroe to Fredericksburg. — Tiie Gallant Gove. — Completed Ser- 
vice. — The March of the Twenty-third from Lynnfield to the Front. — Roanoke 
Island. — Movements till joined to the Potomac Army, May 29. — Its Latest 
Work. — Col. Raymond's Testimony. — The Regiment of the lamented Steven- 
son. — The Twenty-fourth. — On Roanoke Island; at Fort Wagner, Charleston, 
and Richmond. — The Welcome Home. 

THE Twent3'-second Regiment was organized by Hon. Henry- 
Wilson, September, 1801, and went into camp at Lynnfield. 
Oct. 8, it left for the seat of war under the command of Col. 
Henry Wilson. 

Names of the field and staff officers were as follow : — 



Lieutenant - Colonel 

Assistant Surgeon 
Chaplain . 

Henry Wilson. 
Charles E. Griswold. 
William S. Tilton. 
Edward L. Warren. 
James P. Prince. 
John Pierpont. 

Brilliant receptions greeted the arrival of the regiment in Bos- 
ton, New York, and Philadelphia. In each of these cities, great 
enthusiasm was manifested by the crowds that thronged the 
streets. Arriving in Washington on the 11th, on the loth it 
proceeded to Hall's Hill, Va., and encamped. The Senate of the 
United States demanding Col. Wilson's wise counsels and earnest 
speech, he resigned his command, Oct. 19, 18l)l ; and was suc- 
ceeded by Col. Jesse A. Gove, formerly a captain in the Fourth 
United-States Infantry. 

Col. Gove assumed command Nov. 14; and, under his instruc- 
tion, the regiment attained a high degree of efficiency. He was 
killed near Gaines's Mills, Hanover County, Va., June 27, 1862; 



and was succeeded by Lieut. Charles E. Griswold, who resigned, 
on account of ill health, in October following. The regiment was 
under command of Gen. Fitz-John Porter, whose corps Gen. 
McClellan pronounced the best disciplined and most efficient 
corps in the army ; and this regiment was behind no otlier, but 
rather — if we may judge by the fact of its being often selected 
for difficult and important duties — it was considered to be among 
the best. 

In the first considerable battle at Gaines's Mills, Major William 
8. Tilton liad the command ; and ho testifies to the unswerving 
bravery of all the men. The regiment did not give way until 
forced to do so by the danger of being outflanked : as it was, 
ninety-three were taken prisoners, including seven officers. Col. 
Gove, having command of one of the two parts into which the 
large brigade was divided, was on the spot, and advised much to 
the advantage of the Twenty-second. 

The following is a record of the marches and engagements 
of this regiment from March, 1862, to November of the same 
year : — 

It moved from Hall's Hill, March 10, to Alexandria, where it did 
provost-duty. Thence it sailed to Fortress Monroe, and, after a 
reconnoissance to Big Bethel, was in the engagement with the ene- 
my at York town. It was the first regiment to enter the abandoned 
works of the enemy there. May 4, and to raise the American flag. 
Marches followed, some of the waymarks of which were West 
Point, Va.; White-house Landing ; Gaines's Mills ; Hanover Court 
House, from which point a reconnoissance towards Richmond was 
made ; Mechanicsville, where the regiment shared in the battle 
that took place, losing thirty-one men killed, and forty wounded ; 
Malvern Hill, where eleven more men fell in death, and forty- 
eight were wounded ; Newport News ; Falmouth ; Warrenton 
Junction ; Ccntreville ; Chain Bridge ; Hall's Hill again ; Arling- 
ton Heights ; and at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, where the regiment 
formed a part of Gen. Porter's reserve. It also performed picket- 
duty, and went on a reconnoissance across the Potomac, Harper's 
Ferry, Snickersville, Middlebury, White Plains, New Baltimore, 
and Warrenton. 

About this time. Gen. Burnside took command of the army, and 
the advance upon Fredericksburg commenced. The Twenty- 
second, upon reaching Falmouth, spent three weeks in Smoky 
Camp ; a suggestive name for army-quarters. Of the events which 
followed, an officer wrote : — 


On the lltb of December, the army commenced its attack upon Freder- 
icksburg. On tbe 13th, the regiment crossed into the city, and immediately 
moved forward upon the rebel intrenchments. The regiment then, as at present, 
constituted a part of the first brigade, first division, Fifth Corps ; Gen. Barnes, 
of Massachusetts, commanding the brigade. Shortly after mid-day, the line 
was formed, and immediately moved forward at double-quick ; a terrible 
shower of shells and bullets falling upon the ranks. Gaining a slight eleva- 
tion, a brisk musketry-fire was opened against the enemy, strongly intrenched 
upon Mary's Heights. The fight continued until dark, when, all the ammu- 
nition being expended, the line was relieved by fresh troops. Sunday, the 
14th, the regiment lay under the enemy's fire, occasional shots being ex- 
changed. Sunday night, it retired to the city, and, Monday night, recrossed 
the river. 

Soon after this, in a new location, an excellent camp was made, and 
named — in memory of our late honored and lamented commander — 
" Camp Gove." The regiment occupied this camp until the latter part 
of April ; the quiet being interrupted only by a reeonnoissance to Ellis's Ford, 
made by the brigade early in January, and by the movement of the army, 
called the •' mud march," Jan. 20 and 24, 1863. 

During the early part of May, the Twenty-second was engaged 
m the Chanccllorsvillo campaign. 

On the loth of June, it marched, by way of Manassas Junction, 
to Aldie Gap. The regiment took part in the reeonnoissance 
througli the gap and Loudon Valley, supporting a battery dur- 
ing a brilliant cavalry engagement on that occasion. Col. Tilton 
was in command of the brigade, Licut.-Col. Sherwin leading the 
regiment. About the 2oth of June, it crossed the Potomac into 

During the movement into Pennsylvania, the Twenty-second 
was required to perform long and wearisome marches, starting 
each day before light, and arriving in camp oftentimes not until 
late at night. 

At midnight on the 1st of July, the column halted within a 
few miles of Gettysburg, in the direction of which place cannon- 
ading had been heard throughout the day. But a few hours were 
allowed for sleep, and at sunrise the march was resumed. Early 
in the forenoon of the 2d of July, the column arrived near the 
right of the position chosen by Gen. Meade for his line of battle. 
Soon after, the regiment moved towards the left, crossing the 
Emmettsburg Road, and again formed line. Here the soldiers, 
exhausted -by their constant and rapid marches, fell asleep. At 
three, p.m., the order was given to move forward, and the rcgi- 


ment took position a short distance to tlie right of Round Top. 
A sharp musketry-fight followed, the enemy being driven from 
the front just at evening. The brigade, being threatened by a 
flank movement of the rebels, fell back to a new position. On the 
3d of July, the regiment was moved to Round Top ; where it 
remained until the 4th, when a reconnoissance discovered that the 
enemy were falling back. While on Round Top, a furious fire 
was directed upon the troops by the enemy's artillery: the rebel 
sharpshooters also were very active. 

The loss in this battle was eight killed, twenty-seven wounded, 
one taken prisoner, and two missing. Second Lieut. Cliarles K. 
Knowles — a most worthy and gallant officer — fell, mortally 

The regiment then moved through Maryland into Virginia ; and 
was at the affair of Wapping Heights, July 23. It marched 
thence to Beverly Ford, on the Rappahannock, where nearly 
two hundred recruits, drafted men and substitutes, were re- 
ceived. Sept. 16, it moved to Culpcper Court House ; Oct. 10, 
it took part in a reconnoissance to Raccoon Ford, on tlic Rapidan ; 
and, the next day, commenced its retrograde movement, support- 
ing the Second Corps in its fight at Bristow Station, Oct. 14. 

On the 7th of November, the regiment participated in the bat- 
tle at Rappahannock Station. During the year, it participated in 
all the movements of the Army of the Potomac, having marched 
about eight hundred miles. 

After the failure of the Mine-Run expedition, the regiment 
went into winter-quarters at Beverly Ford, Va. ; building com- 
fortable log-huts of uniform size, and rendering the camp, in 
appearance, second to no other. 

In April, 1864, the re-organization of the army took place. The 
Twenty-second was assigned to the second brigade, and Col. Tilton 
returned to the command of his regiment. 

May 4, the Twenty-second crossed the Rapidan at Germania 
Ford. Want of space compels us to pass by its record from this 
date up to June 18, when Col. Tilton relinquished command. 
From this time, the regiment was engaged in no considerable bat- 
tle, although always under fire in the trenches, and often moved 
up and down the lines in support of other troops. 

On the 8th of August, it was relieved from the trenches, and 
sent to City Point to guard the quartermaster's repair-shop. 
Hero the men had an opportunity to rest, after having been two 
months within range of the enemy's cannon, and having lost most 
of their number in battle. 


On the 5th of October, all the officers and men on detached 
service in the army liaving rejoined the command, they took 
their departure for home, where they arrived on the 10th. They 
were received with a glad welcome and great honor. 

Col. Tilton speaks of Col. Gove as follows : — 

In closing this final report, you will pardon me for once more alluding to 
our second colonel, Jesse A. Gove, my friend and mentor, who was most 
untimely cut off on the 27th of June, 1862. 

lie was a soldier, and, if living now, would be a major-general commanding 
a corps. I have never seen his like. There was nothing about the service 
and its details that he did not fully understand ; and yet his mind was large, 
and grasped the field of strategy as easily as the more limited ones of tactics and 
discipline. He was, however, a good disciplinarian. While he was kind to 
all, and very gentle, even playful, when otf duty, yet he never forgot him- 
self, or what was due his rank. He was generous and noble-hearted ; yet 
he did not spare those who were mean, and guilty of duplicity. 

He was a great judge of character, and could read a man like a book. He 
was terrible when his chivalric emotions were excited by the detection of 
wrong or deception on the part of ofiicers or men. I have cause to remember 
bis kindness. We were tent-mates from the investment of Yorktown, April 5, 
until the day of his death, during which time he suffered much from acute 
disease : but he seldom complained, and never spoke to me in an impatient 
manner ; and, from his assumption of command of the regiment, he never 
reprimanded or rebuked me. This excites ray gratitude ; for, in so many 
months, I should not be human had I not given him good occasion to do so. 
The dear, brave, manly, gentle fellow ! — God give him rest in his new home ! 

The following letter from Gen. Griffin shows how the regiment 
was regarded in the Army of the Potomac : — 

Headquaetees First Division, Fifth Army Corps, 
Before Petersburg, Va., Oct. 3, 18G4. 

To Brig.-Gen. W. S. Tilton, commanding Twenty-second Mass. Vols. 

Genercd, — As your regiment leaves the army on the 5th inst. by reason 
of expiration of term of service, I desire to express to you, your officers and 
men, my satisfaction at the manner you have conducted yourselves, since I 
have commanded the division, in every circumstance of trial and danger. 

The valuable and efficient service you have rendered your country, during 
the past three years of its eventful history, is deserving of its gratitude and 

You leave the army with an enviable record, and with the regrets of your 
comrades at parting with you. 

Sincerely yours, 

CHAKLES GRIFFIN, Brig. -Gen. commanding Division. 




This regiment was organized at Lynnfield with the following 
officers : -=- 

Colonel . 
Lieutenant -Colonel 
Surgeon . 
Assistant Surgeon 

John Kurtz. 
Henry Jlerritt. 
Andrew Elwell. 
Greorgo Derby. 
Silas C. Stone. 
Jonas B. Clarke. 

It left Lynnfield for Annapolis, Md., Nov. 11, 1861. Arrived 
at its destination Nov. 16, and went into camp on the ontskirts 
of the city. Jan. 6, 1862, the regiment embarked on board the 
schooner " Highlander " and the gunboat " Hussar," and sailed 
the 9th for Fortress Monroe. As the " Highlander " was entering 
the inlet, a boat, manned by several of the regiment, succeeded in 
rescuing the lieutenant-colonel, adjutant, quarter-master, and sev- 
eral others of the Ninth New-Jersey Regiment, who were thrown 
overboard by*tlie capsizing of a small boat in the surf. The colonel 
and surgeon were drowned. Jan. 22, the " Highlander" entered 
Pamlico Sound, and remained at anchor about a fortnight. 

On the 5th of Fel)ruary, the weather being fine, the expedition 
started from Pamlico Sound to accomplish the reduction of Ro- 
anoke Island. Over sixty vessels composed the fleet ; leaving part 
of the troops, with about forty vessels, at Hatteras Inlet. Wrote 
an officer, — 

At sunset, they came to anchor about two miles from shore, and twenty miles 
from Roanoke Island. Feb. 7, durinsfthe forenoon, our o;unboats commenced 
an attack on the rebel fleet and the forts defending Roanoke Island ; 
and, later in the day, our forces commenced landing, the Twenty-third Regi- 
ment being among the first to reach the shore. The landing was not opposed 
by the rebel forces, a small squad of infantry taking precipitate flight. 

Night coming on prevented any demonstration being made by our troops ; 
and they bivouacked for the night near the shore, our situation being any 
thing but comfortable, witli a cold rain. Early the following morning, they 
took up the line of march, the pickets of the Twenty-first Massachusetts 
having reported a strong rebel force, with a battery, about two miles from the 
landins;, on the main road. After marching about a mile, the skirmishers 
of the Twenty-fifth commenced driving in the rebel pickets ; and, in a short 
time after, the engagement became general, the Twenty-fifth firing the first 
volley, supported by several pieces of marine artillery. The rebel force 


consisted of several regiments of iuftintry, with three pieces of artillery, in a 
masked battery, commanding the road. Our regiment immediately formed 
in line on the right of the Twenty-fifth, in an almost impassable swamp, and 
commenced firino;. The ensrasement lasted for about three hours, when, our 
regiment appearing on their left flank, and the Twenty-first on* their right 
flank, the enemy deemed it no longer safe to remain, and fled precipitately. 
They were quickly followed up by several fresh regiments, which, after a chase 
of eight miles, found them at their barracks, where their forces, under Col. 
Shaw, capitulated at four o'clock, p.m., to Brig.-Gen. Foster. Our troops 
captured in all about three thousand prisoners, two thousand stand of arms, 
and, including the three forts or shore-batteries, about forty guns. 

In this engagement, the regiment lost three killed and five 
wounded. The troops took up their quarters for the night in the 
barracks formerly occupied by the rebels, of which there were 
some thirty spacious buildings capable of accommodating six 
thousand men. 

On the 14th, Gen. Buriiside issued an order tendering his 
thanks to the troops for. their gallant and meritorious conduct in 
the late action, and directing that the words " Roanoke, Feb. 8," inscribed on their banners. On the morning of the 11th of 
March, the fleet sailed for Newbern, N.C., and, late on the even- 
ing of the 12tli, came to anchor about fifteen miles from that 
city. The troops landed, under cover of the gunboats, at a place 
called Slocum's Creek. Advancing about eleven miles from this 
point, the}' halted for the night. 

It rained incessantly all night. On the 14th, at seven o'clock, a.m., our 
troops formed in line, the regiment being the third battalion of the advance. 
They had proceeded about a mile, when they were suddenly opened upon by 
the enemy in front with artillery and infantry, being protected by a line of 
intrenehmeuts extending from the river, across the main road, to the railroad, 
a distance of nearly two miles. This regiment immediately formed line on 
the left of the Twenty-seventh IMassachusetts, the Twenty-fourth having the 
right, and promptly re.:^ponded to the enemy's fire. A brisk fusiladewas kept 
up, until, the ammunition becoming nearly exhausted, the Eleventh Connecti- 
cut was sent up to relieve this regiment ; and the latter were ordered to lie 
down, and be ready to charge the enemy. Shortly after the action com- 
menced, Ldeut.-Col. Merritt fell, killed by a shell. The engagement continued 
for about throe hours, when a gallant bayonet-charge drove them from their 
breastworks in great disorder. Our troops on the left, at the railroad, had 
a more arduous task in dislodging them from their rifle-pits ; but they were 
soon after compelled to retreat. Two or three hundred prisoners, with about 
thirty pieces of artillery, were captured here. Our troops continued their 
march towards Newbern, reaching the Trent River, a few miles distant from 


the battery, about noon. The railroad bridge across the river had been 
fired l)y the rebels in their retreat : but our gunboats held possession of the 
city; and, in the afternoon, the first brigade crossed the river in steamers, and 
•went into camp, the Twenty-third occupying the deserted camp of the 
Thirty-first TJ'orth-Carolina Regiment. 

The loss of this regiment in the engagement was, killed, seven, among 
whom was Lieut. -Col. Merritt. 

March 21, the thanks of Gov. Andrew of Massachusetts were 
read to the regiment for several rebel flags sent to the State by the 
Massachusetts regiments in the Burnside Expedition. An order 
was also read from Gen. Burnside, tendering his thanks to the 
various regiments for their gallant conduct in the battle of New- 
bern, and ordering the words " Newborn, March 14," to be in- 
scribed on their banners. 

During the rest of March, the regiment was employed on picket- 
duty, and, the 2d of April, went on an expedition to Pilot Bay. 

April 5, Gen. Burnside's expedition was re-organized into a 
grand corps d'armce, of three divisions; under Gens. Foster, 
Reno, and Park ; the Twenty-third being assigned to the first 
brigade, under command of Col. Amory, in Gen. Foster's division. 

April 11 and 12, the regiment went into camp at Batchelder's 
Creek, eight miles from Newborn. According to orders, it left 
Batchelder's Creek on the morning of May 4, and, after marching 
about four miles, went into camp near Red House, about twelve 
miles from Newborn, on the Trent Road leading to Kinston. The 
regiment performed picket-duty till May 7 ; when a part went to the 
relief of the Twenty-fifth Massachusetts, acting as provost-guard at 
Newbern, followed the next day by the remainder of the troops. 

Oct. 30, four companies of the Twenty-third left Newbern, on 
an expedition to the Neuse River, under the command of Major 
Chambers. They reached Washington on the evening of Nov. 1 
without molestation. Next day the line of march was continued, 
their forces being augmented by Col. Amory's command. 

Nov. 3, towards sundown, the advance came across the enemy, posted 
behind intrenchments, at a place called Rawle's Mills, who disputed their 
passage ; but our forces soon compelled them to retreat, and the following 
raoruino' the advance again continued on to WiUiamston, which place the 
column reached at noon, having marched a distance of twenty-thi-ee miles 
from Washington. Leaving the sick and footsore on board the gunboats in 
the river, the troops marched out of the town about three miles, and 
bivouacked for the night. Nov. 4, they took up the line of march for 
Hamilton, two miles of which they were obliged to halt for several 


hours to build a bridge, near which was a deserted breastwork, leading from 
the woods across the main road to a fort on the river-bank. Hamilton was 
reached about sundown, and, like Williamston, was found entirely deserted. 

On tho lOtli, the expedition returned to Newborn, having 
marched a hundred and fifty miles in thirteen days. During 
the absence of the expedition, Coh Kurtz, who had been left ip 
command of the defences at Newbern, was informed that a 
large force of rebels was about ten miles out, and intended to 
attack the place. Early in the morning of Nov. 22, five compa- 
nies, with the Fifth Rhode-Island infantry, under command of 
Major Chambers, proceeded to Batchelder's Creek, but found no 
hostile force. On the 22d, the regiment was relieved from pro- 
vost-duty ; and on the 10th of December, commanded by Major 
Chambers, and attached to Col. Amory's brigade, the Twenty- 
third, together with all the forces about Newbern, started on an 
expedition toward Goldsborough. The whole, under command of 
Major-Gen. Foster, marched seventeen miles toward Kinston. 
Three miles from that place, in sight of the rebel camp-fires, 
the regiment bivouacked in a swamp, without kindling a fire 
throughout all that cold night. 

On the morning of the 14th, every thing was put in readiness for a battle, 
which began about nine o'clock. During the battle, the regiment supported the 
Eio-hty-fifth Pennsylvania, which was on the left of the line. The enemy 
was driven from his position and through the town. 

On the 16th, our brigade, having the advance, soon came upon the enemy 
at Whitehall : the place is on the left bank of the River Neuse. The ene- 
my was strongly intrenched on the right bank, the river being quite narrow at 
this point. A gunboat, partly built at this place, was destroyed. The 
Twenty-third was immediately ordered forward to support the Seventeenth 
Massachusetts and the Ninth New-Jersey, who were in advance, and had en- 
gaged the enemy. We marched forward, and came " on the right, by file, into 
line," in as good order as though we were on drill in camp. The line being 
formed, we moved forward to tho woods, and up to the banks of the river, 
where the enemy poured the lead and iron into us like rain. We opened fire 
when they were within ten yards of us. Separated by the narrow stream, 
which was so deep that it was impossible to charge across, it was provoking to 
the boys to stand there, and not be able to give them the ' ' steel ; " but a steady 
fire from our men made them seek shelter behind the trees. The regiment 
remained under fire about two hours, when it was ordered to the rear. We 
lost in the engagement thirteen killed and fifty-four wounded ; total, sixty- 
seven. The column passed on towards Goldsborough. We were obliged to 


leave some of our dead aud wounded on the field on account of the fire of 
the rebel sharpshooters on the right bank of the river. 

On the ITtli, Gen. Foster's advance came upon the enemy, who 
charged a number of times upon the batteries of Gen. Foster, but 
were driven back. Meanwhile the cavalry were engaged in burn- 
ing the bridges and tearing up the track of the Wilmington Rail- 
road. The object of the expedition having been accomplished, the 
regiment returned to Newbern on the 21st. 

On the 13th of January, 1863, being ordered to Carolina City, 
the regiment, under command of Lieut.-Col. Elwell, proceeded 
by rail to Bogue Sound, and thence, both by land and water, to 
St. Helena Island, which was reached Feb. 11. April 3, Compa- 
nies A and K went on board a ship, and, on the 5th, anchored off 
the mouth of Edis'to River, but were ordered back to Hilton Head, 
where they arrived on the 12th. Being ordered to the relief of 
Gen. Foster, who was reported surrounded by the enemy at Little 
Washington, the whole force sailed for Newbern on the 14th. 
On their arrival there, they were enthusiastically greeted by the 
loyal people of Newbern. Finding the general, who had run the 
blockade of the rebels, safe in his own headquarters, the joy of 
the troops was unbounded. 

The next morning, the Twenty-tliird, with all the troops that 
could be spared, under the command of Gen. Foster, started 
to relieve the garrison at Little Washington. After marches 
and countermarches through mud and water, they proceeded to 
the fort, and found that the rebels had raised the siege, and re- 
treated. The troops then went on board the steamer " Phoenix " 
to Newbern. On the 25th, they proceeded to Carolina City, and 
encamped on the site of their former camp, — Camp Heckman. 
Some of the companies were now sent to relieve the garrison at 
Fort Spinola ; others on a reconnoissance up the island to break 
up the communication of citizens with Beaufort, and on an expedi- 
tion toward Trenton. 

July 7, Gen. Heckman came up with a body of the enemy at 
Wilcox Bridge : after a brief engagement, the enemy fled. 

One of their last shots wounded Lieut.-Col. Chambers in the left shoulder. 
One man in Company K was slightly wounded with a piece of shell. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the skirmish, the cavalry made their appearance on the 
main road, much to our satisfaction. They came in with a large number of 
horses, mules, carts, and forage of all kinds, and hundreds of negroes of all 
ages. They had destroyed a great amount of property, and taken a number 


of prisoners. The cavalry having passed, we were immediately, with the re- 
mainder of the troops, ordered to take up the line of march for Newborn, 
where we arrived on the 9th. 

During the rest of July and August, marches, rcconnoissances, 
and picketing made up the variety of camp-life. 

Early in September, a portion of the regiment was sent up 
Bi'oad Creek in search of guerillas. 

Oct. 16, the regiment left Newljern for Fortress Monroe, when 
it was ordered into camp at Newport News. During the months 
of December and January, two hundred of the men re-enlisted, and 
were furloughed to Massachusetts. 

Jan. 22, 1864, were transferred to the south side of the James River, 
and stationed on the Norfolli and Suffolk Railroad, at a point called " Getty's 
Station," about four miles from Portsmouth. Here the regiment remained 
until April 26, having in the mean time taken part in a number of un- 
important reconnoissances, the only one of which wherein it performed any 
marching, or met the enemy, was on the expedition to Smithfield, a town situ- 
ated on Pagan Creek, a small stream which empties into the James River, 
about fifteen miles from its mouth. 

The Twenty-third, forming a part of Gen. Heckman's brigade, 
was ordered to Yorktown, where Gen. Butler's army rendez- 
voused, preparatory to their landing at Bermuda Hundred. On 
the 5th of May, the army, accompanied by a fleet of gunboats, 
proceeded up the James, and landed, without opposition, within 
twenty miles of Richmond. The next day, Heckman's brigade 
made a reconnoissance towards the Richmond and Petersburg 
Railroad, which they reached within a quarter of a mile without 
opposition. Here a line of the enemy's skirmishers was discov- 
ered ; and failing to dislodge their main body, strongly intrenched 
on the railroad, the brigade retired to its former position. On the 
7th of May, an attack was made, as a feint, to attract the attention 
of the enemy, while another force was to strike the railroad farther 
up, and destroy the communication between the two cities. The 
movement was successful. 

May 9, a force, under the command of Gen. W. F. Smith, moved 
down the Richmond Turnpike in the direction of Peterslnirg (part 
of it along the railroad), destroying the road and the telegraphic 
communications, until within five miles of Petersburg, when they 
met the enemy's skirmishers. These fell back to Arrowlield 
Church, and made a stand with one brigade of infantry, and sev- 
eral pieces of artillery. 


Gen. Heckman received orders to dislodge them from this position, and 
rapidly made dispositions for the attack. He formed the brigade into two 
lines of battle, the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts forming 
the first line, — the former on the left-hand side of the turnpike, and the 
other on the right, their right and left respectively resting on the road. The 
Twenty-third Massachusetts and Ninth New-Jersey comprised the second 
line, the former in rear of the Twenty-fifth, and the latter in rear of the 
Twenty-seventh. The disposition being thus made, the order, " Forward ! " 
was given ; and forward we went. As we advanced, the firing increased in 
rapidity ; and, as we emerged from the woods, the enemy, who could now be 
plainly seen, poui-ed in one volley of musketry, and charged our front line. 
This was met by a volley which caused them to waver ; when the second line 
fixed bayonets, and charged, driving them in confusion down the turnpike, 
across a small stream called " Swift Creek." The creek ran through a deep 
ravine ; and, as we came upon the brow of the ravine, the enemy opened upon 
us with artillery from a fortified position beyond. It was now nearly night ; 
and we halted, and lay in line of battle until about ten, a.m., the next day. 
We were then relieved by the Fortieth Massachusetts Regiment, and ordered 
to the rear for the purpose of cooking rations ; for we had been without them 
upwards of twenty-four hours, with the exception of a little hard Ijread the 
men carried in their haversacks. 

Rumors of an attack on their intrenchments at Bermuda Hun- 
dred induced Gen. Smith to return with his troops to their camp. 

On the morning of May 12, we were again in motion, forming part of a 
force that moved in the direction of Drury's Bluff. We had continued skir- 
mishing with the enemy until Saturday morning, when we reached the outer 
defences of Fort Darling. Here we made gradual approaches towards this 
rebel stronghold. Upon the morning of May 16, 1864, our brigade occu- 
pied the extreme right of our line, this regiment being the second from the 
right. About four o'clock, on this morning, we were attacked by a strong 
force of the enemy, who, owing to a dense fog prevailing at the time, had 
secretly massed a strong body of troops upon our front and flank, and hurled 
them against us with resistless force. We had no reserve, and no artillery ; 
and our little brigade was forced back, though not until we had held them at 
bay for upwards of two hours, and expended our amuuinition. We then fell 
back ; our regiment, out of about two hundred and twenty in the fight, 
having lost eighty-nine killed, wounded, and missing, among whom was our 
lamented licintenant-colonel, John Gr. Chambers, who fell, mortally wounded, 
while in the gallant performance of his duty. The progress of the enemy was 
stayed ; but in the afternoon we retired to our old position at Point of Rocks. 

On the 29th, the regiment sailed for the White House, being a 
part of the expeditionary force detached from Gen. Butler's army 
to re-enforce the Army of the Potomac. 


The regiment remained in the trenches at Cold Harbor nntil the 
12th of June. On the 18th, it was again engaged in breaking the 
communication between Richmond and Petersburg. On the 20th, 
it took position in the trenches in front of the last-named city, 
taking part in nearly all the operations at this point. 

July 30, the Twenty-third formed part of the support to the 
assaulting column at the springing of the mine, but did not 
become engaged, and met with no casualties. 

Aug. 25, it again took position in Gen. Butler's lines, and, 
Sept. 4, sailed from Bermuda for Newbern, N.C., wliere it re- 
lieved the Ninth Vermont, on picket-duty on south side of Trent 

Sept. 27, the men whose term of service had expired were 
ordered to Massachusetts to the place of enrolment, there to be 
mustered out. 

An order, consolidating the regiment into three companies, 
given by Gen. Harland, was countermanded by Gen. Butler. 
During the months of September and October, several men doing 
duty in the city fell victims to an epidemic prevailing there to an 
alarming extent. 

The regiment remained in the vicinity of Newborn until 
March 3, 1865, when it started for the interior of North Car- 
olina, forming a part of Gen. Scofield's force, to open commu- 
nication with Gen. Sherman at Goldsborough. 

On the 8th of March, when within about three miles of Kinston, the ene- 
my was encountered in force, and seemed disposed to dispute our further prog- 
ress. For three days, a series of engagements was kept up, resulting in the 
utter defeat of tlie enemy, and his precipitate retreat from his works, closely 
pursued by our victorious troops. The Twenty-third Kegimeut was detailed 
to remain at this point to guard the raib-oad bridge across the Neuse River. 

On the 2d of May, it was relieved from this duty ; and, on the 
15th of June, orders were received for the muster-out of tlie regi- 
ment " without unnecessary delay." This was effected on the 
25th of June ; and, leaving Newbern the same day, the regiment 
reached Boston on the 29th, and was then ordered to Readville, 
Mass., where, on the 12th of July, it received its final discharge 
and payment, and was disbanded as an organization. Col. Ray- 
mond, who commanded the regiment, says, — 

In closing my narrative of the regiment, I cannot refrain from speaking a 
few words in commendation of both men and otticers during the time I had 



the honor to command them. Their excellent conduct while in camp or gar- 
rison, their coolness and bravery under lire, their vigilance and fidelity 
at all times displayed, entitle them to the highest praise, and have won for 
them the approbation of all who have been in command over them. Rest 
assured that the Twenty-third Regiment, as an organization, never brought 
discredit upon their native State ; and I shall count it the greatest honor of 
my life that I have been privileged to command it. 


The Twenty-fourth Regmient was recruited hy Col. Thomas G. 
Stevenson, and organized at Camp Meigs, Readville, Mass., under 
the command of 

Colonel . 
Lieutenant- Colonel 
Surgeon . 
Assistant Surgeon 

Thomas G. Stevenson. 
Francis A. Osborne. 
Robert H. Stevenson. 
Samuel A. Green. 
Hall Curtis. 
W. R. G. Mellen. 

It left the State Dec. 9, 1861; proceeded to Annapolis, Md., 
and reported to Gen. A. E. Burnside, where it was assigned to 
the brigade commanded by Gen, Foster, 

Jan. 6, 1862, the Twenty-fourth embarked at Annapolis on 
board a transport, and sailed for Hatteras Inlet as a part of the 
Burnside Expedition. 

Great difficulty was experienced in getting the fleet through Hatteras Inlet ; 
and the Twenty-fourth remained there until the 5th of February, experiencing 
some severe and destructive gales. Part of the regiment was obliged to land 
in order that its transport might get over the " Swash." Just after landing, 
a terrific gale arose, which rendered communication with the fleet impossible 
for six days. Many of the tents were swept away, and the men suffered se- 
verely from exposure and the want of food. 

On the 5th of February, the fleet sailed up Albemarle Sound ; and, on the 
7th, the gunboats engaged the batteries on Roanoke Island. On the morn- 
ing of the 8th, the troops, having been landed, carried the lower batteries by 
storm ; and the rebels retreated toward the upper end of the island. The regi- 
ment then took the advance, pursuing the retreating rebels, and capturing over 
fifteen hundred prisoners, with a large amount of small arms, and a stand of 
colors, which was presented to the State of Massachusetts. 

March 8 and 9, three companies participated in an expedition 
to Columbia, N.C. ; the rest of the regiment remaining at Roanoke 
Island until the 11th, when it sailed for Newbern. 


On the moniing of the 13th, the enemy was attacked behind his 
heavy batteries, six miles below Newbern. After a three-hours' 
fight of great severity, he retreated, firing the bridge over the 
Trent River. The regiment promptly pursued, extinguished the 
flames, and took possession of a rebel camp. 

From the 18th of March to the 5th of June, a reconnoissance 
towards Beaufort ; an expedition to Washington, N.C., and raising 
the flag on the court-house there ; picket-duty on the Neuse, and 
a second expedition to Washington to protect the loyal North- 
Carolinians in organizing a regiment, — were the principal services 
rendered by the regiment during this time. Near this latter city, 
the Twenty-fourth met a regiment of infantry, and a small force 
of cavalry, in a strong position. A severe fight, lasting nearly an 
hour, ensued, resulting in the defeat of the rebels, with the loss 
of their colonel, Singletary, and fifteen men in killed and 
wounded. Soon after this, the regiment was ordered back to 
Newbern. For the next four months, it was engaged in expedi- 
tions to Washington (an important point in that part of the field); 
advancing thence to Williamston, and within three miles of Tar- 
borough ; then returning, by way of Plymouth, to Newbern. 

Sept. 6, after a struggle of more than three hours, our troops 
repulsed an attack on Washington, with the loss of six men 

Nov. 11, hostile demonstrations on the Trent Road, driving the 
Twenty-fifth Massachusetts into Newbern, induced Col. Amory, 
commandhig the forces there, to picket the entire region from 
the Neuse to the Trent River. To this service he ordered Capt. 
C. H. Hooper, with five companies of the Twenty-fourth. Near 
midnight, the vedettes of Company H were attacked by five hun- 
dred rebels, wdio, after a gallant resistance by the company, were 
compelled to retire. A reconnoissance, attended by a skirmish 
with the enemy's pickets, was made across Batchelder's Creek, 
by three companies, on the 19th. 

Dec. 11, the regiment left Newbern, with the brigade of Gen. 
Stevenson, on Gen. Foster's expedition to Goldsborough. In the 
battle at Kinston, on the 14th, the Twenty-fourtli supported Bel- 
gier's battery ; and, when the rebels were routed, it was ordered 
in pursuit. Again, in the engagement across the Neuse on the 
16th, the Twenty-fourth supported the same battery. 

On the 20th, which was the tenth day of the expedition, the 
troops made a march of more than thirty miles. 

During the last week in January, the greater part of the regi- 


ment proceeded to Morehead City. Thence, embarking on board 
the " Guide," it sailed along tiie coast southward, and, on the 9th 
of February, landed on St. Helena Island, S.C. Here it remained 
for about six weeks ; took part in three grand reviews ; and, on the 
27th of March, embarked with Gen. Stevenson's brigade for Sea- 
brook Island, Edisto Inlet, S.C, where it arrived, and landed the 
same evening. The regiment remained here three months. The 
fatigue and picket duties were very heavy, and told severely on 
the troops. 

On the 6th of July, six companies embarked on Ijoard the 
" Mayflower ; " on the 10th, landing on James Island ; and, on 
the 16th, had an artillery engagement with the enemy. These 
companies reached Morris Island the evening before the bombard- 
ment of Fort Wagner. The regiment took part in the assault 
on this fort, leading Gen. Stevenson's brigade, which was the 
rear of the assaulting force. On the repulse of the other brigades, 
this was led back to the first parallel, where it remained until the 
next Sunday evening, when an armistice was agreed upon for the 
purpose of collecting and burying the dead. 

On the 21st, the four companies which had been left at Sea- 
brook Island rejoined the regiment. They had become reduced 
by sickness from full ranks of seventy men each, until neither of 
them could furnish ten men fit for duty. Similar results followed 
from the hard work and exposure to which the rest of the regi- 
ment were now subjected ; so that in a few weeks, of six hundred 
and four men, three hundred and four were on the sick-list. The 
enemy, being protected by rifle-pits on a knoll, seriously interfered 
with our engineers at work on the intrenchments. On the 26th 
of August, the regiment was selected to drive the enemy from this 
position, and at once entered upon the perilous business in fine 
style. The mortars of our batteries that had been playing upon 
the rifle-pits ceased, and the signal to charge was given. With 
a will, the two detachments under Col. Osljorn and Capt. Red- 
ding sprang on the fourth parallel, and rushed impetuously upon 
the rebels, who, taken by surprise, and after delivering one volley, 
were taken prisoners before they could reload. The surprise at the 
fort gave the " boys " a few moments to partially erect a covering 
from the fire ; and then a battle-storm from Forts Wagner and 
Gregg and from James Island burst upon them. Early in this 
affair, Lieut. Perkins, a brave and skilful officer and a noble man, 
was mortally wounded. Before midnight, the heroes lay behind 
the fifth parallel. 


Monday morning, preparations were made for a final storming 
of the fort, in which the Twenty-fourth was to have the honor of 
the advance. But the enemy had prudently fled ; and a rapid 
march to Fort Gregg disclosed the fact of tlie retreat of the ene- 
my from that stronghold also. 

Col. Stevenson having been detailed on conscript-duty in Mas- 
sachusetts, Major C. H. Hooper took command of the regiment, 
Sept. 8, and was ordered to lead with tlie Tenth Connecticut in 
an assault on Fort Sumter. Admiral Dahlgren had projected 
a naval attack on the same night. Tliere was now a pleasant 
rivalry between the naval and land forces for the honor of first 
entering the grim fortress. The sailors had the advantage in fa- 
cilities for reaching Sumter ; but their repulse with heavy loss 
ended the affair. The regiments were on guard in Forts Wagner 
and Gregg until the frightful prevalence of sickness led Gen. 
Gilhnore to send the men to St. Augustine, Fla., " to rest and 

On the 30th of December, a party from tliese regiments, de- 
tailed to cut wood beyond their own picket-lines, were surprised 
by a body of dismounted rebel cavalry in ambush, and Lieut. 0. 
H. Walker was mortally wounded. Three of the wood-choppers 
and twenty-one of the guard were captured. 

On the 1st of January, 1864, three companies of the Twenty- 
fourth were garrisoning Fort Marion, near St. Augustine, Fla. ; and 
the other companies were in United-States barracks at that post. 
Before the middle of February, four hundred and twelve of the men 
had re-enlisted for three years as " veteran volunteers," and had 
started home on a furlougli of thirty days. The remainder of the 
troops left on the 18tli for Jacksonville, Fla., on provost-duty. 
On the 24th of April, these men sailed nortliward, and arrived at 
Gloucester Point, Va., on the 1st of May. They were assigned to 
the third brigade, first division. Tenth Corps, Gen. Butler's army ; 
and sailed for Bermuda Hundred on the 4th. The regiment par- 
ticipated in most of the movements of this army. It was engaged 
at Drury's Bluff, and also at Deep Bottom, June 14 and Aug. 20, 
and in the combined attack which followed two days latei'. In 
each of these engagements, some of its valuable ofiicers and men 
were numbered among the killed and wounded. 

Col. F. A. Osborn having been assigned to the command of a 
brigade, the regiment was commanded by Capt. J. C. Maher dur- 
ing the action of Aug. 14, and by Capt. George W. Gardner 
during the movement of the l(3th. It crossed the James River, 


Aug. 26, with the Tenth Corps, and advanced to the front of Pe- 
tersburg. Here Col. Osborn resumed command. Tlie labor now 
devolving on the regiment was severe, and its camp constantly un- 
der the fire of the enemy. 

On the 28th of September, the regiment, forming a part of Gen. 
Terry's division, participated in the advance of the Army of the 
James towards Richmond, and made a daring reconnoissance 
along tlie Central Railroad to within two and a half miles of the 
rebel capital. The Twenty-fourth was engaged subsequently in 
several similar demonstrations. 

On the 4th of December, the term of service for tlie men who 
had not re-enlisted expired, and they were mustered out ; leaving 
in the regiment four hundred and twenty-seven men, who, with few 
exceptions, were veteran volunteers. 

From the 2Tth of October to the 18th of December, these 
troops were encamped at Four-mile Church, near Richmond : 
they were then ordered to Bermuda Hundred ; which post they 
garrisoned until the 8th of April, 1865, when they were sent to 
Richmond to guard the city and military prisons. 

In the month of June, they were consolidated into eight com- 
panies. They were mustered out of service at Richmond, Jan. 20, 
1866: reached Boston on the 24th; and, on the 27th, marched 
to the State House, where the colors were received by his Excel- 
lency Gov. Bullock, a part of whose address on this occasion was 
as follows : — 

The limitations of this occasion will not permit me to recall, to those who 
are in attendance to witness the closing scene, your long and eminent services. 
Since you left the State, more tlian four years ago, the eyes of our citizens 
have followed you, — with Burnside ty Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, 
and Goldsborough, in North Carolina ; into South Carolina, to the assault on 
Fort Wagner and the siege of Charleston ; to Florida, and back to South 
Carolina; to the Army of the James, engaged at Drury's BlutF, Cold Har- 
bor, Deep Bottom, and in the battles of the siege of Richmond ; and retained 
among the last to crown the triumphs of the field with peaceful guaranties. 

I welcome you home. But all have not returned. Eight otficers of the 
line and two hundred and ten enlisted men have fallen in battle and by the 
casualties of war. The soldier's bed has been made for them ; but their names 
shall be treasured on the official rolls and in the heart of the State, and they 
themselves shall live in immortal ftime. 

I count it among the remarkable proofs of the steadfast and persistent 
patriotism of this regiment, that after it had fully tasted the bitterness of war, 
then, even then, four hundred and twenty of its veterans re-enlisted to share 
in the conclusion of the conflict. 


"WTien I think of the discipline of the Twenty- fourth, distinguished among 
all the armies of the United States, I cannot forget him who recruited it and 
so long commanded it. It would be an omission ungrateful to you, and uncon- 
genial to my own feelings, if, before your ranks dissolve for the last time, I 
were not to pronounce in your presence, with honor to the dead and with re- 
spect for the living, the name of Brig.-Gen. Stevenson. Not a more heroic 
spirit has passed triumphantly the portals which this war has opened to so 
many young and noble and brave. 

It only remains that I should now transfer your colors to the great com- 
panionship in which they shall henceforth be preserved ; and that, in behalf of 
a grateful people, I should greet and honor your return. 

After the reception of the colors, the regiment marched to Fan- 
euil Hall, and partook of a collation provided by the city of Bos- 
ton, The men then separated for their homes. 




The March of the Twenty-fifth from Camp Lincohi, Worcester, to Roanoke Island. — Service 
there. — In Gen. Foster's Expedition to Plymouth. — Other Expeditions. — Return 
Home. — The Twenty-sixth leaves Boston for Ship Island. — Sails for New Orleans. — 
Services in Louisiana. — Furlough. — In JIaryland and Virginia. — The Return to 
Massachusetts. — The " Second Western Regiment." — At Annapolis, Newbern, Golds- 
borough. — Closing Service in the War. 


THIS regiment was raised by authority of the State, Sept. 9, 
1861. Edwin Upton was designated colonel ; and Augustus 
B. R. Sprague^ lieutenant-colonel. The next day, enlistments 
commenced ; and by the 25th the regiment was in Camp Lincoln, 
at Worcester. On the 31st, the tents were struck, and the regi- 
ment, one thousand and thirty strong, started, via New York, 
en route for AAinapolis, to join the Burnside Expedition. We add 
a roll of the principal officers : — 

Colonel ...... Edwin Upton. 

Lieutenant -Colonel . . . . A. B. R. Sprague. 

Major M. J. M'Cafferty. 

Surgeon . . . . . . J. Marcus Eice. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Tbei'ou Temple. 

Chaplain ...... Horace James. 

Arriving at Annapolis Nov. 3, the regiment reported to Col. 
Morse, commanding the post. Jan. 7, embarked on board the 
propeller " Zouave " and the schooner " Skirmisher," of the Burn- 
side Expedition ; sailed on the 10th, and arrived at Hatteras Inlet 
the following Monday. Sharing in the delays and disasters of the 
voyage, this regiment was landed by the tow-boat " Pilot Boy " on 
Roanoke Island, Feb. 7, and, marching inland a mile, bivouacked 
for the night. Next morning, the Twenty-fifth took up the line 
of march; Capt. Pickett's company skirmishing in the advance. 



The enemy was soon encountered, and pushed by our skirmishers 
back to his works. 

The artillery was placed in position, supported by this regi- 
ment. By Gen. Foster's order, Col. Upton formed his troops 
across the road in line of battle, extending from a forest on the 
left to a clearing on which the right rested. Both sides opened 
fire, wliich continued uninterruptedly for nearly three hours ; 
when, the ammunition of the Twenty-fifth being exhausted, it 
was formed in column by companies in the rear of the right, 
waiting for a fresh supply, until the enemy had left his position. 
The regiment then marched to Camp Foster, at the upper end of 
the island. In this engagement it lost six killed and forty-two 
wounded. From the camp it went on board transports ; and on 
the lltli the fleet got under way, anchoring again on the 12th, 
within fifteen miles of Newbern. The next day, covered by a 
heavy fire from the gunboats, the regiment landed at Slocum's 
Creek; and marching ten miles through a drenching rain, and 
wading through mud, it lay down at night upon the cold, wet 
ground, exposed to the pelting storm. In the gray of early dawn, 
the " boys " formed into line, marched ten miles, and came in sight 
of the rebel works, where they were saluted by a shower of shells ; 
but they pressed forward, and were soon in the midst of the 

After supporting a battery for some time, the Twenty-fifth was 
ordered to charge on the enemy's' works ; Gen. Foster himself 
leading in the assault. Tlie enemy retired on his approach ; and 
the regiment formed in line of battle within the intrenchments, 
and then moved along the road by the flank, in position for street- 
firing. In this action the regiment lost four men in killed, 
and assisted in capturing one hundred and fifty. It then pro- 
ceeded to Newbern, and that night was quartered in the city. 
Here it served as provost - guard until May 9, and, for the six 
weeks succeeding, was engaged in picket-duty. 

July 24, it joined an expedition to Trenton and Follocksville. 
Returning to Newbern, the remainder of the hot summer months 
offered little opportunity for valuable service. Oct. 80, the 
Twenty-fifth moved witli the expedition of Gen. Foster to "Wash- 
ington and Tarborough, and thence to Ilamillon. Williamston, 
and Plymoutli ; where, Nov. 10, the greater part of the troops em- 
barked for Newbern, leaving tlie Twenty-fifth and Twenty-seventh 
to protect our artillery awaiting transportation. Returning from 
Plymouth, Nov. 10, the Twenty-fifth was attached to the Third 



brigade, Col. Lee commanding, and left Newbern again on the 
11th. On Sunday, the 14th, was fought the battle of Kinston ; 
the Twenty-fifth supporting Belgier's Rhode-Island battery. After 
the battle, it crossed the bridge, and bivouacked that night in 
Kinston. On the 19th, marching by flank in the rear of the Union 
batteries, it advanced towards Goldsborough. One hundred men 
of the Twenty-fifth were now detailed as sharpshooters for duty 
on the banks of the river in clearing the woods of the enemy's 
riflemen. Next morning, the march was resumed; the third 
brigade having the advance. Skirmishing commenced, and was 
continued until the brigade came upon the main force posted 
near the railroad bridge, crossing the Neuse River. In the action 
which followed, near the close of the day, the Twenty-fifth sup- 
ported Belgier's battery, losing one man killed and three wounded. 
Night ended the contest ; and the regiment took up the line of 
march for Newbern, which it reached on the 21st. On the 6th 
of March, 1863, the regiment was ordered to the forks of the 
Trenton and Kinston Roads. Three companies under command 
of Capt. Denny attacked and routed the rebels, burning their 
camp, and destroying a large number of new knapsacks, arms, 
blankets, boxes of clothing, &c. ; and returned by daybreak, with 
the loss of only two wounded. On the 8th, a part of the regiment 
returned to Newbern, leaving Capt. Denny with four companies 
in their position near Deep Gully. On the 13th, the six com- 
panies at Newbern were ordered to outpost duty near Deep Gully, 
that place having been attacked. Skirmishing with the enemy 
followed. In the evening, these companies were relieved by the 
Forty -third IMassachusetts, and they marched back to Newbern. 

Another expedition to Batchelder's Creek was undertaken on 
the 21st. On the 22d, the enemy, outflanked, and attacked in 
the rear, fled precipitately to the swamps ; and the Twenty-fifth 
returned to camp, having enjoyed the pleasure of seeing their 
regimental colors floating over the enemy's intrenchments. 
Nothing of marked interest in the history of the regiment occurred 
until the 24th of July, when an expedition was undertaken to 
Winton, N.C. This resulted in the capture of several horses, 
mules, and bales of cotton, but no commissary-stores. On ar- 
riving at Newbern, these, with a few prisoners (sixty-nine), were 
turned over to the provost-marshal, and the regiment went into 

It was stationed in early winter at Camp Upton, Newport 


During January, 1864, four hundred and thirty-two of the men 
re-enlisted, and, Feb. 14, left on furlough for Massachusetts. 
They were enthusiastically welcomed by the people of Boston, 
and later at Worcester, the place of enrolment and rendezvous. 
On the 21st of March, they again left Boston for the field ; landed 
on the 24tli at Fortress Monroe ; and were ordered to Getty's Sta- 
tion, on the outer defences of Portsmouth, Va., where they were 
rejoined by the remaining part of the regiment, and went into 
Camp Wellington. 

The Twenty-fifth was engaged in two or three expeditions dur- 
ing the month of April, attended with no important results. On 
the 26th of that month, it was assigned to Gen. Heckman's brigade, 
and went into camp at Yorktown. On the 27th, the regiment 
marched to City Point, on its way to the Army of the Potomac, 
which it joined at Cold Harbor on the 31st. 

In the assault on the enemy's works, June 3, the Twenty-fifth 
made a magnificent charge through a perfect tempest of bullets, 
losing in killed and wounded nearly two-thirds of its number : 
still, with such protection as the nature of the ground afforded, 
they resolutely held it until dark. Then the brave fellows, with 
their tin cups in hand, went to work upon rifle-pits, and, be- 
fore dawn, had made their position tenable. They continued 
there, skirmishing with the enemy, until the 12t]i, when they went 
to White House, having lost at Cold Harbor foui* officers and 
twenty-four men killed. 

The regiment marched for Petersburg on the 15th under a 
scorching sun, and again fought the enemy victoriously. After 
lying in the trenches, and changing position to the left of Gen. 
Butler's line of works, it reached Newbern Sept. 10. 

Oct. 5, that part of the regiment whose term of service had not 
expired was ordered to Worcester, Mass., to be mustered out of 
service. The remainder was consolidated into four companies, 
with headquarters near Fort Spinola, to perform guard and picket 
duty along the railway to Morehead City. 

An officer thus sums up the work and status of the regi- 
ment : — ^ 

During the past year, the regiment has lost some of its best and bravest 
officers. Capt. O'Neill, Lieuts. Daly, Upton, Mathews, Pelton, and Graham, 
have nobly and gallantly ftilleu in the faithful discharge of thou- duties. The 
adjutant, Lieut. M'Conville, a brave and most accomplished officer, also died 
of wounds received in the battle of Cold Harl)or, Va., Juno 3, 18G4. The 
excellent conduct of both officers and men, under all circumstances, elicits 


iny entire approbation. Their vigilance, fidelity, fortitude, with the unsur- 
passed and unflinching valor at all times displayed, entitle them to the high- 
est and most unqualified praise. 

The total number of wounded in the regiment, since its organization, has 
been twenty-one officers, and three hundred and eighty-two men. Of the men 
returned as deserted, none are known to have deserted to the enemy. 

During the month of December, 1864, and January and Feb- 
ruary, 1865, the regiment remained at Newbern, doing picket- 

On the 3d of Marcli, it removed from Newbern towards Kins- 
ton. From this, to the close of its term of service, July 13, we 
have the following from the official report : — 

March 10. — The enemy attacked our lines at Wise's Forks. In this en- 
gagement, the regiment held an exposed position on the left of the division, 
and gallantly repulsed the enemy. One officer (Capt. A. P. Forbes) and 
four men were wounded. After the battle, we remained in camp until IMarch 
14 ; when we advanced, and entered Kinston the following day. 

Remained here till March 22 ; when we left Kinston, and marched rapidly 
towards Groldsborough, reaching the town the next afternoon ; our brigade 
(Col. James Stewart, jun., Ninth New-Jersey Volunteers, commanding) 
being the first to occupy the town, there forming a junction with the army of 
Gen. Sherman. 

After remaining at Goldsborough until April 3, we moved back to Wheat- 
swamp Meeting-house, near Mosely Hall ; having been transferred to the first 
division, Twenty-third Army Corps (Major-Gen. Royer commanding) . We 
left Mosely Hall April 9, and returned to Goldsborough, marching twenty- 
seven miles tliis day; whence we proceeded the following morning with the 
corps to Raleigh, and were encamped near the city from April 14 to 
May 3. 

Leaving Raleigh May 3, we marched westward for Greensborough, which 
town we entered May 7 ; thence by rail for Charlotte May 12, arriving there 
the next morning. 

Near this city we continued in our last camp until July 13, when, in ac- 
cordance with instructions from the War Department, we were ordered to 
Massachusetts for muster out, arriving at Readville July 21 ; and, on the 
twenty-eighth day of July, were formally mustered out of the United-States 

Thus closes the record of the Twenty-fifth Regiment Massachusetts Infant- 
ry Veteran Volunteers, — a regiment that has always and everywhere — 
at Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Goldsborough, Whitehall, Port Wal- 
thal Junction (May 6 and 7, 1864), Harrowfield Church, Drury's Bluff", 
Cold Harbor, in the trenches (June, July, and August, 1864), and in many 
other minor engagements and exhausting marches — sustained the high char- 


acter with which it left the State Oct. 31, 1861, and has vindicated the honor 
of Massachusetts. 

Its colors have never been yielded to the enemy. 


The Twenty-sixth went into camp at Camp Cameron, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., on the twenty-eighth day of August, 1861 ; it being 
at that time known as the Sixth. On the 2od of September, it 
moved to Camp Chase, Lowell, where it remained till Nov. 19. 
It then moved to Boston. 

Its officers were, — 

Colonel ...... Edward F. Jones. 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... Alpha B. Farr. 

Major ....... Josiah A. Sawtell 

Surgeon ...... Anson P. Hooker. 

Assistant Surgeon .... James G. Bradt. 

Chaplain . ..... Charles Babbidge. 

It left Boston on the twenty-first day of November, 1861, on board 
the transport steamer '• Constitution ; " and after a pleasant voyage, 
during which they touched at Portland, Me., and Fortress Mon- 
roe, they arrived safely at Ship Island, Mississippi Sound, on the 
3d of December, 1861. At the time of their arrival, the island 
was occupied by a few United-States marines, who garrisoned Fort 
Massachusetts on its western end. This regiment was the first 
to encamp on the spot. They remained at Ship Island until the 
middle of April, 1862, without having any trouble with the ene- 
my ; and, during that time, were engaged in no action deserving 
the name of battle. A slight skirmish at Mississippi City, Miss., in 
which one hundred men from Companies B and I participated, 
and in which one only of the regiment was slightly injured, was 
their only engagement. 

On the loth of April, 1862, the regiment was ordered on board 
the transport steamer " Mississippi ; " and, on the morning of the 
16th, they left Ship Island for tlie Mississippi River, Arriving at 
the mouth of the South-west Pass on the evening of the 17th, they 
lay at anchor during the night, and on the morning of the 18th 
ran up the river, and anchored at the head of the passes. The 
bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. Philip was commenced on 
the 18th ; and the regiment could only hear in the distance the re- 
port of the heavy guns. 


On the morning of the 21st, it moved up tlie river again, and 
finally anchored below the forts, just out of range of the guns. 
It lay there during the bombardment, and witnessed the passing 
of the forts by the fleet on the morning of the 25th. The same 
morning, the vessel ran down the river through the South-west 
Pass, and round Sable Bay, in the rear of Fort St. Philip, wliere 
it arrived on the 26th. The troops then left the transport " Mis- 
sissippi " for the gunboat " Miami," and moved up two or three 
miles nearer the fort, almost in range, where they ran aground, 
and remained fast. The next morning, they commenced their 
disembarkation ; but, owing to the insufficient means of transport, 
only part of the regiment could move at a time, and the last com- 
pany did not land till the morning of the 28th. 

This manoeuvre was intended to break the communication be- 
tween the forts and tlie city of New Orleans, which was effectually 
accomplished, the regiment taking possession of Quarantine Sta- 
tion, and throwing one company (H) across the river as guard 
on the only road leading to the forts. 

From the 28th of November, 1862, until the 20th of June, 1863, 
the regiment remained on duty in New Orleans ; when several 
companies under Lieut.-Col. Sawtelle were ordered to Lafourche 
Crossing, a distance of sixty miles from New Orleans, arriving 
there on the 20th inst. On the eve of tlie 21st inst., the enemy 
attacked them, but were repulsed witli lieavy loss : our own was 
but three killed, and ten wounded. On tlie 26th, they withdrew 
to Boutee Station, a distance of forty miles ; and on tlie 30th to 
Jefferson Station, a distance of eight miles, remaining there till 
the loth of July ; when they were ordered back to New Orleans, 
La., on provost-duty. They remained there till the 28th August; 
when the whole regiment was ordered to Baton Rouge, a distance 
of a hundred and twenty miles from New Orleans, arriving there 
on the 29th. It was there till the 3d of September; when it 
embarked, with nearly the whole Ninteenth Army Corps, to pro- 
ceed on an expedition in the Gulf. On the way down the river, 
the ship lay at anchor off New Orleans on the 3d and 4th ; and, 
on the 5tli, sailed from that place, and, after a pleasant trip, ar- 
rived off Sabine Pass on the 7th. On tlie 8th inst., on account 
of the loss of two valuable gunboats, the fleet withdrew, and re- 
turned to the Mississippi River, arriving off New Orleans on the 
12th. The regiment went into camp at Algiers, just opposite the 

On the 16th, it left for Brashear City ; proceeding, vid Berwick 


City and Franklin, as far as Opelousas ; which it reached on the 
21st of October, and kft again on its return march, Nov. 1. 

The movements and condition of tlie regiment during two 
months of the following winter were reported by its chaplain in 
a letter to Adjutant-Gen. Schouler, dated at Franklin, La., 
Jan. 25, 18G-1: — 

Oa the 28tli of last November, our regiment (Twenty-sixth Massachusetts) 
was encamped at New Iberia, La. On the 7th of January, 1864, we left 
New IlDeria, en route for Franklin ; which we reached after two days' march. 
Within the period above specified we have had no battles, and consequently 
have no report to make of killed or wounded. The health of the regiment is 
excellent : very few deaths have occurred among us. I may safely presume 
that it will be gratifying to you to learn (though doubtless you were long 
since aware of the fact) that three-fourths of the Twenty-sixth Ilegiment have 
re-enlisted as cavalry. To every one who feels a personal interest in the regi- ■ 
ment, this is certainly a very pleasing fact. If their future should be more 
eventful than their past history, I have no doubt they will fulfil all reasonable 

The regiment remained in camp at Franklin until the 24th of 
February ; at which time, nearly two-thirds of the regiment having 
re-enlisted, it (proceeded to Now Orleans, a distance of one hun- 
dred and ten miles from Franklin, to prepare for their furlough. 
The journey was performed on steamer " Starlight " from Frank- 
lin to Brashear City, a distance of thirty miles ; and from Brashear 
City to Algiers by rail, a distance of eighty miles. 

On the 25th of February, the regiment reached New Orleans, 
and took up its quarters in the Alabama Cotton Press, where it 
remained until March 22 ; when the re-enlisted members em- 
barked on steamship " Cahawba," and proceeded to New York, 
which was readied on the first day of April, 1864, after a rough 
voyage of nine days. April 1, at four o'clock, it left New York on 
steamer " Empire State," and Boston at twelve o'clock, m., and 
arrived at Lowell at four o'clock, p.m. Here they received thirty 
days' furlough, — till May 4, 18(34 ; when the regiment assembled 
at Beach-street Barracks. On the 5th, it went into camp at Read- 
ville, where it remained until May 11, when it proceeded to New 
York. The regiment immediately embarked on steamship " Ca- 
hawba,'' and proceeded to New Orleans, La. ; where it arrived 
after a pleasant voyage of nine days. 

It then encamped at CarroUton until the 8th of June ; when, 
proceeding to Morganza, it remained there until July 3 ; when, 


under orders, it embarked for New Orleans, and went into camp 
at Algiers. From this point it embarked on board a steamer for 
Bermuda Hundred, Jnly 11, and reached its destination July 21. 

On tlie 23th, the regiment moved to Deep Bottom, and, after 
some picket-firing with tiie enemy, returned to Bermuda Hun- 
dred ; whence, two days later, it sailed for Washington, D.O., and, 
Aug. 1, went into camp at Tenallytown, Md. 

On the 14th, the Twenty-sixth marched with the second division, 
Ninteenth Army Corps, into Virginia, moving from point to point 
until the 3d of September ; when, within two miles of Berrys- 
burg, a line of battle was formed, and the army intrenched 

It remained here until the 19th, wlien it marched towards 
Winchester. Within three and a half miles of this place, a line 
of battle was formed. Company I, of the Twenty-sixth, was 
thrown forward as skirmishers. About two hours later, the ac- 
tion became general, and this regiment, being in advance, suf- 
fered severely. Eleven officers were wounded, and nineteen men 
killed. The regiment encamped near Winchester, on the Stras- 
burg Pike. 

Sept. 20, at five, a.m., it again moved to within one and a half 
miles of Strasburg, a distance of sixteen miles, anc^ encamped for 
the night. Sept. 21, at ten o'clock, a.m., it moved forward to a 
range of hills before Strasburg; and Sept. 22, at six o'clock, a.m., 
advanced two miles ; went into position before Fisher's Hill, Va., 
and there intrenched. About half-past four, p.m., the enemy in 
the mean time having been routed and driven from their works, it 
again moved forward up the valley to Fisher's Hill, and across the 
Shenandoah River, and continued after the enemy on the Wood- 
stock Pike ; marching until three o'clock Friday morning, when 
the regiment halted and rested. At twelve o'clock, m., Sept. 23, it 
again moved forward six miles, and camped one mile beyond 
Edenburg, and seven miles from Woodstock. Sept. 24, at seven 
o'clock, A.M., overtook the rebel forces near Mount Jackson, 
the enemy constantly retreating. At six o'clock, p.m., went into 
camp about twenty-one miles south of Newmarket, having marched 
eleven miles. 

During the rest of September, and until the 18th of October, the 
marches and encampments of the regiment were within twenty 
miles of Newmarket. At that date it was at Cedar Creek, and was 
consolidated into a battalion of five companies ; the remainder 
of the troops leaving for home the next day. The battle of Cedar 


Creek, which took place shortly after, was in the beginning a sur- 
prise, and the army was driven in confusion four miles ; when, 
having re-formed, it succeeded in routing the rebel forces under 
Gen. Early. 

Oct. 24, tlie battalion was detached from its brigade to do pro- 
vost-guard duty at Headquarters Middle Military Division by 
Special Order, Oct. 24, 1864. 

While Lieut. Joseph McQuestion and forty-five men of the 
regiment were guarding a forage-train on the 26th, a short dis- 
tance from Newtown, they were surprised and captured by rebel 

The battalion left Cedar Creek on the 9th of November, and 
went into camp at Winchester on the 14th of December. Here 
it remained doing provost-duty at the Headquarters Middle Mili- 
tary Division until May 1, 1865 ; when, under orders, it proceeded 
to Washington, and was there assigned to the second brigade, first 
division. Army of the Shenandoah, and went into camp in the rear 
of Fort Stevens. 

June 4, the battalion sailed in the steamer " Louisburg " for 
Savannah, Ga., which it reached after a pleasant voyage of four 
days ; disembarked, and went into camp just outside of the city. 

June 29, 1865, Gen. Davis, commanding the second brigade, 
was assigned to the command of the post of Savannah. The regi- 
ment, together with the remaining brigade, were assigned to duty 
at this post, where it remained, performing guard-duty in the 
city until Aug. 2, when the battalion received orders to be mus- 
tered out of service. Aug. 26, 1865, the battalion was mustered 
out; and Sept. 12, 1865, left Savannah, Ga., on steamer '' Emi- 
ly," en route for Boston, Mass. ; and, arriving at Hilton Head the 
same day, disembarked, and went on board the steamer " Empire 
City." It arrived in New York the morning of the 16th, and 
embarked on the cars for Boston the morning of the 18th ; and 
reaching that city at seven o'clock, p.m., the same day, went to 
Gallop's Island in the evening, there to receive final payment. 

This regiment was a legitimate offspring of the old Sixth Regi- 
ment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, which passed through Bal- 
timore on the 19th of April, 1861, to the defence of Washington, 
and which shed the first blood in the Great Rebellion. 




Was raised in the western part of the State, and was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States at Springfield on the 
20th of September, 1861. It was Icnown as the Second Western 
Regiment, and was officered by gentlemen who had received their 
military training in the school of the Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia. They were as follow : — 

Colonel ...,.; Horace C. Lee. 

Lieutenant- Colonel .... Luke Lyman. 

Major ....... William M. Brown. 

Surgeon ...... George A. Otis. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Samuel Camp. 

Chaplain ...... Miles Sanford. 

The regiment left the State on the 2d of November, and arrived 
at Annapolis, Md., on the 5th. 

Here the troops remained until the 6th of January, 1862. In 
the mean time, they applied themselves closely, and with rapid 
improvement, to drill and a knowledge of field-movements, and 
the duties incidental to camp-life ; when they embarked on trans- 
ports, and proceeded to Fortress Monroe, where they arrived 
on the 11th. On the evening of the 9th, as a fatigue-party was 
returning to the transport from shore, the boat in which they were 
came in contact with a steam-tug, and was upset ; and two men, 
Michael Cavannagh, of Company F, and James M. Hamblin, Com- 
pany E, were drowned. On the morning of the 12th, they left 
Hampton Roads under sealed orders, and, on the following day, 
arrived at Hatteras Inlet, N.C. They encountered a severe storm 
on the passage, during which one of the transports became sepa- 
rated from her consort, and was unable, on account of the high 
sea, to enter over the shoals ; outside of which she remained sev- 
eral days, in imminent danger of being wrecked. 

On the morning of the 6th of February, having remained in 
the interim on board of the transports, which, owing to the length 
and severity of the storm, were prevented from joining each oth- 
er and the remainder of the fleet, they started for Pamlico Sound, 
and duly arrived in sight of Roanoke Island. On the evening of 
the 7th, the gunboats having meanwhile engaged and partly 
silenced the enemy's batteries on the island, our forces, of which 
this regiment composed a part, landed, and bivouacked in an open 

*^Aj. w» 


*g ?ly GE.tferiae *: C"^ 

W^e^«?; I^uU/ir-<kCj 


field ill a cold, drenching rain. Early the following morning, 
the regiment, in company with the Twenty-third Massachusetts 
Volunteers, marched to the attack, passing in their course througli 
miry swamps and almost impenetrable thickets, during which 
they were exposed to a severe fire from the enemy secured behind 
intrenchments, and in which they lost several killed and wounded. 
Our forces finally succeeded in turning the enemy's left flank, the 
right having been gained by another body of our troops ; when 
they gave way, and were closely pursued by us, which finally re- 
sulted in an unconditional surrender to Gen. Foster, in command. 
During this engagement, the loss of the regiment was five killed 
and fifteen wounded. On the 11th, it was ordered again upon 
transports, where it remained for about a month, closely crowded 
on board three vessels : with impure air, the health of the men 
became visilily affected. Here, on the 12th, Capt. Henry A. Hub- 
bard, of Company I, died. 

March 11, the regiment, in company with the rest of our forces, 
left Roanoke Island, and on the morning of the 13th landed, and 
marched towards Newbern, N.C. Early on the morning of the 
14th, it encountered the enemy strongly posted in the vicinity 
of New^bern, and immediately attacked them. The fight was kept 
vip, till, their ammunition being expended, they received orders to 
fall back, having been relieved by another regiment. During this 
engagement, the Twenty-seventh suffered a loss of fifteen killed 
and seventy-eight wounded. The enemy having been repulsed, 
our forces rapidly commenced the pursuit towards Newbern. 
Upon arriving in sight of the city, it was discovered to be on 
fire in several places ; also the great bridge which crosses the Trent 
River. The regiment at once proceeded to cross the river in 
boats, and encamped on the other side, occupying the camp of the 
Seventh North-Carolina, about half a mile from the city, in which 
they found good quarters and abundant supplies. Here they 
remained five or six weeks. 

The month of May was passed at Batchelder's Creek, eight 
miles from Newbern. 

June 1, the regiment returned to its old camp, where it re- 
mained until about the last of July, most of the time under com- 
mand of its lieutenant-colonel, the colonel being in command of a 

For the purpose of ascertaining the force and doings of the 
enemy, the Twenty-seventh, with the brigade to which it was 
attached, made a recouuoissauce to Trenton. Here they dis- 


persed a cavalry force of the enemy ; and, finding no intrench- 
ments built, they returned northward to Newbern, having been 
absent three days. 

On the 9th of September, three companies of the regiment were 
ordered to Washington, N.C., and five companies to Newport bar- 
racks ; the two remaining companies having been left some time 
previously on outpost-duty at Batchelder's Creek. With the ex- 
ception of these two companies, the regiment was recalled, Nov. 30, 
to join the expedition to Williamston and Hamilton. 

This regiment also took part in the expedition to Goldsbor- 
ough, N.C. It formed part of the brigade of the Third, Fourth, 
Fifth, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-seventh, and Forty-fifth Massachusetts 
Regiments. The brigade was under command of Col. Lee, of 
this regiment. 

It left Newbern Dec. 11 ; its position being with the baggage 
train, in the rear. They encamped that night on the Trenton 
Road at eight o'clock, p.m. On the 12th, it marched through 
swamps, gradually growing worse, until ten o'clock. On the 13th, 
it continued its march, and, about noon, arrived within a few miles 
of Kinston, where the advance had met and driven back a body of 
the enemy, and encamped for the night. Here two days' rations 
and twenty rounds of ammunition were served out to each man. 
On the 14th, the Fifth Regiment having been left to guard the 
baggage, the brigade moved up the Kinston Road, and soon heard 
the firing from the front, the advance having met the enemy ; and 
they soon became engaged in battle. The enemy retreated, and 
the Twenty-seventh encamped for the night in Kinston. On the 
15th, they marched during the day, and encamped about eight 
o'clock at night. On the 16th, they were not fairly out of camp 
when firing was heard ; and they soon found that the advance were 
engaged with the enemy at Whitehall. They were ordered im- 
mediately towards Goldsborough, and encamped at sundown 
eight miles below that place. On the 17th, they were early on 
the march, and, at eleven o'clock, came within sight of the Wil- 
mington Railroad. The Twenty-seventh were moved forward in 
line, and behaved bravely through the day. After accomplishing 
the purpose of Gen. Foster, and having seen severe fighting, the 
regiment returned to Newbern. 

The history of this regiment during the winter of 1863 is com- 
paratively unimportant. On the 4th of January, it left camp on 
the south side of the Trent, near Newbern, and embarked for 
Washington, N.C, arriving Jan, 5. 


On the 2Tth, Companies G and H, under command of Major 
Bartholomew, were ordered to Plymonth, N.C., arriving there on 
the 28th, Major Bartholomew assuming command of the fort. 
These two companies remained at Plymouth until May 8, when 
they were ordered to Newbern. During this time, they performed 
efficient duty in scouting through the various counties bordering 
on Albemarle Sound. The post of Winfield, on the Chowan River, 
having been attacked. Company H, with three companies of the 
Twenty-fifth Massachusetts, was sent to its aid. The enemy hav- 
ing retreated, a pursuit was ordered. Company H, in the advance, 
had a fight with a portion of the Forty-second North-Carolina, 
losing two killed and one wounded ; the enemy the same. 

The duty at Washington was unmarked by any incidents of in- 
terest until the latter part of March, when, on the 30th, the pick- 
ets were driven in by the enemy, who had for several weeks threat- 
ened an attack. Gen. Foster, who was on a visit to Washington, 
took command of the garrison. Fire was opened on the fort April 3. 
The weather for the next twelve days was cold and stormy, and 
the rations of the troops insufficient ; but the men behaved admi- 
rably, whether under fire, or in running the 'blockade to bring in 
supplies. The superior force of the rebels had enabled them to cut 
off re-enforcements and the means of subsistence ; but when the 
steamer " Escort " passed their batteries, having on board food 
and ammunition and the Fifth Rhode-Island, the enemy aban- 
doned his design of starving out the garrison, raised the siege on 
the 16th, and retired to Kinston. 

On the 24th, the Twenty-seventh returned to Newbern. Three 
days later, through a drenching rain, it started for Batchelder's 
Creek. Next day, it suddenly came upon the enemy, and drove 
him from his works with the loss of forty men killed, wounded, 
and prisoners ; the regiment losing but one man wounded. On 
the 30th, it returned to Newbern. On the 20th, the Twenty- 
seventh left again in company with the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, 
endeavoring to gain the rear of the enemy at Gum Swamp. 
Tlic troops marched the whole distance, fifteen miles, in about 
fourteen hours, as they were obliged to cut their way through a 
dense thicket and swamp. The expedition was completely suc- 
cessful. Companies D and I followed the opening fire on the 
enemy's rear with a gallant charge. One hundred and seventy 
prisoners, one piece of artillery, and several ammunition-wagons, 
were captured. The enemy, however, soon rallied, and pursued 
the Union forces to the fortifications near Newbern, where a skir- 


mish ensued, in which Col. Jones, the leader of the expedition, 
was killed. 

From June until December, the Twenty-seventh served as pro- 
vost-guard, supported cavalry on the Warsaw and Rocky-Moun- 
tain raids, joined Gen. Heckman's brigade at Newport News, and 
were on provost-duty at Norfolk and Portsmouth. Up to Dec. 22, 
two hundred men had re-enlisted as veteran volunteers. During 
this year, the regiment was commanded by Lieut. -Col. Wyman 
and Major Bartholomew. 

Jan. 8, 1865, the regiment was ordered to proceed immediately 
to Newborn, and reached that place on the 11th. Six companies 
were then stationed at Rocky Run, under command of Lieut.-Col. 
Bartholomew ; and the other four companies at Red House, under 
Capt. M'Kay. 

Early in March, the regiment was brigaded with the Fifteenth 
Connecticut, to form the second brigade, second division, of the 
district of Beaufort, under the command of Col. Upham, and 
ordered to report to Gen. Cox at Cove Creek, where it arrived 
in the afternoon of March 4. 

From tliis point, on the 6th, Gen. Cox's entire force effected a 
movement, the regiment leading the advance. Tlie advance was 
extremely tedious, and by night it had only reached Gum Swamp, 
a distance of eight miles from Cove Creek. 

March 7, the regiment marched from Gum Swamp to South-west Creek, 
where the enemy were found to be strongly intrenched on the opposite side of 
the creek; and had some skirmishing, but no casualties in the regiment. 
During the night, our skirmishers were advanced to within seventy-five yards 
of the creek, and rifle-pits thrown up. 

The brigade to which the regiment was attached, numbering about one 
thousand men, was at this time about two miles in advance of any vSupport. 

On the morning of the 8th, information was received that the enemy were 
making a movement on the left ; and the regiment was ordered to the left, 
formino; a line at right an2;les with the Fifteenth Connecticut Volunteers. 
Skirmishers were immediately deployed, and discovered the enemy in the 
thick underbrush; they having, through the negligence of the cavalry vedette, 
completely outflanked our position, and formed directly in the rear of our 
original line. Immediately upon being discovered, they opened with a heavy 
fire of musketry, which was kept up on both sides for about a 'quarter of an 
hour, considerably reducing the strength of our command. At this time, by a 
well-directed charge, the enemy forced us back on to a line with the rest of our 
brigade, which immediately broke. We continued to fall back in good order 
for about one hundred yards more ; when we discovered that we were entirely 
surrounded, and were oldiged to surrender. 


The entii'e brigade actively engaged, with the exception of a few enlisted 
men who escaped after the regiments broke, were thus captured, after withstand- 
ing (as it was afterwards ascertained by officers captured at this time, — from 
Surgeon Mathus, Twenty-eighth Regiment Georgia Volunteers, A. M. D.) 
for nearly an hour the whole of Hoke's division, eight thousand strong. Our 
loss in the engagement was five officers wounded, seven enlisted men killed, 
and thirty-six enlisted men wounded. 

Among the captured and most severely wounded was Lieut. -Col. W. Gr. 
Bartholomew, commanding the regiment. 

From this -date until the close of its term of enlistment, the 
regiment, reduced to a mere fragment, was employed chiefly on 
guard-duty. It however participated in the advance under Gen. 
Grant during the last week in May and first in June. Iii a for- 
ward movement on the enemy's works at Cold Harbor, June 3, 
the remaining fragment of the regiment, under command of Ma- 
jor William A. Walker, a faithful, competent, and brave officer, 
led the column. As they approached a rifle-pit in front of the 
works, the major was struck in the neck by a rifle-shot, and in- 
stantly killed. Capt. Wilcox, and several men of this regiment, 
fell in the same bloody encounter. These were the final disasters 
of this eminently working regiment, which was mustered out of 
service June 26, and, July 1, started for Readville, Mass., arriving 
there on the 7th, numbering only seven commissioned officers and 
a hundred and thirty-two enlisted men. On the 19th, the regi- 
ment was paid off and disbanded. 



The Twenty-eighth an Irish Regiment. — From Camp Cameron to Hilton Head. — 
Antietam. — In the Wilderness. — Before Petersburg. — An Honorable Histoiy. — 
The Twenty-ninth. — Its varied Experience. — Vicksburg. — Services in Virginia. — 
Returns to the Old Commonwealth. 


THIS regiment was composed mainly of men of Irish birth. 
It left Camp Cameron Jan. 11, 18(32, and proceeded to Fort 
Columbns, New- York Harbor ; whence it sailed, Feb. 14, for Hil- 
ton Head, S.C. 

Its officers were as follow : — 


Lieutenant • Colonel 
Surgeon . 
Assistant Surgeon 
Chaplain . 

William Montieth. 
Maclelland Moore. 
George W. Cartwright. 
Patrick A. O'Connell. 
George W. Snow. 
Nicholas O'Brien. 

Arriving at Hilton Head on the 23d, the Twenty-eighth re- 
mained there mi til the 7th of April, when it sailed for Fort Pulaski, 
After service at Jones, Bird, and Tybee Islands, it returned to 
Hilton Head May 28. Col. Montieth was placed under arrest by 
Gen. Hunter, and did not again take command, resigning in Au- 
ffust followino-. The res'iment sailed from Hilton Head in trans- 
ports for James Island, under command of Lieut.-Col. Moore. 
After skirmishing, and a fruitless assault on Fort Johnson, it evac- 
uated the island on the 6th of July, and returned to Hilton Head. 
On the 3d of August, it sailed northward to join the Army of the 

At Newport News, Lieut.-Col. Moore resigned, and Major Cart- 
wright took command. Arrived at Acquia Creek, the regiment 
proceeded immediately to Fredericksburg, and joined the Potomac 



Army. During the remainder of the month, it was almost con- 
stantly on the march. 

On the 30th, it was engaged in the battle at Bull Run, sup- 
porting a battery until night ; when its position was changed to 
a piece of woods, where, next day, it was under heavy fire nearly 
an hour. When ordered to retreat, it retired in good order, and 
went to the support of a battery, sustaining a severe (ire from the 
enemy's guns. The same evening, it moved with the retreating- 
forces of Gen. Pope to Centroville, having lost in that battle 
eighteen men killed, and a hundred and nine wounded ; and, in 
the engagement at Chantilly the next day, its loss was ninety-four 
in killed and wounded. 

The Twenty-eighth left camp on the battle-field, Sept. 2. On 
the 5th, it was at Meridian Hill; on the 14th, at South Mountain ; 
and, on the 17th, it was engaged in the great fight at Antietam. 
At eleven o'clock, a.m., of the memorable 17th, the men advanced 
under a murderous fire ; the enemy's artillery having perfect 
range, and the shot falling with fearful precision within their 
ranks. They were ordered to lie down, and, for more than an 
hour, were in a position more trying to a soldier's nerves than 
the shock of battle. 

They afterwards drove the rebels before them, encamping at 
night on the side of Antietam Creek nearest the enemy, having 
lost in killed and wounded forty-eight men. 

On the 19th, the regiment again took up its line of march, and 
was in motion, with very Ijrief intervals, until the 18th of Novem- 
ber ; Col. Byrnes, one of the best and bravest officers, having 
assumed command at Nolan's Ferry on the 16th of October. 
Leaving camp, near Waterloo, Va., the Twenty-eighth encamped 
near Fredericksburg on the 28d of November, where it became a 
part of the second brigade, first division. Second Army Corps. It 
remained here, erecting winter-quarters, until the 11th of Decem- 
ber, when it removed to a position opposite the city, which it entered 
next morning. Advancing with the division, it became engaged 
with the enemy on St. Mary's Heights on the 13th. Its loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, was a hundred and ten men. After 
changing position in the vicinity of Fredericksi)urg for tlie next 
three days, the regiment went on picket-duty for the rest of the 
winter on the banks of the Rappahannock. 

April 27, the camp was again abandoned for the march ; and, 
through the remainder of the spring and the first months of sum- 
mer, the Tv.enty-eighth was engaged on picket, and was crossing 



the enemy's path, or pursued by him ; stopping at Fahnouth, 
Thoroughfare Gap, Monocacy River, Uniontown, and Havana, 
within three miles of Gettysburg, reaching this point on the 2d 
of July. 

Of the part the regiment took in these important and decisive 
battles, an officer writes : — 

July 2, at seven o'clock, a.m., resumed tlie march towards Gettysburg, 
passing by the Cemetery-hill Road, and took up a position with the Ijrigade, 
on the left of Cemetery Hill, in which position the line of battle was formed ; 
and remained so until four o'clock, p.m., when the regiment moved for- 
ward, and became engaged with the enemy, who was strongly posted in an 
advantageous position on the crest of a rugged, rocky hill. We forced him 
to retire from this eminence, and advanced over the top, and almost to the bot- 
tom of the other side, being the whole time exposed to a heavy fire of musketry, 
losing many men from the concentrated fire of the enemy, who was on both our 
flanks, causing us to retire a short distance to reach our support. During this 
engagement and the following one next day, the regiment lost a hundred and 
one men in killed, wounded, and missing. 

On the 5th, the regiment commenced another series of marches, 
including in its encampments, up to Dec. 7, old battle-grounds, 
and points of interest, along the Ra])pahannock and Rapidan. 

The regiment remained in winter-quarters at Stevensburg, Va., 
performing picket-guard and other duties, from the 1st of Janu- 
ary to the 3d of May, the evening of which day it broke camp, 
and marched with twenty commissioned officers and four hundred 
and eighty-five enlisted men, under command of Lieut.-Col. George 
W, Cartwright, crossing the Rapidan River, and reaching the 
Chancellorsville House the afternoon of May 4, passing over the 
old battle-field ; thence to Todd's Tavern, the regiment acting as 
flankers, with extremely arduous duties to perform in this capaci- 
ty, and, towards night, working on breastworks, and skirmishing. 
May 5, the regiment was again deployed as skirmishers. In the 
battle of this day, — the Wilderness, — the regiment lost sixteen 
killed, sixty-seven wounded, and fifteen missing. Here fell, while 
nobly performing his duty, the brave Capt. James A. M'Intire, and 
here also the gallant and efficient Capt. Charles V. Smith received 
his death-wound. 

In the subsequent fights and skirmishes of the next six days, the 
regiment lost in killed seven, and in wounded and missing twenty- 
seven. At daylight of the 12th, near Spottsylvajuia, it made a 
desperate charge on the enemy's works, assisting in the capture 


of many prisoners, and pieces of artillery, but losing, in killed 
and wounded, fifty men. The same thing was repeated at day- 
light on the 18th, which resulted in carrying the enemy's first 
line. In this assault, the regiment lost many gallant officers and 

Here fell, mortally wounded, the brave Major A. J. Lawler, 
and the much esteemed and regretted Capts. Maguer and Coch- 

The regiment moved from Spottsylvania Court House on the 
22d ; crossed the North Anna on the 24th ; and continued to ad- 
vance with very frequent skirmishes, arriving on tlie 3d of June 
at Cold Harbor. In the engagement at this place, the Twenty- 
eighth suffered greatly, without having the opportunity of firing a 

It formed in line, and made a charge on the enemy's works ; 
was exposed to a tremendous fire of musketry and artillery, and 
suffered heavily. At this fight, the brave soldier and respected 
officer. Col. Richard Byrnes, received his death-wound, as did also 
First Lieut. James B. West. The casualties were, this day, ten 
killed, forty-six wounded, and one missing. Towards night, the 
regiment fell back behind their intrenchments, and remained in 
this position until June 14. The evening of this date, the regiment 
crossed the James River, and proceeded that night and the 15th 
in the direction of Petersburg. On the afternoon of the 16th, it 
made a charge on the enemy's works, carrying one line, and fol- 
lowing up vigorously until checked by superior force of the enemy ; 
losing three killed, fourteen wounded, and two missing. 

June 20, the regiment was transferred from the second to the 
first brigade (Brig.-Gen. N. A. Miles commanding), first division, 
Second Army Corps. It marched in the afternoon, acthig as 
flankers, and exposed to the enemy's fire. On the 22d, the 
regiment was deployed as skirmishers to meet an attack of the 
enemy. Here, as a thin skirmish line, the regiment did noble 
work by determinedly holding its position ; and assisted materi- 
ally in checking, while flushed with victory, the enemy's progress, 
receiving on the field the compliments of both brigade and divi- 
sion commanders. The loss was one killed, nine wounded, and 
one missing. 

From this time until the 9th of July, the regiment was kept in 
reserve. It was then employed in picket and fatigue duties until 
the 26th ; when, Capt. I. Fleming commanding, it made a long 
and weary night-marcli, crossing both the James and the App'" 


niattox, and arriving at Deep Bottom on the morning of the 27th. 
It was here deployed as skirmisliers, and soon became hotly 
engaged with the enemy. 

The regiment succeeded in getting on the enemy's flank, driv- 
ing him in confusion from his works, where he left in his flight 
four twenty-pounder Parrott guns, with caissons and ammunition ; 
while several prisoners were captured, including one commis- 
sioned officer. During the remainder of the day, the regiment 
was on picket. On the evening of the 28th, it moved back to the 
New-market Road, and assisted in throwing up a line of works. 

The 29tli, at dark, the regiment with the corps recrossed the 
James and Appomattox Rivers, and returned to its position be- 
fore Petersburg, Va., on the morning of the 30th, and acted as a 
support to the Ninth Army Corps. The regiment lost at Deep 
Bottom two killed and two wounded. 

On the evening of July 30, the regiment was again in its old 
encampment, where it remained until the afternoon of the 12th 
of August, when it broke camp, and marched to City Point, a 
distance of ten miles. The next day, the regiment embarked on 
transports for Deep Bottom, and disembarked there the morning 
of the 14th. During the forenoon, it made a demonstration 
against a rebel battery, suffering a loss of four killed and eleven 
wounded. On the 15th, it moved to the right of the line, and 
biv^ouacked for the night. On tlie l(3th, it moved out on the 
Charles-City Road (supporting cavalry), advancing as skirmishers, 
and engaged the enemy. After a stubborn and well-contested re- 
sistance against superior numbers, the regiment fell back upon its 
brigade, losing heavily in killed, wounded, and missing. At dark 
on the 20th, it marched back to Petersburg, reaching that position 
on the morning of the 21st. The regiment lost here two killed, 
sixteen wounded, and twenty-two missing. 

On the 25th, it was engaged in the 'fiercely contested action of 
Ream's Station, on the Weldon Railroad, and was publicly com- 
plimented for its gallant conduct. 

From this time until the loth of December, the Twenty-eighth 
was constantly changing its positions and camps, and employed 
on picket-guard and fatigue-duties in front of Petersburg; when, 
its term of service having expired, two officers and twenty men 
(being all with the regiment that had not re-enlisted), under 
command of Col. Cartwright, proceeded to Boston to be mustered 
out of service. The rest of the regiment was consolidated into a 
battalion of five companies, and was known as the Twenty-eighth 


Battalion Massachusetts Volunteers. Until March 25, 1865, the 
battalion remained in front of Petersburg ; when (we quote 
from official reports), under command of Lieut.-Col. James Flem- 
ing, it broke camp, and moved to the front line of works, remain- 
ing under arms several hours; after which, an attack was ordered 
to be made on the enemy's lines in our front. The enemy ad- 
vanced from their works to meet us, and were twice repulsed with 
heavy loss. On this occasion, the battalion remained under fire 
until all their ammunition was expended, but still maintained its 
position, although exposed to a galling fire of musketry and artil- 
lery. The loss of the battalion in this well-contested engagement 
was four commissioned officers wounded ; viz., Lieut.-Col. James 
Fleming, Capt. John Connor, Capt. Patrick M'Intyre, and First 
Lieut. T. J. Parker ; seven enlisted men killed, and sixty-five 
wounded, many of whom have since died, — out of less than two 
hundred men taken into action. 

The battalion was subsequently engaged at Hatcher's Run, 
Soutii-side Railroad, and was with the army on the occasion of 
Gen. Lee's surrender of the rebel forces to Gen. Grant. 

In all these marches and skirmishes with the enemy, the men 
behaved in a splendid manner, frequently eliciting the commenda- 
tions of their commanding officers; and, considering the short- 
ness of the campaign, the losses of the battalion have beeu 
remarkably large, there being six commisioned officers wounded, 
eleven enlisted men killed and sixty-six wounded, out of a total 
of a hundred and eighty-four with which it started at the com- 
mencement of the campaign. 

The battalion was encamped at Burkesville until ordered with 
its division to xUexandria, where it arrived May 15, and took part 
in the grand review at Washington, May 23. 

On the 25th of June, it was ordered to report at Readville, 
Mass., to be mustered out of service ; at which place it arrived 
July 5, was paid off, and discharged. 

This regiment nobly performed its part in preserving and per- 
petuating the Government, which now welcomes to its protection 
the people of all nationalities and races. 

The Twenty-eighth took part in engagements as follow, — 
James Island, Second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain, An- 
tietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Bristow's 
Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Po River, Spottsylvania, Tolo- 
potomy. Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Strawberry Plains, Deep Bot- 
tom, Ream's Station, Petersburg, South-side Railroad, and 
Hatcher's Run. 



In its organization, was somewliat peculiar. 

Seven companies comprising this regiment were among the first 
three-years' men that left this State. They were sent to Portress 
Monroe to fill up the ranks of the Third and Fourth militia regi- 
ments, under command respectively of Cols. Wardrop and Pack- 
ard. At the expiration of the three months, the men comprising 
the militia returned home ; and the seven companies of the three- 
years' men remained, and were known as the First Battalion of 
Massachusetts Volunteers. Subsequently three new companies 
were organized, and attached to the battalion ; and it was made 
the Twenty-ninth Regiment, of which Brig.-Geu. Pierce was ap- 
pointed colonel. It was stationed at Camp Butler, at Newport 
News, until the 10th of May. 

Its officers, in March, 1862, were, — 

Colonel ...... Ebenezer W. Pierce. 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... Joseph H. Barnes. 

Major ...... Charles Chipman. 

Surgeon ...... Orlando Brown. 

Assistant Surgeon .... George B. Cogswell. 

Chaplain ...... Henry E. Hempstead. 

From the time of their entering Virginia up to November in 
the same year, the men of this regiment had occupied seventeen 
camps. The first, after leaving Camp Butler, was Camp Norfolk; 
and the last was near Warrenton, in Virginia. 

June 0, 1862, it became a part of the Irish Brigade, commanded 
by Gen. Meagher. 

Extracts from letters written by officers, and forwarded to Gov. 
Andrew, will indicate the status of the regiment up to Nov. 19. 
The colonel writes, — 

The twenty-ninth Regiment has participated in all the trials, privations, and 
honors of the Irish Brigade. The battles in which we have been engaged 
since June 9 are as follow; viz., Gaines's Mills, Savage's Station, White- 
oak Swamp, Nelson's Farm, Malvern Hill, and last, not least, Antietam. 

Among the marches worthy of record are the movement down the Penin- 
sula, the rapid march to and from Centreville, the memorable Maryland cam- 
paign, and the present march from Harper's Ferry. 

Duruig this period, five months, the regiment has added to its reputation 
by the mere fact of its being connected with the Irish Brigade ; and it has 


been our endeavor that the brigade should not by our acts lose any of their 
already acquired reputation. And, in this connection, I trust I may be excused 
for alluding to remarks made to the regiment, by the general commanding the 
brigade, upon its arrival at Harrison's Landing after the terrible seven days 
preceding. The general said to the whole regiment, "The Twenty-ninth 
Massaehasetts has been tried, and, 1 am proud to be able to say, has proved 
itself an honor to the Irish Brigade and to the country." This is nearly his 
precise language, and it was the proudest moment the regiment had seen. 
Since that time, the general has not, to my knowledge, revoked his decision. 

In relation to the phijsique and morale of the men compos- 
ing the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, Gen. Meagher 
writes, — 

They are obedient, vigilant, and reliable ; ever ready for every duty. While 
in the field, under my own eye, they have been unsurpassed as soldiers, brave 
and heroic. Their loss is no indication of their valor ; for uncontrolled circum- 
stances and location will favor, or be more fatal, as these circumstances may 
happen. Of the field-officers of the regiment, I have to state nothing but that 
the most cordial feelings have ever existed between them and me. They sever- 
ally have my entire confidence and good wishes. They have ever been found 
at their post, and in readiness for the most arduous duties. Col. Ebenezer 
Pierce, who lost an arm in the battle of White-oak Swamp, has my sympathy, 
and, in so soon rejoining his regiment for duty, proved his readiness to be where a 
soldier should be, — at the head of his regiment. Lieut.-Col. Joseph H. Barnes 
is a soldier of the true type, in whom I have perfect and implicit reliance. 
Brave and honorable, he is a credit to his State. Major Charles Chipman, 
likewise, is a soldier of first-rate order, and has borne himself as a true man 
and a patriot on the field, and as a pattern to the men of the regiment in all 
times of trial, never flinching from any of the duties or responsibilities of the 
severest campaigns of modern times. Of the line and staff officers, I can 
only state they all perform their duty becoming true men and brave. Massa- 
chusetts need never be ashamed of such citizens or children. Their identity 
witli the Irish regiments of my command has been most pleasing and cordial, 
and tlie fraternity of feeling is admirable in the extreme. Massachusetts shakes 
hands with her adopted citizens in their devotion to a connuon country and a 
common flag. They will i^tand by them together until victory crowns their 
endeavors, and harmony is restored to the Union. 

As an incident of the cordial feeling existing in this brigade towards their 
Ijiother-soldiers of the IMassachusetts Twenty-ninth Volunteers, I have to 
state, that at a meeting of the officers of the old New- York regiments, held 
some time since, they voted to their brother-soldiers of the Twenty-ninth Mas- 
sachusetts Volunteers a green banner, emblematical of the particular brigade 
in which they so honorably serve, and of the cordiality of feeling which exists 
between them. This banner is now on its way, and will shortly be presented 


to thetfwenty-niatb by Gren Edwin V. Sumner, a commander proud of the 
Irish Brigade, and a son of old Massachusetts. 

From November, 18G2, to January, 1864, the regiment occupied 
seventy-four different camps, and travelled, in marches and by 
steam, 4,277 miles. Its battle-record is, the battle at Freder- 
icksburg, Va., from Dec. 13 to the 15th, 1862, inclusive ; the 
siege of Vicksburg, Miss., from June 17 to July 4, 1863; the 
siege of Jackson, Miss., from July 11 to the 16th, 1863 ; the battle 
of Blue Springs, East Tennessee, Oct. 10, 1863 ; the battle at 
Campbell's Station, Nov. 16, 1863 ; and the siege of Knoxville, 
Tenn., from Nov. 17 to Dec. 5, 1863. 

Among the thirty-eight men who died in battle and by disease 
is Chaplain Hempstead, who died at Falmouth, Va., in Decem- 
ber, 1862. 

The Twenty-ninth left Newport News, March 20, 1863, in 
the steamer " City of Richmond," for the South-west ; joining the 
Ninth Corps in the expedition to Jackson, Miss., July 5. Jan. 1, 
1864, Col. Pierce wrote, — 

The operations of the regiment in the sieges of Vicksburg and Jackson, 
Miss., cannot be better described than in the language of Major-Gen. Grant, 
in an extract from an order issued to the corps to which the regiment was at- 
tached : — 

Headquarters Department of the Tennessee, 
Vicksburg, Miss., July 31, 1863. 

In returning the Ninth Corps to its former command, it is with pleasure 
that the general commanding acknowledges its valuable services in the cam- 
paign just closed. 

Arriving at Vicksljurg opportunely, taking position to hold at bay John- 
ston's army, then threatening the forces investing the city, it was ready and 
eager to assume the aggressive at any moment. 

After the fall of Vicksburg, it formed a part of the army which drove 
Johnston from his position near the Big Black lliver into his intrenchments 
at Jackson, and, after a siege of eight days, compelled him to fly in disorder 
from the Mississippi Valley. 

The endurance, valor, and general good conduct of the Ninth Corps are 
admired by all ; and its valuable co-operation in achieving the final triumph of 
the. campaign is gratefully acknowledged by the Army of the Tennessee. 

Major-Gen. Parke will cause the diffisrent regiments and batteries of his 
command to inscribe upon their banners and guidons "Vicksburg and Jack- 

By order of 



At the battle of Blue Springs, on tlie afternoon of the lUth of October, 
1863, the regiment maintained its reputation for courage and good conduct. 

Owing to the sudden change of position on the part of the Qnemy, or a 
misconception, on the part of our general officers, of the true position occu- 
pied by them, the Union forces, as they advanced to the attack, found them- 
selves presenting the right Hank of their entire line to an eniilading fire, and 
were under the necessity of changing front forward by swinging the whole 
line upon the fixed pivot^ at its right flank ; a movement difficult to perform 
vxnder fire, even when executed upon a plain and unobstructed field. But 
the difficulty in this case was heightened fi*om the fact that the surface of 
the country was undulating and extremely broken ; and one part of the line 
was in a heavy wood, another clambering over a high rail-fence, and still 
another passing through a field of high corn, while other troops were in pas- 
ture-ground and meadow-lands, witli hills, hedges, and brooks intervening ; 
so that the fragments of an army were often entirely out of sight of each 

On one of the steeps passed over, many of the men lost their footing, and 
fell, one upon another : still the line pushed on, driving the enemy, until 
darkness put an end to the operations of that day. One Virginia colonel, 
severely wounded, fell into our hands, and soon after died in the hospital. 

The usual good fortune that has ever attended this regiment did not for^ 
sake them under the trying circumstances with which they were surrounded 
at Campbell's Station on the IGth of November, 18(33. Scarcely had the 
battle commenced when it was detached from its brigade, and sent to relieve 
one of the regiments in the front line of battle. Here for three hours, un- 
supported, the Twenty-ninth Regiment held an exposed and important position 
upon the extreme right of the Federal lines. 

Posted in an open field, it was during all this time exposed to the enemy's 
lire, who were holding a wood both in our front, and also upon our right 
flank, at a distance of about one hundred yards ; and from behind a rail 
fence, and trunks of trees, their sharpshooters, occupyino- the tree-tops, 
steadily kept up a galling fire. . . . 

During the siege of Knoxville (a period of fifteen days), the Twenty- 
ninth Regiment was almost constantly under fire, occupying as it did one 
of the most exposed positions in the whole line of fortifications ; and, in re- 
pelling the assault upon Fort Saunders, bore a most conspicuous part, cap- 
turing two of the three battle-flags taken from the enemy on that occasion, 
and receiving special notice in General Orders from department and division 

For a history of the movements of the regiment during the 
year 18(34, vre cannot do better than to quote from one of its offi- 
cers : — 

Jan. 1, the regiment was encamped at Blane's Cros.s-roads, East Ten- 
nessee; and formed part of the second brigade, first division, Ninth Array 


Corps. It was a high, bleak hill, exposed to the surging blasts of a keen and 
eager air. The ground was covered with snow. The regiment suffered greatly. 
The scanty, supply of rations, and their ventilated garments, rendered their con- 
dition any thing' but a happy one. To give an idea of their sufferings, I will 
cite some things that beset us during that campaign. At one issue of rations, 
each man received for his mite eight ounces of flour for nine days. One 
tablespoonful of coffee was issued once in from three to five days. The men 
were unable to subsist on such allowances, and each morning there could have 
been seen parties of two and three in search of food. Some of the loyal 
Tennesseeans would meet them with smiles ; and, upon being asked for bread, 
they would reply in their peculiar vernacular, "that they were plumb out," 
and not '• a dust of meal " in the house. Many of the men were 'barefooted, 
and raw hide was issued to be made into moccasons. The regiment at this 
place re-enlisted as a veteran organization, and was mustered into the United- 
States service for another term, Jan. 2. 

On the 16th and 21st, the Twenty-ninth supported Gen. Gran- 
ger's Fourth Corps, and then covered its retreat, which was 
changed to a successful charge upon the enemy the following day. 

The troops with the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts dragged two 
cannon eight miles to a railway-station to save them from the 
hands of the rebels. 

During the last days of January, the Twenty-ninth went upon 
a foraging expedition, conducted by Lieut. -Col. Barnes, and, to 
the great joy of their comrades in camp, returned with eighty 
loaded wagons. From this date until the last of March, the regi- 
ment was manoeuvring with the enemy, having no tenable point 
on that line of railroad except Knoxville. 

On the 21st of March, the regiment left Knoxville, and, cross- 
ing the mountains to Nicholasville, took the cars of the Central- 
Kentucky Railroad, and readied Cincinnati, 0., on the 31st. 
Here the troops were paid off, and,left, April 7, on a furlough for 
Boston, where they arrived on the 9th. 

The Twenty -ninth again started for the front. May 16. Ar- 
rived at Belle Plain on the 20th, and at Falmouth on the 23d. 

June 1, the regiment was temporarily attached to the third 
brigade, first division. Fifth Army Corps. It was detailed to 
skirmish, and in this day's action bore the brunt of the enemy's 
advance, until compelled from inferior numbers to fall back on 
some hastily constructed works. 

The next day, the regiment was transfei*rcd to the first division 
of the Ninth Corps, Col. E. W. Pierce commanding brigade. The 
command was at Cold Harbor, but not immediately engaged. On 


the 14tli of Jvuie, it crossed to the south side of the James, 
and continued its march to within a few miles of Petersburg, 
when it formed in line of battle in support of the second division. 
On the 17th it fell into line, and endeavored to cross an open 
plain. Said an officer, — 

The ground was strewn with fallen timber, and a thick growth of under- 
brush was interwoven with the timber to imjDede our progress- We suc- 
ceeded in gaining the works taken the night before by Gen. Potter. Re- 
mained in this position through the afternoon. Orders came to fall in. The 
men moved rapidly down a ravine, and formed in line for a charge. After 
arranging the line, we prepared to advance. Pushing through a dense 
growth of pine-saplings, we gained the open field, in which some of our forces 
were promiscuously scattered around. Our line became severed by this time, 
in consequence of the woods ; but we patiently formed our line again under 
its crest. The word " Forward ! " was passed from mouth to mouth. The 
column rose en masse, each man grasping his piece firmly. " Charge ! " 
shouted the commander ; and the men rushed yelling and frantic on the 
works of the enemy. Round shot, grape and shrapnel, flew like hail ; but it 
was of no avail : the line gave way. Again we essayed, but failed. Dark- 
ness setting in, the enemy fell back to another and more tenable position. 
The groans of the dying and wounded blended harshly with the voices of 
those still resolute, and eager for the fray. To-day, the silent mounds which 
dot that field speak more eloquently than words of the bravery and self- 
devotion of many a New-England soldier. The regiment was commanded by 
Major Charles Chipman, and the brigade was under the supervision of 
Lieut. -Col. Joseph H. Barnes. 

On the 23d, the regiment relieved Barlow's division of the 
Second Corps, and remained in line until the 30th, when it was 
relieved by the colored troops. It then marched down one of 
the regular approaches to the enemy's works, and lay anxiously 
awaiting the signal to charge them, which was to be the explosion 
of a mine under a fort in its front. 

The mine exploded, and the troops rushed simultaneously to- 
wards its crater. The artillery vomited forth a galling fire ; and 
incessant roars of musketry, mingling with the deafening shouts 
of the troops, presented a scene of carnage and l)loody strife rarely 
if ever equalled in the annals of modern warfare. The enemy, 
recovering from the shock of the explosion, rallied, and succeeded 
in repulsing us. Those who had gained the enemy's works were 
mostly captured. 

On the 19th of August, the regiment, under command of Capt. 
C. F. Richardson, in support of the Fifth Army Corps, was hotly 


engaged witli the enemy at Blick's Station, on the Weldon Rail- 
road. The division, Gen. Wiiite commanding, reached an open 
field just in time to prevent a flank movement by the enemy. 

Sept. 24, the regiment was ordered to garrison Fort Howard, 
and, on the 5th of October, to rejoin the brigade in its advanced 
position at Poplar-Grove Church, where it arrived the same day. 

Oct. 27, tlie brigade moved out just before sunrise, and 
marched to the left ; forward in line of battle, and advanced over 
what is called Wells's Farm. Skirmishing with the enemy was 
going on until Oct. 28, when we commenced to fall back, the 
brigade to which this command belonged covering the move- 
ment, which was successfully accomplished without a single 
casualty. We returned to camp at Poplar -Grove Church. 
Here an excellent camp was laid out, log-huts were built, and 
permanent quarters for winter were being established. The 
cherished hopes of a winter camp were suddenly blasted by an 
order to be ready to move. 

Nov. 29, we relieved the Second Corps in front of Petersburg, 
in close proximity to the spot where we were last summer. 

Here the regiment remained, Capt. Richardson commanding, 
until Dec. 31, when it occupied Battery 11, — a post on the crest 
of a ridge to the left, and a little in the rear of Fort Stedman. 
The position is described by a pen before quoted : — 

On the continuation of the same ridge, and only about three hundred yards 
from Fort Stedman, was Springhill, strongly fortified and intrenched, and 
furnished with bewildering covered ways, with mines and countermines, and 
all the appliances of rebel fortification. In the batteries in and around this 
position were some twenty guns of different calibers. A formidable triple 
row of chevaux de frise protected the position from assault. The picket 
lines at this point were only one hundred yards apart. In the rear of 
Springhill Battery was a road twenty feet wide, in a broad and deep ravine, 
in which troops could be massed in great numbers ; and the road was con- 
tinued as a completely covered way for the largest military equipage as far 
as the outskirts of Blandford. To the right of Fort Stedman, and to the left 
of Springhill, the lines receded from each other, the old race-course lying 
between, white with the bones of the earlier combatants in the siege of 
Petersburg. It will be seen from this description, that, at iliis part of the 
lines, the salients and posts of honor, on either side, were 'the Springhill 
Batteries, Fort Stedman, and Batteries 11 and 12. An attack to the right 
of Fort Stedman, or left of Springhill, would expose men to an enfilading 
fire on the vast plain ; to the left of Fort Stedman, or right of Springhill, to 
the difficulties of ravines and watercourses. We held, then, the key of tho 


Nothing specially worthy of note took place hero during the 
winter months of 1865, nor until the 25th of March, — the day 
of Gen. Sheridan's march to the left from City Point, the real 
commencement of the strategic envelopment of Petersburg. We 
quote from the official record of the engagement of this day : — 

Existing orders from array headquarters encouraged the enemy to desert, 
and offered them payment for arms brought across. Heretofore the rules of 
war have required deserters to be disarmed at the picket-line, or even before 
they gave themselves up, if they came in large bodies ; but the multitudes of 
deserters from the rebels, coming peaceably with arms, had caused some 
carelessness in this regard. On the morning of the 25th of March, desert- 
ers began, about three o'clock, to come across in considerable numbers, — too 
large to send guards with from the picket-line ; so that the officer of the 
guard, Lieut. Joslyn, directed them retained on the line, and roused the 
troops in Fort Stedman, sending word to Battery 11 to be on the alert, as 
matters looked suspicious. At half-past three, the suspicions were justified. 
Gren: Grordon's command, consisting of four divisions of rebel troops, of 
whom the supposed deserters were but the skirmishers, made their attack. 
That it was crushing and overwhelming cannot be denied. Eight thousand 
troops were in the column ; in Stedman and Battery 11, scarcely five hun- 
dred. How well they fought is shown by the fact, that, around one gun, 
nine, out of its gun-detachment of fourteen, were killed ; and it was not till 
six o'clock that the enemy had possession of the fort and two batteries. 
Major Charles T. Richardson, with an utter disregard of himself and his 
danger, was ever present, cheering and stimulating the men, and setting a 
noble example. Capt. Greorge H. Taylor ably seconded him ; and these 
two, holding the battery until the very last moment, were taken prisoners. 
A panic among the supports sent to the relief of the Twenty-ninth had 
carried away much of the force that ought to have held the works ; but still 
it was not till after six o'clock that Major Richardson surrendered his sword, 
he having previous to that time forwarded to brigade headquarters a larger 
number of prisoners than his whole garrison. 

Re-enforcements commencing to arrive about six o'clock, the lines were 
rapidly arranged ; and with the troops of Hartrauft's divisinn on the right, 
and the re-organized men of tlie brigade on the left., a charge was made 
about half-past eight, a.m., which gave us the whole line again. The regi- 
ment lay in its old quarters at Battery 11 until April 2, when it joined in 
the demonstration made on the enemy's works at that part of the line ; and 
on the 3d, as part of the first brigade that entered the city, it crossed the 
river, and picketed on the Richmond Stage-road and the Chesterfield Road. 
On the .5th, it crossed the river again, and deployed across the country to the 
Boynton Road, and thence, on the 7th, to Wilson's Station On the 21st, 
the regiment was ordered to Washington, where it arrived on the 29th, and 
was detailed as provost-guard ; in which capacity it remained at lieadquar- 


ters, District of Washington, and at Georgetown, D.C., until June 9, 
when the men of the Thirty-fifth whose term of service had not transpired 
were transferred to the Twenty-ninth. July 29, the muster-out of the 
command was completed, and the men started for home. Arriving in 
Massachusetts, they went into Camp at Readville, and were paid and discharged 
Aug. 11, 1865. 

We add from the official report another paragraph : — 

In closino- the history of the regiment, it is alike the duty and pleasure 
of the commanding officer to say, that, in the trials it has passed through 
durino' its term of service, — which in seven companies was the longest field- 
service performed by any regiment, not only from the State, but from the 
country, — this regiment has made itself a part of the liistory of the Repub- 
lic, and such a part of it, that the commonwealth and the country, the 
servants of the people and the private citizens, have no reason to blush at 
having intrusted their honor in our hands. 

Through many difficulties, after many conflicts, having undergone much in- 
justice, many jealousies and heart-burnings, with wasted ranks and unsullied 
honor, we return to the Commonwealth all the flags she ever gave us, with 
rafyged folds and battered staves, but having suffered no loss that we are not 
proud of, and no injury save honorable scars ; and worthy of the motto 
adopted early in the war, " Aut viam inveniam aut faciam." 


The Eastern Bay-State Regiment. — At Ship Island and New Orleans. — Services in the 
South-west. — xVt Washington. — In the Shenandoah Valley. — Homeward bound. — 
The Western Bay-State Regiment. — Sails for Ship Island. — In the New-Orleans 
Expedition. — Other Operations. — Furlough, and Welconae Home. — Return to the 
Field. — Muster out. — The First Battalion and the Thirty-second. — Hastens to the 
Field of Conflict. — .loins the Potomac Army. — Furlough. — Returns to the Closing 
Scenes of Conflict. — The Discharge from Service. 


THE Thirtieth Regiment was organized, Doc. 31, 1861, under 
the name of the Eastern Bay-State Regiment. Jan. 2, it 
went on board " The Constitution " at Boston ; sailed on the loth, 
and arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 16th, with 926 men and 25 
officers, under command of Acting Lieut.-Gol. Jonas H. French. 
On the 20th, it disembarked, and went into camp. On the 2d 
of February, it re-embarked, sailed on the 6th, and arrived at Ship 
Island on the 12th of February. Here it went into camp, and, on 
the 9th of March, was joined by Company K, Capt. Cook, with 
96 men. On the 22d, Col. N. A. M. Dudley, a United-States offi- 
cer, assumed command ; an accomplished officer, and a native of • 

William W. Bullock joined the regiment as lieutenanl-colonel. 
Horace 0. Whittemore, also a prominent officer in the Massachu- 
setts militia, was major. Other officers were, — 

Surgeon ...... Samuel K. Towle. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Alfred F. Holt. 

Chaplain . . . . . . Jobn P. Cleveland. 

The regiment embarked on board the ship " North America," 
April 15. On the 16th, the expedition left Ship Island, and on 
the 28th arrived off Forts Jackson and St. Philip, when a de- 
tachment was sent under command of Major Vfhittemore. On 
the 29th, it proceeded up the river ; reached New Orleans on the 
1st of May, and disembarked on the 2d. 



On the 30th, the reghiieiit proceeded up the river on board a 
steamer ; lauded iu Batou Rouge ou the 2d of June, and raised 
the stars and stripes over the State Capitol. 

Ou the 19th, Lieut.-Col. Bullock was detached from the regi- 
ment to act as commandant of Fort Macomb. On the 20th, it 
was joined by the balance of the expedition, which proceeded up 
the river. On the 24th, it reached St. Joseph, and detached four 
regiments and several batteries in pursuit of guerillas. These 
reached Grand-Gulf City on the evening of the same day, and 
found the place deserted. They burned the city as a warni)ig to 
places on the river harboring guerillas, and, embarking on board 
the transports which had arrived, reached Vicksburg next 
day. A company was detailed as sappers and miners to cut a 
line through the woods and swamp preparatory to digging the 
canal, or " cut off" as it was termed. Says the official report, — 

The brigade bivouacked on shore ; and details from the regiment were made, 
and the work commenced. Making but slow progress, detachments were 
sent down the river at various times to collect negroes to work on the canal : 
two thousand were collected. After digging twenty-five days, the work was 
abandoned, as the river fell faster than the men could dig. The canal was 
dug one and one-c[uarter miles in length, twelve feet deep, and twelve feet 
wide. Here the health of the regiment bea-an to fail. During this time, the 
usual daily company and battalion drills were kept up, while the shot and 
shells from the enemy were falling within a hundred yards of our bivouac. 

July 23, the regiment, together with the whole brigade, embarked on 
board our transports. On the 24th, steamed away from the swamps of 
Vicksburg, with a parting salute from the enemy ; 2Gth, arrived at Baton 
Rouge, and quartered in the State House. 

One of the officers recorded, — 

On the afternoon of Aug. 4, tlie regimental line was formed, consisting of 
three liundred and fifty men, and marched to the outskirts of the city, where 
we bivouacked. At dayhght ou the 5th, the long-roll was beaten, and the 
line quickly formed. We had proceeded but a short distance, when we re- 
ceived the enemy's fire on our left. A dense fog was prevailing at the time, 
so that we were unable to see the enemy, and could only judge of their position 
from the flash of their muskets. The order was given to lie down, and load 
and fire at will ; when we received the enemy's fire in full force, which 
passed over our heads, doing but little execution to our lines. At this time, a 
well-directed fire from Nims's battery and our regiment silenced the enemy's 
fire, and, we presume, created a panic in their ranks. After manoeuvring 
about for an hour, and not seeing the enemy, we returned to our bivouac, with 
the loss of three killed and eiu;hteen wounded. 


In this engagement, Col. Dudley commanded the right wing of 
the brigade ; and Major Whittemore, the regiment. 

The troops remained at bivouac until the 10th of August, when 
they marched to the grounds of the United-Stafes arsenal, where 
they formed an intrenched camp under cover of the gunboats. 
They remained here until the 21st, expecting an attack from the 
enemy every moment. 

The exposure to the hot sun through the day and tlie damp air 
at night, together with labor in the trenches, produced a disease 
which nearly prostrated the regiment. 

It embarked on board the transports, and arrived at CarroUton 
on the -'2<\. of August ; then disembarked, and encauiped near the 
parapet, and close to the river. 

On the 24th, the camp was changed to Matcrie Ridge, distant 
two miles. Here the fifth brigade was formed of four regiments, 
three batteries, and one cavalry company ; Col. Dudley acting as 

There being no improvement in the health of the regiment, the 
camp was changed to CarroUton, where the regiment remained 
until November, when Lieut.-Col. Bullock resumed command, and 
the Thirtieth was moved to the United-States barracks, located 
about four miles below New Orleans, and close to the river. Jan. 
13, it again embarked for Baton Rouge. While at this place, it 
formed part of the third brigade, first division. Nineteenth Army 
Corps ; its colonel commanding the brigade. 

On the 14th of March, the regiment took up the line of march 
for Port Hudson. During the night, the water-batteries at that 
point were passed by the fleet under command of Commodore 
Farragut, but not without very stuljborn resistance on their part, 
which disabled the frigate " Mississippi," so that she was blown up 
and abandoned by her officers and crew. 

The object of the expedition having been accomplislied, tiie next 
morning, at daybreak, the troops fell back to Montecino Bayou, 
eiglit miles from Port Hudson, wliere they bivouacked until the 
18tli. At twelve o'clock, m., on the 17th, the second brigade was 
ordered to march, at a moment's notice, three miles through the 
swamp to the Clinton Road, to resist a threatened attack of the 
enemy ; but they did not come near enough to give the Union 
" boys '' a shot. The enemy was mounted. 

Next day the troops returned to cam}), and, on the 10th, set 
out on another expedition. Landing at a ])oint opposite Port 
Hudson, they penetrated the country a few miles ; but, finding the 



roads impassable on account of a crevasse, they were ol)liged to 
return to camp at Baton Rouge. Here the reguucnt remained 
during the month of April. 

On the 12th of May, it left Baton Rouge with tliree hundred 
enlisted men and eighteen officers in light marching order. On the 
13th, it took u.p the line of march towards Port Hudson to support 
the Illinois cavalry in destroying a bridge at Clinton. 

At Clinton Plains, on the morning of the 21st, tlie enemy were 
found in position, and opened upon the advance of the I)rigade 
with a very brisk fire. A sharp artillery-duel commenced at the 
distance of nine hundred yards. The troops, being re-en forced Ijy 
four guns of Holcomb's Vermont battery, drove the enemy back, 
and advanced as far as Plains Store, where the latter was formed in 
two lines of battle. After a brisk artillery-fire of about an hour, 
the enemy retired. When the brigade was about to bivouac for the 
night, the enemy again attacked in the rear ; but a charge from 
the Fourth Massachusetts, with the assistance of the Illinois cav- 
alry, drove him from his position. For the next twenty-four days, 
the regiment was constantly under fire. 

On the 17th of June, it was relieved with its brigade, and sent 
back to Plains Store to repel a premeditated attack on that 

July 2, the Thirtieth, at a moment's notice, made a forced 
marcli to Springfield Landing to intercept a column of i-eliel cav- 
alry making a raid on the supply-trains of the army. The march 
was made in excellent time and order. On the 8tli, Port Hudson 
surrendered. On the 9th, tlie regiment left its position at Plains 
Store, and proceeded by steam towards Donaldson villc. On the 
11th, advanced four miles into the country on a reconnoissance. 
On the 13th, an engagement took place at Rock's Plantation. 

The nature of the ground ]n*eventing his movements from being 
seen, the foe advanced in strong force, and flanked the Union 
troops on the right and left. Their position had now become al- 
most hopeless. The guns of the battery had become too hot to be 
used, and the cannoneers reduced to four. The horses liaving all 
been killed or wounded, Capt. Fiske, not wishing to abandon the 
guns to the enemy, went with Lieut. Barker and others over the 
bank where the enemy's shot were falling like hail-stones, fixed a 
rope to one of the guns, and brought it away : the others they were 
obliged to abandon, the enemy being not more than twenty yards 

During tlie month of August, the rogiraent was in camp at 
Baton Rouge. 


The autumn months were mainly occupied by sliort reconnois- 
sances and foraging expeditions, without any thing of marked 
interest transpiring. The watchfuhiess demanded, and the fatigue 
endured, were, however, none the less on that account. 

November found the regiment in winter-quarters near New 

By the 1st of January, 1864, nearly three-fourths of the regi- 
ment had re-enlisted. 

On the 8th of January, these removed to Franklin, and, on the 
16th of February, prepared to leave for Massachusetts on a fur- 
lough of thirty days. 

Leaving Franklin, they proceeded to xUgiers, and thence em- 
barked on board " The Mississippi," and sailed for New York, 
March 6. Arriving there on the 16th, they were transferred to 
"The Empire State," and reached Boston on the 19th. Here 
they were received by the State authorities, marched to Boylston 
Hall, where their arms were deposited, and they were dismissed to 
their homes. 

The regiment re-asscmbled at Boston on the 18th of April, and 
were ordered to Galloupe's Island, Boston Harbor, to await trans- 

May 3, the Thirtieth embarked on board '• The Cassandra " for 
New Orleans, where it arrived on the 10th, and encamped on the 
old battle-ground at Clialmctte. Col. Dudley here took command 
'of the regiment ; remaining with it, however, but two days. 

Lieut. -Col. Whittemore resigned; and, Col. Dudley having been 
assigned to a brigade, Capt. S. D. Shipley took command, 
June 12. 

On the 14th, the regiment took part in a review of all the 
forces by Major-Gen. D. E. Sickles, and, on the 26th, was as- 
signed to the first brigade, first division. Nineteenth Army Corps. 

July 2, the Thirtieth left Morganza on board the steamer 
"Mississippi," and arrived at Fortress Monroe on the 12th, and 
immediately proceeded to the defence of Washington. It was 
employed in this neighborhood until the 10th of August, when 
Gen. Sheridan assumed command of the force collected there. 

A rapid advance was now made, the regiment having been de- 
tailed to guard the ammunition-train. 

On the 19th, it rejoined the brigade near Winchester, and was 
assigned the position of fifth battalion in column. 

The brigade immediately advanced about a thousand yards 
through a thick wood, and deployed, Ijringing the regiment on the 


extreme right of the line, with its right resting on a deep ra- 
vine, through whicli ran a small stream. The fire of the enemy 
was now very brisk along the line. The thick woods partially 
screened them from our view, and prevented good execution from 
our fire. We remained in this position under a cross-fire of artil- 
lery (a battery having opened on our flank, fortunately firing, 
however, a little too high), and maintained our line intact, in spite 
of the passage through it of various detachments of regiments 
which had broken from the charges of the enemy. 

At half-past three o'clock, p.m., the enemy wq,s forced back, and 
our line advanced, driving them from our works and the town of 
Winchester, on the outskirts of which we bivouacked for the night 
at six o'clock, p.m. The casualties in this engagetaent were two 
killed and ten wounded. 

The next morning, at daylight, we followed in pursuit of the 
enemy, and bivouacked near Strasburg. 

On the 22d, led by Capt. A. F. Tremain, the Thirtieth made a 
gallant charge upon the enemy at Fisher's Hill, driving him from 
a strong position, and capturing several thousand rounds of 

The pursuit of the enemy was continued as far as Mount 
Crawford, ten miles from Harrisonburg, — which point was 
readied on the 29th of September ; and, the next day, the 
whole force returned to Harrisonburg ; thence, on the 6th of 
October, it moved back to New Market ; and, on the 10th, the 
Eighth and the Nineteenth Corps fell back across Cedar Creek, 
and camped near Middletown. On the 15th, the Thirtieth made 
a reconnoissance ; but nothing worthy of note transpired until 
tiie 19th, when victory was so suddenly snatched from the hands 
of the rebels, and what seemed to them a glorious success changed 
into a most disastrous defeat and rout. 

Space will not allow a detailed account of this battle, which has 
been given in the history of other regiments engaged. 

We will only add the following from an official report : — 

It was now nearly noon. Gen. Sheridan had arrived from Winchester, and 
rode along the line, promising the men that they should be in their old camp- 
grounds at night. He was everywhere received with great enthusiasm. At 
half-past twelve o'clock, p.m., the enemy attacked, but were driven back. 
Every thing was quiet till half-past three o'clock, p.m., when we were ordered 
to advance. On reaching the edge of the woods, the enemy were found in a 
strong position behind a stone wall across an open field. A charge was or- 
dered, in which our brigade took the lead. In the centre of the field, Capt. 


Greoro'e F. Whitcomb fell, sliot throuo;li the heart. The rebels were driven 
£•0111 their position, and pursued through the woods in their rear, and over an 
open plain, where the brigade halted for a moment to re-form. Gren. Sheridan 
here rode before the line, and complimented the troops. Wheeling to the left, 
we again charged through the woods, flanking Kershaw's division ; crossed a 
ravine raked by grape and cannister, and drove the enemy from a hill be- 
yond. The plain below was covered with the routed fragments of the rebel 
array. Pressing upon their rear, we drove them across the plains, 
throuo-h the camps abandoned in the morning; and at about six o'clock, p.m., 
planted our regimental flag, the tirst United-States colors, upon the recaptured 
warks. Three cheers for the Thirtieth Massachusetts liegiraent and for the 
old flag were called for by Col. (since Brevet Brig.-Gren.) E. P. Davis, com- 
manding the brigade. 

Nothing of special interest transpired during the rest of this and 
the month of November following. The regiment went into win- 
ter-quarters near Newtown ; and Thanksgiving found the Thir- 
tieth, at the close of a campaign which virtually annihilated one 
rebel army, not only grateful for the success which had rewarded 
its toil and valor, but cheered by the kind remembrances of 
friends at home. Thanksgiving delicacies were duly appreciated. 

It is due a gallant officer to state here, that in the engagements 
at Winchester, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek, in which the Thir- 
tieth distinguished itself, Capt. S. D. Shipley was in command of 
the regiment. 

On the 30th of December, 1864, the regiment was ordered from 
Camp Russell to Winchester, Ya. ; and there it was detached to 
relieve a brigade of the Eighth Corps at Opequan Crossing. 

Here it had to maintain a very large and strong picket-line, 
which the guerillas almost every night attempted to break and 
capture ; but not a man was lost, however, signals being arranged, 
so that, the minute there was any danger, the long-roll was 
sounded, and, in five minutes, the works surrounding the camp 
were manned, and the picket was changed to a skirmish-line. 

During the month of March, orders were received to prepare for 
an active campaign, — the last closing act in the horrible drama 
of war, which, for four long, dreary years, darkened our country's 

The orders were strictly obeyed, and when, on the last of the 
month, the orders to move were received, we were fully })repared ; 
and at noon on the 1st of April, being relieved by the Sixth Vir- 
ginia dismounted cavalry, we joined the brigade once more at 
Stevenson's Depot, and moved to Koarnstown,a distance of fifteen 


It was intended that this column should move up the Shenan- 
doah Valley to intercept Lee before he could reach Lynchburg, 
to help force the end of the so-called Confederacy. 

We remained in bivouac at Kearnstown until the 7th, when 
we moved to Milltown, three miles to the rear. The time was 
spent in drills and reviews, receiving the glorious news that our 
comrades in front of Richmond and Petersburg, and those under 
" little Phil," were doing their work nobly ; and, at midnight on 
the 9th, we were aroused by the boom of cannon in honor of the 
surrender of Lee's army, and the ringing of such cheers as were 
never heard before. 

April 21, the regiment was transported to Washington, and 
moved to Fort Lincoln. On the 24th of May, it took part in the 
grand review of the army at Washington. On the 2d of June, 
sailed for Savannah, Ga. ; and moved thence on the 13th to George- 
town, S.C. Thence, on the 27th, tlie left wing, composed of five 
companies under command of Major Shipley, proceeded to Flor- 
ence, a prison-pen of Union soldiers ; and thence, on the 9th of 
July, to Sumter, S.C. 

Three companies of the right wing were detailed as headquarters 
guard for the Military District, Eastern South Carolina, and two 
companies at Sumter, S.C. ; tlieir duties being to preserve order, 
settle disputes, encourage industry, and compel obedience to the 
laws and orders among whites and freedmen. 

The regiment has enjoyed very good health, and the old disci- 
pline is still kept up ; and the Thirtieth is now anxiously waiting 
orders that will muster out the last volunteer organization from 
Massachusetts now in the military service of the United States. 


This regiment was raised in tlie western part of the State by order 
of Gen. Butler, and was designated the Western Bay-State Regi- 
ment. It was commanded by Col. Oliver P. Gooding, an able 
and valuable officer, a graduate of West Point, and a captain in 
the infantry service. 

The other field and staff officers were as follow : — 

Lieutenant- Colonel . . . . William S. B. Hopkins. 

Major ...... llobert Bache. 

Surgeon ..... Eben Kimball Sanborn. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Edwin C. Bidwcll. 


Oil the 19tli of February, 1862, the regiment received orders to 
march. On the 21st, it left Boston on board the transport " Mis- 
sissippi,"' and reached Fortress Monroe the 22d. Having taken 
on board Gen. Butler and staff, the regiment sailed from this port 
for Ship Island on the 26tli. 

Through stress of weather, and injury to the vessel, received by 
grounding on Frying-pan Shoals, the regiment did not reach Hil- 
ton Head until the 1st of March. Stopping here a few days for 
repairs, " The Misssissippi," with its precious freight on board, 
sailed again on the 12th, and arrived at Ship Island on the 20th. 
On the 23d, the regiment landed, and remained there until the 
18th of April, when it left for New Orleans. 

The men witnessed the bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip, and the splendid naval victory achieved by the fleet under 
Admiral Farragut. On the surrender of the forts, the regiment 
ascended the river ; arrived at New Orleans May 1, and was 
the first regiment to land, and take possession of the city. It 
was assigned the duty of clearing the levee, and escorting the 
major-general and his staff to their headquarters through the 
crowds of traitors who lined the streets of the city. 

Upon its entrance to New Orleans, it was quartered at the Cus- 
tom House, and, while it remained in the city, was eminently a 
working regiment. 

In August, the regiment was divided. Part, under Col. Good- 
ing, garrisoned Forts Jackson and St. Philip ; part, under Lieut.- 
Col. Welden, Fort Pike; and the remainder was held for picket- 
duty in the city. 

About the 20th of January, 1803, these detachments were again 
united, and Col. Gooding assigned to the command of a brigade, 
consisting of the Thirty-first, Thirty-eighth, and Fifty-third Mas- 
sachusetts, and the One Hundred and Fifty-sixth and the One 
Hundred and Seventy-fifth New- York. 

Tliis Ijrigade was encamped at CarroUton as the third brigade, 
third (Emory's) division. 

Feb. 10, Lieut.-Col. Hopkins took command of the regiment ; 
and on the 12th, with the rest of the division, the Thirty-first 
went in the expedition down the Plaquemine Bayou, prospected 
for the capture of Butte a la Rose. The expedition proved im- 
practicable, and the division returned to CarroUton Feb. 10. 

March 6, the division left CarroUton, and joined the army at 
Baton Rouge. From this until the 20th, the regiment was in the 
first advance against Port Hudson, being a portion of the force 
manoeuvring hiland to protect the right flank of the army. 


April 11, Gen. Emory's division advanced on Fort Bisland. On 
the 13tli, the regiment was deployed as skirmishers about five 
hours, and was in the hottest brush of the battle, in which the 
enemy was dislodged from the left of his works. 

The April muster of the regiment was at Opelousas. In the 
advance against Port Hudson, vid Bayou Sara, the regiment 
crossed the Mississippi, and bivouacked before Port Hudson, 
May 23. It was prominently engaged in the battles of May 25 
and 27 and June 14. In these engagements, it displayed the 
utmost coolness and disciplined courage. 

Shortly after the surrender of the fort, the brigade wa's ordered 
to Baton Rouge. Here it was changed to the second brigade, 
first (Weitzel's) division, Nineteenth Corps. 

Sept. 9, the three companies which had garrisoned Fort Pike 
were returned to the regiment, which was now complete for the 
first time since entering New Orleans, May 1, 1862. 

Dec. 9, the regiment, in pursuance of orders, moved to New 
Orleans ; reported to Brig.-Gen. Lee ; and, on the 19th, was con- 
verted into cavalry. Sabres and Remington revolvers were at 
once issued to the regiment. 

The low grounds at Camp Carrollton being flooded with water, 
the regiment, in January, 1864, moved to more comfortable quar- 
ters in tlie Levee Steam Cotton Press, where its mount and equip- 
ments were completed. 

This change of quarters brought together the Thirty-first and 
Third Massachusetts and the Second Illinois and the Second 
New-Hampshire, forming the Fourth Cavalry Brigade, command- 
ed by Col. Dudley of the Thirtieth Massachusetts. During 
the spring campaign, the Tliirty-first was known as the Sixth Mas- 
sachusetts Cavalry. Col. Gooding was assigned to the Fifth Cav- 
alry Brigade. 

On Feb. 29, the regiment crossed the Mississippi, and, having 
marched three hundred and twenty miles, reached Alexandria 
March 20. The next morning, it was ordered forward to support 
a force sent the day before to engage the enemy. This advance, 
by a bold night's march, surprised and captured three hundred 
and fifty men of the Second Louisiana Cavalry, and a four-gun 
battery posted on Henderson's Hill. 

vOn the 26th, the advance of tlie army began. On the morn- 
ing of the 31st, the regiment came upon the rear of the rebels, 
near .Natchitoches. Advancing twenty-four miles through an 
almost uninhabited tract of pine -woods, the regiment in the 


afternoon came upon the enemy in strong force. The lines were 
formed to meet an expected attack. After dusk, it fell back to 
White Store, and waited two days for the army and trains to 
come up ; then pushed forward in the evening of April 7 to Pleas- 
ant Hill, our advance sharply skirmishing with the enemy. 

April 8, the battle of Sabine Cross-roads took place, about 
three miles from Mansfield, and fifty from Shreveport. 

Here the end of the advance of the Red-River Expedition is 
marked by the graves of a thousand men. 

A large force of the enemy was gathered at this point, and 
strongly posted on the high grounds, and in the woods beyond the 
open tract througli which the Union forces were to pass. Those 
consisted of but two divisions of the Thirteenth Corps under Gen. 
Ransom, and the cavalry under Gen. Lee, without other sup- 
port than an immense wagon-train. The rest of the army were 
miles behind. The enemy, as though aware of the weakness of 
this body of troops, attacked, and overwhelmed them by num- 
bers. The Thirty-first was posted on the left of the brigade and 
on the extreme left of the Union lines, and in this battle did its 
whole duty, standing its ground against a superior force of infan- 
try until the whole right of our little army was driven from the 

The arrival of the Nineteenth Corps just before dark checked 
the advance of the enemy. During the night, the army fell back 
to Pleasant Hill, arriving there in the morning. The battle at 
this place was fought on the 9th and 10th of April. On the 
retreat of the army, the regiment was detailed as guard to the 
wagon-trains, reaching Grand Encore on the night of the 10th. 

In the afternoon of April 21, the army evacuated Grand En- 
core ; and, on the 23d, the battle of Cane River took place. 
The Thirty-first, holding the advance, drove the enemy's skirniish- 
ers across the river, and captured a number of Texas cavalry. 
The enemy was driven from his position, and the Union forces 
held both banks of the river. 

April 30, the regiment crossed the Red River on pontoons, 
and marched twenty-five miles to discover any force the rebels 
might have on that side, and to burn Bynum's Mill, which had 
been supplying them with meal. 

The object of the expedition accomplished, the brigade set out 
to return, the Thirty-first bringing up the rear. 

Arriving at Hudnot's Plantation, seventeen miles from Alexan- 
dria, word came that the rebels were advancing. The line was 



hardly formed before the enemy charged, at the same tmie ad- 
vancing a dismounted force through the woods, and attacking the 
brigade on the tlank. Tiiey were easily repulsed, and a counter- 
charge ordered for the Thirty-first, which was gallantly made, driv- 
ing back the enemy, and capturing a number of prisoners. In this 
charge, Capt. Nettleton was wounded ; and, during the rest of 
the campaign, Capt. Fordham commanded the regiment. The 
fourth brigade relieved the First on the Opelousas Road, seven 
miles from Alexandria, where it remained doing picket-duty until 
June 14, when the army commenced its retreat from Alexandria. 
The Tliirty-nrst acted as rear-guard, and were frequently engaged 
in skirmishes with the enemy. Capt. Fordham, commanding the 
regiment, expresses his warmest approbation of all the officers 
and men throughout the entire march. June 29, the regiment 
turned over its horses and other Government property, prepara- 
tory to veteran furlough. 

July 3, the regiment occupied the old camp of two years before, 
opposite New Orleans, until July 21, when it started for Massa- 
chusetts, via Cairo, on the steamboat " Pauline Carroll." 

It arrived in Boston Aug. 4, and was received by the State and 
City authorities in Faneuil Hall ; and furloughs were issued to 
the men until the 7th of September, when the regiment re-assem- 
bled at Pittsfield. On Sept. 8, it left for New York ; whence it 
sailed on the 0th, and reached New Orleans on the 19th. Upon 
its arrival there, the regiment reported to Gen. T. W. Sherman, 
commandhig the defences of New Orleans, and, in pursuance of 
orders from the War Department, was restored to its infantry or- 
ganization. A few days after, however, by order of Gen. Canby, 
the regiment reported to chief of cavalry to be remounted, and 
was assigned to the Fifth Cavalry Brigade, commanded by Col. 

Nov. 19, the three-years' term of service (original enlist- 
ment) of Companies A, B, C, and D, expired; and the now 
veterans were mustered out of service. The regiment was con- 
solidated to a battalion of five companies. This reduction de- 
prived the regiment of several valuable officers, among whom 
was Col. Gooding, under whose command it had acquired a 
high degree of military discipline, and had won an honorable 

At the close of 1864, it was the only Massachusetts regiment 
in the department of the Gulf, and the only regiment, save 
one, of the Old Nineteenth Corps that came to New Orleans 


with Gen. Butler. It was on duty at Plaqucmine, and along 
the coast opposite Donaldsonville, under orders from Gen. 
Sherman, commanding defences of New Orleans, to "protect the 
})lantations lying between College Point and Pass Manchoe from 
the depredations of guerillas." 

This required the protection of a district extending about twen- 
ty-five miles on tlie Mississippi River, and running back to the 
Amite, from eight to fourteen miles distant. It embraced several 
Government plantations ; a frcedmen's school ; the telegraph sta- 
tion opposite Donaldsonville, near which was a little settlement 
of loyal men and refugees ; the New-River District, which was 
thickly settled by poor planters, and had furnished many soldiers 
fjr Ijoth armies ; Ijcsidcs many fine plantations of loyal plant- 
ers on the coast. The numerous bands of rebel soldiers and 
guerillas across the Amite often crossed into this district, and 
raided on the plantations, or carried off conscripts from New 
River. The post was considered a difficult one to maintain. The 
force, therefore, was strengthened by four companies of the 
Indiana Sixteenth from Donaldsonville. Scouting-parties guided 
by refugees were frequently sent out to capture guerillas who 
infested the neighborhood. One of these killed a noted leader of 
a guerilla band, one McRory, who had long been a terror to the 
Union men of this region. 

Jan. 30, a scout was organized across the Amite ; and, pro- 
ceeding to a settlement where there was a considerable band 
of guerillas, it dashed into the village just at dark, and cap- 
tured seventeen men. The chase was continued through the 
country around the head of Bayou Colheil, and returned to 
camp. The result of this scout was to break up the guerilla 
Imnds in that section, and to put an end to the depredations that 
had so long disturbed the frontier. 

In acknowledgment of the services of this battalion while on 
the coast, Gen. Slicrman issued the following General Order: — 

Headquauters, Defences of New Orleans, 
New Orleans, Feb. 10, 1865. 

Gknkkal Orders, No. 6. 

The general commanding tenders his thanks to Capt. W. I. Allen, Thirty- 
first Massachusetts Volunteers, and the battalion of mounted infantry under 
his command, for their uniform good conduct since occupying their present 
position, and pauticularly for the unusual success which has thus far attend- 
ed their operations in capturing the noted guerilla leader and desperado 
King, and, at various times, large numbers of the guerilla bands infesting 



that region; thus promoting; security and good order upon that frontier, 
with the exercise of a good judgment that led to no unnecessary bloodshed. 

By command. of 


Feedekick Speed, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

On the night of the 3d of February, thirty men under Capt. 
Rice, doing picket-duty, were attacked by the enemy at the Park, 
ten miles from Plaquemine, at the junction of Bayou Phiquemine 
and Grand River. After a brisk little affair, lasting about half 
an hour, the " Johnnies " concluded that they wanted to go home ; 
their decision being probably hastened by the timely and very 
noisy arrival of Lieut. Bond and ciglit men, who had come at a 
gallop three miles, having been aroused by the firing. 

Daylight revealed a loss of one man killed on our side, and 
eight prisoners taken from the enemy. Tlirce of tiiese were 
wounded, two of whom died the next day, and were buried by 
us. The prisoners stated the rebel force at from a hundred and 
twenty to a hundred and sixty men. The next week, the detach- 
ment was ordered to rejoin the regiment at Carrollton, La. 

Meanwhile the regimont was ordered to be consolidated ; and 
Feb. 8, with three other cavalry regiments, the Thirty-first was 
formed into a brigade, to be commanded by Brig.-Gen. T. J. Lucas. 
Next day, this brigade received orders to assemble at Carrollton, 
La., and prepare for the campaign against Mobile. 

Orders to march were received on the 19th of March, and the 
advance commenced. This was continued, without any striking 
incidents, until the 2d of April, when sharp firing took place 
on the picket-line. The cavalry, which had held the advance 
throughout the march, were now relieved by infantry. This 
force moved in front of, and at a safe distance from, the enemy's 
works at Sibley's Mills. 

The report records that 

Tlie rebels had provided for an advance from the opposite direction. The 
bridge had been splintered and pitched. Hundreds of torpedoes were planted 
in the road ; but though many exploded, and several horses were killed, only 
one man was killed, and another wounded. Over a hundred of these infernal 
machines were safely unearthed during the day. Met the advance of Gen. 
Canby's columns from the bay. Spanish Fort and Blakely are now com- 
pletely besieged. Mobile is ours when they fall. 

■ April 4, the Thirty-first was detailed for duty at headquarters. 


Spanish Fort fell on the 8th, and Blakely on the 9th. To this 
latter, on the 10th, the regiment moved to guard prisoners. On 
the 14th, the battalion crossed the river, and encamped, reporting 
direct to the commanding _ general, until the removal of his 
headquarters to New Orleans, when it reported to Major-Gen. 

May 4, a detail from the regiment attended Gen. Canby and 
staff to meet the rebel general, Dick Taylor, who surrendered 
that day on the same terms as Lee to Grant. 

June 3, it took part in a review of all the troops at this post in 
honor of Chief Justice Chase, and continued on duty in the de- 
partment of Alabama until Aug. 23. The official record closes 
as follows : — 

Aug. 23, order from department iieadquarters in compliance with direc- 
tions from headquarters, military division of the Tennessee, for muster-out of 
the regiment. Horses ordered turned over at once to depot quartermaster, 
and all horse equipments and arms to depot ordnance-officer. 

Sept. 6, Col. Nettleton relieved from duty as provost-marshal-general, in 
order to go home with the regiment ; 9th, regiment mustered out of service 
by Brevet Major L. M. Hosea, chief commissary of muster department of 

Sept. 10, received the following order, being the last issued to the regi- 
ment : — 

Headquarters, District of Mobile, 
Mobile, Ala., Sept. 10, 1865. 
General Orders, No. 24. 

The Thirty-first Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers, having been mustered 
out of service in compliance with instructions from the War Department, is 
relieved from duty in this district, and will proceed to the State rendezvous, 
where the commanding officer will report it to the chief mustering-officer 
for payment and final discharge. 

The quartermaster's department will furnish the necessary transportation. 
By order of 

G. A. De RUSSY, Brigadier-General. 
Thomas Thompson, Captain and A. A. G. 

Sept. 11, the regiment left Mobile on transport "Warrior;" arrived in 
New Orleans on the 13th; embarked on steamship " Concordia " for Boston, 
and sailed at nine o'clock, p.m. Landed, Sept. 24, at Galloupe's Island, 
where the regiment was paid by Major Broadhead, and discharged Sept. 30, 
its work being done, and well done. 

All the officers save the assistant surgeon, and most of the men mustered 
out, had been in service with the regiment for three years and ten months. 


Our losses since Jan. 1 appear upon the monthly returns, which were made 
up by Capt. J. M. Stewart for more than two years, and until his late pro- 
motion ; the faithful adjutant of the regiment, whose services have been invalu- 
able to me while in command. As all regimental records were turned in at 
Gralloupe's Island, I am unable to sum up these losses. 


The basis of this regiment was the First Battalion Massachusetts 
Volunteers, composed of six companies of infantry, organized for 
garrison-duty at Fort Warren in the winter of 18(31-2. Of the 
field and staff officers, Lieut.-Col. Francis J. Parker alone was 
in commission when it was first recognized as the Thirty-second 

May 26, within twelve hours of its receiving orders from the 
War Department to take the field, the regiment was en route for 
Washington, arriving there on the 28th. It was encamped for 
some time near Fairfax Seminary, forming a part of Sturgis's re- 
serve corps. Being ordered to join the Army of the Potomac, then 
on the James River, it marched June 25, and arrived at Harrison's 
Landing July 3, 1862. Here it was assigned to Gen. Griffin's 
brigade, Morell's division, Porter's corps, and was stationed through- 
out in line of battle in the reserve. 

Returning with the corps via the Peninsula and the Potomac 
River, the regiment took railroad transportation from the mouth 
of Acquia Creek to Stafford Court House, where it arrived 
Aug. 20. From this point it followed Gen. Pope's army to- 
ward Washington. 

Sept. 12, the regiment marched with Porter's corps through 
Georgetown and Washington northward: reached Frederick City, 
Md., on the 14th of September; and on the loth, the day after the 
battle, passed over South Mountain. 

During the battle of Antietam, the regiment, still in reserve, 
supported Hazlitt's and other batteries of Porter's corps, but, from 
its position, was protected from the fire of the enemy. It followed 
the retreating rebels to the bank of the Potomac. 

Here it remained until the 30th of October, stationed in advance, 
and doing picket-duty on the bank of the river. 

Nov. 2, the regiment, still with Porter's corps, made a rapid 
march to Snickerville, opposite Snicker's Gap, and arrived there 
just in time to save the gap from Jackson's fdrces, who ap- 
proached it from the other side of the ridge. Nov. 10, the 
regiment reached the camp at Warrenton. 


The Thirty-second up to this time had been frequently under 
casual fire, but had not been engaged, and had lost no men in 

When the regiment left Fort Warren, May 26, 1862, it consisted 
of six companies. Another company joined at Harrison's Landing, 
July 23; and three more, Sept. 4, at Mine Hill, Va. 

Dec. 13 and 14, the regiment was engaged in the battle of 
Fredericksburg. Of this, the regiment's first experience in battle, 
Col. Parker writes, — 

For the first time, this regiment was thoroughly under fire, and proved 
itself equal to my warmest expectations. Not an officer flinched a tithe of a 
hair during thuly hours of trying exposure, commencing with a rush to the 
fi'ont, over a plain, under hot fire of ball and shell ; and the coolness evinced 
by officers and men has won the applause it richly merited. 

Companies B and C, on detached service, were not enaiawed. 

After the army recrossed the Rappahannock and returned 
to Falmouth, the Thirty-second remained quietly in camp until 
the 30th of December, when the division made a reconnoissance 
to Morrisville, and, having accomplished its object, returned to 
camp next day. 

Jan. 20, 1863, another movement against Fredericksburg com- 
menced ; but, the roads being found impassable for artillery, the 
expedition was abandoned, and the troops returned to Falmouth. 

In the latter part of April, the army, under the command of 
Gen. Hooker, crossed the Rappahannock and the Rapidan, and, 
on the 4th and 5th of May, fought the battle of Chancellorsville. 
In this battle, the Thirty-second was actively engaged. On the 
retreat of the army, the regiment recrossed the Rapidan at U. 
S. Ford early on the morning of tlie 6tli, and returned to Fal- 

May 17, it was ordered to duty along the Acquia-Crcek and Fal- 
mouth Railroads. Forts at Potomac-Creek Bridge were occupied, 
and guards stationed on the track. 

June 9, it crossed the Rappahannock, in support of the cavalry 
fight at Brandy Station, being drawn up in line two miles from 
the station. 

On the 19th, the regiment moved to Aldie ; remained there until 
the 21st, when it moved in light marching order to Middletown, 
and threw out pickets beyond the town to protect the column 
advancing to Aldie Gap. It held this position until the object 
was accomplished, and then returned toward Aldie. 


On the 26th, it moved through Lcesbiirg ; crossed the Potomac 
at Edward's Ferry, and bivouacked near Poolesville in Maryland. 
The marches northward were resumed the next day. The regi- 
ment reached Hanover in Pennsylvania July 1, and the next day 
advanced towards Gettysl)urg, and formed a line of battle within 
twa miles of that town. At two o'clock, p.m., it moved forward, 
and took position on an eminence just in the rear of the line of 
the Third Corps. In the engagements of this and the succeeding 
day, the Thirty -second took an active part, losing heavily in men, 
— eighty-one in killed, wounded, and missing, out of a total of two 
hundred and twenty-nine who went into battle. 

Leaving the battle-field on the evening of July 5, the regiment 
pursued the retreating columns of the enemy toward the Potomac, 
which it crossed on the 19th ; continued its march to Manassas 
Gap, and took part in supporting the troops engaged there in the 
fight of the 23d of July. 

It advanced as far as Culpeper, Sept. 15, and remained there 
until Oct. 10. Meanwhile the Thirty-second received an allot- 
ment of a hundred and eighty-four drafted men. These proved 
generally to be good soldiers. 

The regiment now shared in the retreat to Centreville, support- 
ing the Second Corps in the action at Bristow Station. 

Oct. 19, the army commenced a movement southward again, 
and reached Warrenton Junction on the oOth. 

In the fight at Rappahannock Station, Nov. 7, the regiment 
was under fire, and was with the army in the movement across 
the Rapidan towards Orange Court House. Recrossing the Rapi- 
dan, the regiment went into camp alone at Liberty, a small vil- 
lage two miles west of Bealton, on the main road to Warrenton. 

Jan. 18, 1864, three hundred and thirty men having re-enlisted 
for three years, an order from Gen. Sykes, commanding Fifth 
Army Corps,- permitted the men to go to their homes for thirty- 
five days, and take with them their arms and colors. When the 
regiment reached Boston, it was honored with a salute of artillery, 
and a handsome reception in Faneuil Hall by the Governor and 
the city authorities. 

Feb. 17, the regiment left Boston, and arrived at Liberty, Va., 
on the 23d. 

April 30, it broke camp. May 1, it crossed the Rappahannock 
for the fifteenth time, and the Rapidan, May 4, for the fifth time ; 
continuing the march through a part of the Wilderness till dark. 
It bivouacked near the Wilderness Tavern ; and the next day, 




May 5, was put in line of battle, and became engaged with the 
enemy, and for seventeen successive days and nights was under 
arms without an hour's respite, and in the front line always. In 
the hardships, victories, and losses of this unparalleled campaign, 
it shared with all the regiments in the Army of the Potomac. 

On the IGth of June, the James River was crossed in trans- 
ports, and the regiment marched to within three miles of Peters- 
burg. On the 18th, it went to the front,- was formed in line of 
battle, charged the enemy, and drove them over an open field into 
their last line of intrenchmeiits. A second charge was made later 
in the day with but partial success: the enemy were not driven 
from their works ; but the crest of the hill was gained, which afier- 
wards formed the line of the part of the Ninth Corps when the 
famous mine was made. 

In the first charge of this day. Col. George L. Prescott fell, mor- 
tally wounded. He was one of the best and bravest of officers. 
"In his veins flowed the pure blood of the Revolution." July 21 
and Sept. 1, the regiment was engaged with the enemy on the 
Weldon Railroad. In both engagements it was attacked, and in 
both repulsed its assailants with heavy loss. 

Sept. 30, the regiment made an advance to Poplar-Grove 
Church, two miles distant, where the enemy had forts, and lines 
of earthwoi'ks. The regiment was drawn up in front of Fort 
M'Rae, charged across an open field a thousand yards under a 
heavy fire, and took the fort with one piece of artillery and sixty 
prisoners. Soon after, the second line of works, to which the ene- 
my had fallen back, was charged and taken. 

At dusk the same day, when the Ninth Corps, which had ad- 
vanced in front, was coming back in confusion, Gen. Griffin 
threw his division upon the pursuing enemy, and checked and 
drove them back ; thus saving the whole of the Ninth Corps and 
the fortunes of the day. This fighting is called the battle of 
Preble's Farm. Col. Edmands was wounded in the beginning of 
this engagement. 

By order of the War Department, Oct. 26, the Eighteenth and 
Twenty-second Battalions were consolidated with the Thirty-sec- 
ond, to be called the Thirty-second Regiment. The same day, 
by order of Gen. Warren, the regiment was transferred from the 
second to the third brigade. This (third) now contained all the 
old regiments of the division, eight in number, and no new 

Dec. 12, tlie regiment went into comfortable winter-quarters. 



Owing to the swampy ground about the camp, there was much 
sickness in the regiment during the winter. Early in February, 
orders were received to march. On the 6th, it was in rifle-pits at 
Hatcher's Run, upon the extreme left of the Fifth Corps. At-'two 
o'clock, P.M., the division having taken the place of Crawford's, 
which had given way. Gen. Warren leading the brigade, a hot 
engagement followed, called the battle of Dabney's Mills, or Sec- 
ond Hatcher's Run. 

Re-forming the lines as before the fight, the troops remained thus 
until the 11th, annoyed a great deal by the enemy's artillery. 
The regiment then moved to the Vaughan Road to protect the 
left flank of the extended army. Here it performed picket and 
other duty until the last of March. 

The 25th, it started for Fort Stedman, where the Ninth Corps 
was attacked, but turned back to support the Second Corps in its 
assault on the enemy's right. At midnight it went to camp, where 
it remained until the commencement of the final campaign. 
March 29, tlic march was made to the vicinity of Dinwiddie Court 
House ; thence towards Boydtown Plank-road, near which the ene- 
my was posted in strong force. Lines of battle were formed and a 
charge made, driving back the rebel ranks, with severe loss to 
them, followed by the pursuit of them until dark. 

This was called the battle of Gravelly Run. The next day, 
the regiment relieved the skirmish line in front of the brigade, 
and about noon was ordered to advance, and feel the enemy. 
He was found to be strongly intrenched behind hastily built 
works, on which an impetuous and successful charge was made, 
only to be reversed two hours later, when the ammunition of our 
troops was exhausted. 

The Confederate force then advanced on the main line, and were 
repulsed ; and the Thirty-second was thrown out on the skirmish 
line, and occupied the just now contested works. Near dark it 
again felt of the enemy, and moved towards his second line of 
works over an open field under a cross-fire, but could not take 

It was next on the left of the Fifth Corps ; and six companies, 
under Capt. Lauriat, were deployed as skirmishers, while the rest 
remained with the corps until three o'clock in the morning, and 
then marched to assistance of Sheridan, hotly engaging the ene- 
my. It moved, April 1, towards the Five Forks, and again was 
ordered to the front of the brigade-skirmishers, and helped in the 
conflicts and victories of that memorable day, whose setting sun 


shone on thousands of small-arms thickly strown by the fleeing 
rebels over the field that sealed the fate of Petersburg and Rich- 
mond, and ruined Lee's army of Northern Virginia. 

Then South-side Railroad, Sutherland Station, Jettersville, 
Appomattox Court House, High Bridge, and Ramplin's Station, 
were soon passed in the wake of Lee's flying army. 

April 9 was a fighting day, and one of peculiar and intense excite- 
ment over the report of Gen. Lee's negotiation for a surrender, 
which was at length confirmed. Then the welkin rang with 
shouts till the boys in blue were hoarse. 

Stacking of arms, and the funeral-like processions of defeated 
rebels, were the next exciting scenes. The Thirty-second guarded 
the surrendered arms until the homeward march commenced, the 
1st of May; pitching tents, on the 12th, upon the heiglits opposite 

The 29th, the cars were taken for Boston, followed by refresh- 
ing welcomes at Philadelphia and Providence ; and, July 4, the 
men were within sight of their homes for the first time in three 
" terrible years." 

On the 6th, they were at Galloupe's Island ; paid off and dis- 
charged July 11, 1865. 

The regiment had done a noble work ; and the appreciation of 
its services was expressed in the promotion of an unusually large 
number of officers. 



Gen. Adin B. Underwood. — His Puritan Ancestry. — Career. — His Connection with the 
Thirty-third Regiment. — Gallant Services of the brave Commander and of his Com- 
mand. — Col. Wells and the Thirty-fourth. — In Virginia. — Heroic Death of Col. 
Wells. — Subsequent Movements of the Regiment. — At Home. — The Gallant OtHcers 
and Services of the Thirty-fiftli. — South Mountain and Antietam. — In Mississippi. — 
With the Potomac Army. — Mustered out. 


ADIN BALLOU UNDERWOOD was born in Milford, Mass., 
in the county of Worcester, May 19, 1828. His mother was 
Hannah Bond Cheney, whose ancestors came early to the colony. 

His father was Oi'ison Underwood, born in Barre, in the same 
county ; a boot-manufacturer in business, who was for years in 
the State militia, and rose in it to the rank of brigadier-general. 
His ancestors were among the settlers of Watertown, Joseph 
and Thomas Underwood came to Hingham from England pre- 
vious to 1637, and shortly removed to Watertown, where the 
descendants of Joseph remained for tiie rest of the century or more. 
Some of them removed to Holliston in the same county, and were 
living till near the close of last century at Holliston, when one 
of the ancestors of the subject of this sketch settled in Barre. 

The family were bound by the ties of more than two hundred 
years to the institutions, the ideas, and the traditions of the 
Old Bay State ; and, when war came, one of its scions claimed a 
share in the honor and the peril of their defence. 

Adin Ballou Underwood was the first-born. Several brothers 
and sisters died in childhood ; and only he and two brothers sur- 
vived. He was kept constantly at school. One of his teachers 
was Mr. Train, afterward his law-partner. At the age of fifteen, 
he was sent to the University Grammar School at Providence, 
R.I., to fit for college; and, at the age of seventeen, entered 
Brown University in that State, at the head of which then was 
the late Rev. Dr. F. Wayland. In 1849, he graduated among the 
first in his class. 



After a year or more spent in the counting-room, and in travel 
in his own country, he entered upon the study of the law in the 
office of Hon. Charles R. Train of Framingham, then at Cambridge 
Law School, and in the office of Judge B. F. Thomas, then of 
Worcester. A year from August, 1852, to August, 1853, he spent 
abroad, the summer months at Heidelberg, the winter months at 
Berlin, where he attended lectures on jurisprudence by some of 
the distinguished German writers on that science, and learned 
tlie mysteries of " student life in Germany ; " making a pilgrim- 
age in the vacation to the classic shrine of the scholar, — Italy. 

Soon after his return, he was admitted to tlie bar in Worces- 
ter County, November, 1853. He began to practise in his native 
town : but he soon fell into the current tliat Hows always towards 
the metropolis ; and in 1855 he removed to Boston, forming there 
a business connection with Mr. Train, his former schoolmaster 
and law instructor, which lasted till the one went to Congress, 
and the other into the army. He was successful in his profession, 
for a young man. 

The day after Fort Sumter was fired upon, he turned the key 
in his office-door, and never entered it again for a client. Mon- 
day, the loth of April, George H. Gordon, afterwards colonel of 
the Second Massachusetts Infantry, told him that Gov. Andrew 
had just said to him, "After we get off these three-months' men, I 
will send you next with a regiment : " and Gordon added, '• Under- 
wood, I shall rely upon you ; " and he did. The regiment, which 
was numbered the Second Massachusetts, went with Gordon as 
its colonel, and Underwood as one of its captains; the first regi- 
ment mustered into the service in the State for the war. Capt. 
Underwood raised a company in Boston, and, with three other 
companies, — those of Capts. Abbott, Coggswell, and Wliitney, — 
was mustered into service. May 18, 18(31, for three years, the re- 
maining six companies on the 23d of May following ; from which 
service Capt. Underwood was not discharged until as Brevet 
Major-General, Sept. 1, 1865, to accept a position in the civil ser- 
vice of the Government on that day, which he still holds as Sur- 
veyor of Customs at the Port of Boston. The Second Regiment 
went into the field July 8, 1801, and joined Gen. Patterson's 

In the march from Bunker Hill, Va., to Charlcstown, the Second 
Massachusetts formed part of the rear-guard ; and Capt. Under- 
wood's company was detailed to support Ca[)t. Tompkin's Rhode- 
Island battery at the rear of the column. 


The Thirty-third Massachusetts Infantry Regiment was formed 
under the call for men which immediately followed Banks's re- 
treat. A. C. Maggi, who had been lieutenant-colonel of the Twen- 
ty-first Massachusetts, an Italian, educated as a soldier at home, 
one of Garibaldi's officers, was selected for its colonel ; and Capt. 
Underwood, its lieutenant-colonel. Capt. Bates, of the Twelfth 
Massachusetts, was appointed its major ; but he was soon made 
colonel of the Twelfth, and the regiment was left without a major. 
Orin Warren was regimental surgeon ; and William S, Brown, 
his assistant. The Thirty-third had its pick of the recruits sent 
to the camp at Lynnfield, and left for Washington, Aug. 14. It 
remained encamped about Alexandria till the middle of October, 
constantly drilling, and making ready its men for the terrible 
struggles in store for it and for the whole army. At that time, it 
joined Gen. Sigel's Eleventh Corps, then lying at Fairfax Court 
liouse ; marched with him through the mud of a Virginia De- 
cember to Fredericksburg, where it arrived just as our army was 
coming back from that terrible slaughter ; lay with the Army of 
the Potomac in winter-quarters at Falmouth, in full view of the 
frowning heights which had repulsed our columns, and so near 
the rebel lines upon the other river-bank, that they often gathered 
to hear its band at the evening parade. This band, which 
became renowned in the army, was carefully selected and formed 
at the organization of the regiment, made up in part of the 
former band of the Twelfth, and led by Israel Smith of New 
Bedford, It was well known in Sherman's army, and was always 
called by that general, " My band." 

The Thirty-third, towards spring, was moved to near Stafford 
Court House ; from which it started with the rest of the corps, 
to the command of which Gen. Howard had now been assigned, 
to participate in the battle of Chancel lorsvillc on the 2d and -3d 
of May. Col. Maggi had resigned, and* Lieut.-Col. Underwood 
had been made colonel. This regiment, and the whole of Gen. 
Barlow's brigade, to which it belonged, were detaclied on the 
first of those days to the support of a division of tlie Third 
Corps, in another part of the field, and did not share in the dis- 
aster that befell the rest of the Eleventh Corps on that day, or 
the blame that, whether rightfully or wrongfully, attached to it 
for being crushed, and then panic-struck, by triple its numbers, 
that fell suddenly upon its flank and rear. 

At the great cavalry-fight at Beverly Ford, there were two 
brigades of infantry supports that contributed to the success of 


that day. Each corps of the Army of the Potomac furnished its 
" five hundred picked men, well disciplined, and commanded by 
competent and efficient officers," in the language of Gen. 
Hooker's order. In the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, Massa- 
chusetts was awarded the post of honor under this call. The 
Second Massachusetts was selected, with its twin-regiment in 
service the Third Wisconsin, to make up the complement in the 
Twelfth Corps and from the Eleventh, Col. Underwood's regiment; 
each being the only Massachusetts regiments in their respective 
corps. Side by side the two Massachusetts regiments fought in 
the skirmishes of that day, both regiments for the time being un- 
der the command of Col. Underwood, who once more led some 
of the men of his old company. When the fight was over, the 
Thirty-third formed the rear-guard across the Rappahannock. 

The night before that engagement, Capt. Dalilgren of the 
commanding general's staff, the dashing, heroic cavalry-officer 
who afterwards made the daring but ill-fated attempt to release 
our prisoners at Richmond, sat at one of the camp-fires of the 
Thirty-third Regiment till midnight, longing for the fight that 
was to punish the rebel cavalry, and, as he and all supposed 
would be the result, to demolish its preparations for a geat raid 
into Pennsylvania. 

Little did any one then think, severe as was the blow to their 
cavalry, that, within ten miles of that field, Lee's infantry were 
steadily marching all day, turning aside neither to the right nor 
to the left in their haste to carry war and desolation to the smiling 
fields of the North. 

The two armies started on that day on their northward march, 
to meet at Gettysburg, in that turning-battle of the war. The 
Eleventh Corps held Cemetery Hill, the key of the position, and 
nobly redeemed its name. The Thirty-third was selected at the 
request of Gen. Ames, who had it in his brigade at Beverly 
Ford, to support his batteries on the right centre of this hill ; and 
there it lay steadily under the terrific cannonade of tlie second day, 
and was in the struggle that beat back the rebel attack on the 
position the evening of that day. It suffered its share of the 
loss. Tliis was its closing record in the Army of the Potomac. 
The autumn-days found the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps march- 
ing by the rapid railway trains through the peaceful cities and 
liarvest-scenes of the North-west to the other theatre of war, to 
help their Western comrades retrieve the discomfiture of Chicka- 
mauga. Less than a week brought them to Bridgeport, Ala. 


Gen. Joe Hooker, " fighting Joe," led the column which car- 
ried the discipline, the endurance, and the traditions of the Army 
of the Potomac, to combine with the spirit of an army that had 
never been beaten, to make up a corps that was to be famous 
in the army of Gen. Sherman. The Twentieth Corps left its 
traces behind it all the way from Bridgeport to Atlanta, and 
from Atlanta to the sea. 

This re-enforcement from the East found the army about Chat- 
tanooga starving. The rebels held Lookout Mountain, and its 
approaches on the south side of the Tennessee River, including 
the railroad. The line of communication on the nortli side of the 
river was circuitous, the roads in a terrible state from mud and 
other causes, and the army was on one-quarter rations. The mules 
and horses were dying from starvation : and a retreat \TOuld have 
left behind the artillery; for there were no horses to draw it away. 
One of the first orders of Gen. Grant, on being assigned to the 
command, was to Gen. Hooker to carry the enemy's position on 
the south side of the river, and open the railroad and lines of 
communication there. 

On the morning of the 27th of October, 1868, the Eleventh 
Corps, and Gerry's division of the Twelfth, started on the enter- 
prise, and, the first day, marched unmolested through the Valley 
of the Raccoon Range ; the second day approaching Lookout, 
from whose bald, overhanging summit the rebels could watch and 
count even the line of Yankees threading their way along the 
defiles. Nothing occurred on the evening of that day but a skir- 
mish, in which the Thirty-third had one killed. Gen. Smith, from 
the Army of the Cumberland, had seized a tete de pont on the river, 
and joined Hooker's men ; and the success seemed complete. But 
not yet. At midnight, the camps were aroused by the long roll ; 
and, before an hour was over, the slumbering army at Chattanoo- 
ga heard such rattling of musketry as those hills never had 
echoed before. The enemy, under the cover of night, had ad- 
vanced upon a little chain of hills at the foot of the moun- 
tain, and intrenched themselves. It was necessary instantly 
to dislodge them, or the movement had failed. While Gen. 
Gerry was fighting at his end of the line, two small regiments 
were directed to storm the rebel position on the left, and did one 
of the most gallant things in the war. 

In the final charge, while the regiment was staggering under 
the terrible fire after it reached the crest, a young second lieu- 
tenant, A. G. Shepherd of Lynn, advanced before his company, 


waved his sword, and cried, " Forward, men ! " and the men, tliougli 
reeling under the shots, stimulated by the example, rushed 
triumphantly into the rifle-pits. 

"We take a single extract from the correspondent of the " Bos- 
ton Journal : " — 

The Thirty-third feel justly proud of this, their first "charge ; " and it is 
pronounced by all a most daring and gallant feat. Gen. Hooker says "it 
is the greatest charge of the war, but no more than he expects of Massachu- 
setts troops." Made at midnight, up a steep and almost impassable mountain- 
side, it was indeed a brave and gallant act. Col. Underwood is dangerously 
wounded in the groin, and thigh-bone shattered : he is quite comfortable at 
present, and great hopes are entertained of his recovery. Adjutant W. P. 
Mudge, of Boston, was shot through the head, and killed instantly. Lieut. 
James Hill, of Danvers, was shot through the heart, and of course killed 
instantly. Lieut. Oswego Jones, of Fall River, was shot through the back ; 
spine broken : cannot recover. The other officers wounded are not considered 
dangerous, though more or less serious. 

The following is an extract from a congratulatory letter to a 
staff-officer of Gen, Howard, from headquarters Army of the 
Cumberland : — 

Chattaxooga, Oct. 29, 1863. 

Colonel, — Allow me to congratulate you upon the successful and gallant 
debut of our new compatriots from the Potomac Army in this department. 
From accounts received here, no more glorious a commencement of their 
career in this department could have been made than that of last nighf, in 
which the Seventy-third Ohio and Thirty-third Massachusetts participated. . . . 
As a Massachusetts man, I feel very proud of the fresh laurels gained by your 

Col. Underwood, of the Thirty-third Massachusetts, very severely wound- 
ed while gallantly conducting his regiment, is still lying in a house near the 
battle-ground. He was much gratified at this recognition of the services of his 
regiment, as well as the official order of Major-Glen. Thomas which came 
subsequently. You will have been informed of the heroic death of Adjutant 
Mudge before this reaches you : he was killed in the tinal triumphant charge 
of the Thirty-thu-d. Col. Underwood speaks highly of his officers, but 
usually concludes every such remark by saying, " But, after all, the men de- 
serve the credit: they did it all. " The colonel is remarkably cheerful for 
one in his critical condition. Let Massachusetts, as heretofore, give all honor 
to those of her sons who are willing to suti'er for the principles and the gov- 
ernment she has early taught them to value and love. 

We quote a passage from Col. Maggi's beautiful letter on the 
death of Adjutant Mudge : — 


When the country in danger was asking for her sons to defend her, Wil- 
liam Prescott Mudge replied, " I am ready." Kind to his subordinates, 
obedient without servility to his superiors, full of enthusiasm, he was a 
model of the citizen soldier. He was known bat to be beloved. Those who 
do not respect his memory are traitors or coward.s. The cruel bullet of a 
deceived brother fighting against the liberty and glory of his country struck 
him when he was just smiling at victory. He fell on a rose-bush. He never 
uttered a sigh. Flower dying upon another flower, his pure soul returned to 
his Creator like a perfume. His parents have lost a good son ; the gallant 
Thirty-third Regiment Ma.ssachusetts Volunteers, an adjutant whom they can 
never replace ; the army, an officer who gave brilliant hopes ; and the country, a 
young hero. Let us bend our head before the will of God. Many others, 
but none worthier, and still many more inferior to him in rank and intentions, 
have had splendid funerals, or sleep under an unknown sod where friends can- 
not have tlie consolation of leaving a tear and a flower. 

Col. Underwood started up the hill with but seven companies, 
three having been sent on a secret expedition the evening before. 
Tiie hill was very steep, covered with woods and underbrush, and 
almost inaccessible. The night was dark ; but this little band of 
Massachusetts men, almost alone, carried the rebel intrenchments, 
after two assaults with fixed bayonets, fighting some of the time 
haud-to-hand, and, before the supports were called into the fight, 
drove a brigade of Longstreet's men, their old foes in the East, 
from the hill. It met with a fearful loss. Wrote the corre- 
spondent of the " Cincinnati Times," — 

The brave Col. Underwood, of the Thirty-third Massachusetts Regiment, 
was also wounded. This officer had passed through some of the hardest 
fights on the Potomac, to meet this hard fate on the banks of the Tennessee 
in a midnight fight. The conduct of the regiment was of the most praise- 
worthy character ; and they wavered not, though the guns of the enemy were 
making terrible havoc in their ranks. In fact, all the regiments engaged 
seemed determined to prove that not Western troops alone will fight in the 
West, but they who had met Ijongstreet's men in Virginia could cope with 
them in Tennessee. Gen Hooker, in his official report of ttie battle, says, 
" This skeleton but brave brigade (Col. Smith's) charged up the mountain, 
almost inaccessible by daylight, under a heavy fire, without returning it, and 
drove three times their number from behind the hastily thrown up intrench- 
ments, capturing prisoners, and scattering the enemy in all directions. No 
troops ever rendered more brilliant service. . . . Col Underwood, of the 
Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, was also desperately wounded ; and for 
his recovery I am deeply concerned. If only in recognition for his merito- 
rious services on this field, his many martial virtues, and great personal worth, 
it would be a great satisfaction to me to have this officer advanced to the 
grade of brigadier-general." 


111 accordance with this recommendation, he was soon made a 
brigadier-general. But his career in the field was ended. He 
was carried to Nashville, and afterwards home, where he under- 
went a long and tedious illness of a year and a half, six months 
of it continuously in bed, before he recovered sufficiently from 
the effects of the terrible wound to go upon court-martial 
duty at Washington in the summer of 1865, though then with 
impaired constitution, and permanently disabled. He was made 
president of a court-martial, and was at length assigned to the 
trial of Wirtz, but, before the trial began, was appointed surveyor 
of customs at Boston. He was brevetted, and resigned his position 
in the army. 

Meanwhile, the Thirty-third Regiment had continued to share 
honorably in the victorious work of the Union army. 

Nov. 22, 1863, the Eleventh Corps marched to Chattanooga, 
and was present during the battle of the next three days. In the 
attack on Missionary Ridge, and in the pursuit of Gen. Bragg, 
the Thirty-third took an active part. 

This regiment then marched under Gen. Sherman to the relief 
of Knoxville ; but finding that Longstreet had been defeated, and 
had raised the siege, it returned to Chattanooga, and went into 
winter-quarters in Lookout Valley. 

In April, 1864, the Eleventh and Twelfth Army Corps were 
consolidated to form the Twentieth, and placed under command 
of Gen. Hooker. 

May 2, the grand advance of the army upon Atlanta com- 
menced. During this month, the Thirty-third was liotly engaged 
with the enemy at Mill-creek Gap, Resaca, Cassville, and Dallas ; 
ill each instance nobly and unflinchingly doing its whole duty, 
and losing heavily in killed and wounded. 

At Kenesaw Mountain, the cool behavior and gallantry of the 
regiment elicited the compliments of Gen. Howard and other 
general officers. 

Its hard fighting in this campaign had now reduced it to the 
mere skeleton of a regiment ; and on the 17th of July, hj order 
of Gen. Hooker, it was detailed as division train-guard. Wiiile 
on this duty, the regiment took no active part in the siege of 

Sept. 5, it reported to Gen. Slocuni, and was detailed to guard 
Confederate prisoners in Atlanta, and subsequently for duty with 
the provost-guard. 

T.he Second and Thirty-third Massachusetts, and the One Hun- 


dred and Eleventh Pennsylvania, under command of Col. W. 
Coggswell, remained in Atlanta a day after its evacnation, as 
provisional guard, to prevent the destruction or pillage of private 

Nov. IG, our troops left Atlanta, the Thirty-third in the rear, 
and tlie last regiment to leave the city. Nov. 23, it arrived at 
Milledgeville, and joined the brigade. 

The march to Savannah was witliout incident worthy of record. 
Tlie army reached the outposts of the enemy before that city, 
Dec. 20. The same night, the enemy evacuated the city, and the 
next day the army entered and took possession. 

During the entire campaign, the weather was warm and pleas- 
ant ; and, at tlie close of it, the Thirty -third was in a better condi- 
tion than when it left Atlanta. 

The middle of January, 18G5, the regiment left camp at Clieves 
Farm, Beaufort District, S.C., and marched towards Hardceville, 
and thence to Sisters' Ferry. Confronting the enemy at Lawton- 
ville, the march was continued to Augusta Railroad, which was 
destroyed ; and then across the Saluda and Wateree Rivers ; and, 
during March, the regiment moved about North Carolina, engaged 
in some severe skirmishing and fighting. 

On the 24th, it passed through Goldsborough, and was reviewed 
by Gen. Sherman ; after which it went into camp three miles from 
the city. The amount of forage taken by the regiment was very 

April 9, the welcome order to march came, and the reveille 
sounded at three o'clock in the morning. The march was towards 
Raleigh. On the 11th, when passing through Smithfield, the glad 
tidings of Lee's surrender were hailed by shouts of delight ; and 
on the 17th, while in camp at Raleigh, the news of Johnson's 
capitulation raised another joyful hurrah. 

This was soon followed by the intelligence that the terms of the 
surrender were not accepted, and the order for the troops to push 
forward after him ; only to hear, a little later, of a final adjustment 
of hostilities. 

April 30, the regiment started for Washington, encamping 
May 9 near Richmond ; and was mustered out of service June 11, 
1865. Upon its arrival at Boston on the 13th, Mayor Lincoln 
extended in behalf of the city a fitting welcome, including a col- 
lation at Faneuil Hall. The troops went to Readville, where they 
had the final settlement and discharge July 2, 18G5. 



Was recruited mainly in Worcester County. Left the State with 
full ranks, Aug. 15, 18G2, under command of Col. George D. 
Wells, one of the best and bravest officers in the service, and who 
fell in the Shenandoah Valley at the head of his brigade. 
Other field and staif officers were, — 

Lieutenant -Colonel .... William S. Lincoln. 

Major ...... Henry Bowman. 

Surgeon ...... Rowse R. Clark. 

Assistant Surgeon . , . . ' Cyrus B. Smith. 

Chaplain ...... Edward B. Fairchild. 

Having reached Washington, the regiment was ordered to Camp 
Casey, on Arlington Heights. While here. Major Bowman was 
promoted to the colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts 

The Thirty-fourth having been assigned to Gen. Banks's corps, 
on the 22d of August it marched to Alexandria, and reported to 
the quartermaster's department for transportation to the field. It 
then moved out of the city about two miles, where it remained 
until the entire army of Gen. Pope, in its retreat from Manassas, 
had completed its change of front. Being then in the extreme 
advance of the Federal forces, the regiment threw out pickets, and 
also furnished a provost-guard for Alexandria. 

Sept. 12, it was ordered to report to Gen. Grover. It then 
marched to Fairfax Seminary, and encamped there, together with 
the Thirty-third Massachusetts, Eleventh New-Jersey, and One 
Hundred and Twentieth New- York, under command of Col. 
Wells, senior colonel. On the 15th, the regiment removed to 
Fort Lyon, constituting a part of the regular garrison ; Col. 
Wells being in command of the fort and all its defences. Here 
it remained imtil May, 1863, when it was ordered to Upton Hill-. 
On the 2d of June, the regiment was relieved by the third brigade 
Pennsylvania reserve corps, and ordered to report to Gen. Martin- 
dale at Washington. 

Col. Wells having been assigned to the command of the first 
brigade, Naglee's division, with the Thirty-fourth, crossed the 
Potomac in boats, and took possession of Harper's Ferry, cap- 
turing several rebel prisoners. The regiment was employed there 
and at Bolivar for some time on picket and patrol duty. 


On the 18th of October, Gen. Imboden surprised a part of Col. 
Wells's forces at Charlestovvn, and captured a number of them. 
Col. Wells immediately started out with the Thirty-fourth, a bat- 
tery of light artillery, and a body of cavalry. He drove tlie ene- 
my's forces for about ten miles ; when, at dark, he was recalled by 
orders from division headquarters. 

Col. Wells's force numbered seven hundred men ; Gen. Imbo- 
den's, about fifteen hundred ; and his loss was sixty-nine in killed 
and wounded, and twenty-one prisoners. 

The enemy did not again come down the valley ; and the regi- 
ment was employed as before until the 10th of Deceml)er, when 
it started with the first brigade on the valley expedition, co-operat- 
ing; with the movements of Averill and Scammon in the success- 
ful raid on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad. 

The part assigned to Col. Wells's brigade was to move up the 
valley by prescribed marches as far as Harrisonburg, threatening 
Staunton, and creating a diversion in favor of Averill by occupying 
the attention of the enemy. 

The weather was quite severe, — cold, rainy, and snowy. At 
Harrisonburg, it was found that a large force under Gen. Early 
was in the immediate front, and that Rosseau's brigade was at- 
tempting to cut off a retreat. The force, numbering about four- 
teen hundred men, was nearly surrounded by six or seven 
thousand of the enemy. It being learned that Gen. Averill had 
accomplished his part of the plan, and returned, Col. Wells had 
recourse to strategy to get out of the trap. 

By starting the infantry otf after dark, and marching all night, 
leaving largo fires and an extended front of cavalry, the enemy 
were kept back several hours ; and, when they ascertained that the 
column had escaped them, they were unable to overtake it. 

The infantry marched from Harrisonburg to Harper's Ferry (a 
hundred miles) in less than four days, despite the long marches 
of the previous week ; and reached camp in good spirits, without 
a straggler, on the afternoon of Dec. 24, having fully accomplished 
the object of the expedition, and without the loss of a man, bring- 
ing in about a hundred prisoners, many of them with liorses, 
arms, and equipments. The endurance and good conduct of the 
regiment received the hearty praise and thanks of the division 
and department commanders. 

The evening of Dec. 21 found the regiment safe in its old 
quarters at Harper's Ferry. It was employed at different points 
in the neighborhood until April 29, 1861, when it left Martins- 


burg with the force under Gen. Sigel. Having advanced as far 
as Xew Market, Ya., May 14, they found the cavahy engaged with 
the enemy. 

The next day, an action took place, in which the Thirty-fourth 
was conspicuous for its skill and valor, losing one officer and 
twenty-seven men killed, and eight officers and a hundred and 
sixty-six men wounded. 

At Strasburg, Gen. Hunter took command ; and preparations 
were made for another move up the valley. 

The troops reached Harrisonburg on the 2d of June, and on the 
5th the action at Piedmont took place. The rebels, behind their rail 
breastworks, made a stubborn resistance. The brigade charged 
up to within twenty yards of the breastworks, and then stopped. 
For several minutes, the roar of the musketry was terrific. The 
enemy attempted to turn the left of the brigade, and threw a 
heavy force upon the flank. It was a critical time. Had the left 
given way, the day might have had another issue. The attack was 
repulsed, and the regiment charged in turn, driving the rebels in 
the greatest confusion. On the right, the firing was so severe as to 
compel the rebels to keep below their rail barricades. Gen. Hun- 
ter's forces captured a thousand uninjured men lying close behind 
their breastworks, with a loss on their own part of fifteen killed 
and ninety wounded. 

June 9, the Thirty-fourth was transferred to Col. Wells's bri- 
gade. On the 17th, marched near to Lynchburg, and lay in line 
of battle all Jiight. On the 18th, was engaged all day with the 
enemy. From this date up to the 1st of September, the record 
of the regiment is one of daily marches, and very frequent skir- 
mishes with the enemy ; the men often suffering from hunger. 
The Thirty-fourth left Summit Point on tlie 19th of September, 
and miarched- towards the crossing of the Opequan by the Berry- 
ville Road, where it found the Sixth and the Nineteentli Corps 
heavily engaged with the enemy. The fighting here was severe. 
The Federal troops were formed for the final charge in three lines 
of battle, crescent-shaped. They moved over an open field to the 
attack in beautiful order, with banners flying, pouring into the 
already disordered mass of the enemy a rapid and concentric fire. 
As his ranks broke, two divisions of cavalry, with flashing sabres 
and loud yells, charged among them, then, wheeling, charged 
back, driving fifteen hundred into the Federal fines. Tbe fight 
was over; but the pursuit was kept up all night, the rebels being 
chased to Fisher's Hill. 


Of the battle at this point an officer says, — 

Before daylight on the 22d, our corps was moved round to the right of our 
lines. We passed up the side of the North Mountain until we had got in the 
rear of the enemy's lines, when, with fixed bayonets and fierce yells, we 
charged down the mountain-side, firing as we advanced. Plad the heavens 
themselves opened, and we been seen descending from them, the surprise and 
consternation of the rebels could not have been greater. We charged over 
their works, capturing two guns, a large amount of fixed ammunition, and some 
prisoners. All organization being lost in this wild pursuit, every man fought 
for himself, and in his own manner. One desperate attempt only was made 
by the enemy to check our advance ; but, in the wild frenzy of battle, we swept 
every thing before us : for over four miles we cliarged along their works, turn- 
ing the enemy out as the plough turns the furrow. 

The battle ended at dark ; but the Sixth and Nineteentli Corps, not having 
been heavily engaged, kept up the pursuit all night, driving the enemy be- 
yond Mount Jackson. Thus ended the fight of Fisher's Hill, to which the 
history of this war furnishes nothing approaching a parallel ; less than five 
thousand men of Crook's command, with the third division of the Sixth Corps, 
routing an army of over twenty thousand, and driving them from a position 
which they boasted they could hold against a hundred thousand. Our 
regiment took two guns and seven caissons. Our loss was nineteen men 

Oct. 7, the Federal forces crossed Cedar Creek, taking a position 
commanding the ford. Suddenly, on the 13th, the enemy opened 
fire upon the Union camp. The first and third brigades were 
ordered to advance to discover the force of the enemy. In the 
action that followed, the brave Col. Wells was killed. We extract 
the following from the Adjutant's-General's report : — 

The third brigade, which advanced on the right of the pike, had received 
orders to retire : similar orders had been sent to us, but naver reached us. 
We were not in a position where we could see the movements of the other 
brigade. The enemy suddenly tln-ew a heavy force upon our flank and rear. 
The four right companies were swung back to check this movement. The 
men, executing this movement under a severe fire, were as cool as on drill. 
Col. Wells went to the right to see how this movement of the army could 
have taken place : while returning, and just behind our coloi-s, he was struck 
by a ball. He threw up his hands, uttering an exclamation as of great pain. I 
immediately sent an officer to help him from his horse. He would not be car- 
ried to the rear; saying, " Gentlemen, it is of no use : save yourselves." We 
could not maintain this unequal contest, and the order was given to retire ; 
and our brave colonel was left to die in the enemy's hands. He was taken 
to Strasburg, where, the same evening, he died. His body Avas recovered the 


next day, and sent home. Thus gallantly fell one of the ablest officers in the 
service, at a time when the honors he had so long deserved were about to be 
conferred on him. His name and record will not be forgotten when INIassa- 
chusetts shall have occasion to recount her costly sacrifice and the deeds of 
her brave sons. 

On the 11th, the Thirty-fourth was again engaged with the ene- 
my, and narrowly escaped capture by a division of the enemy 
which had come up in its rear. On the 19th, the regiment was 
ordered to Newtown, Ya., to guard the hospital, resting there for 
a while after a campaign of severe hardships and unsurpassed 
brilliancy. Its colonel, major, two captains, three lieutenants, and 
seventy-three men, had met a soldier's death upon the battle- 

The monotony of camp-life was, however, broken up by the 
receipt of marching orders, Dec. 18. The next day, the regiment 
set out for Washington, and from there embarked on board a 
steamer; and on the 25th reached Aiken's Landing, on the 
James River. It was here assigned to the Army of the James, 
as part of independent division, Twenty-fourth Corps, and pitched 
its camp on the extreme right of the line. 

March 25, the regiment broke camp ; on the 30th, crossed 
Hatcher's Run, and next day engaged in skirmishing with the 

April 1, the regiment repulsed a sharp attack on its lines by 
the enemy. Next morning, it moved along the line six miles 
towards Petersburg. Here a temporary halt was ordered. "We 
quote from Col. William T. Lincoln's report : — 

"Attention!" was soon called; our ranks were dressed; and, through 
the din of the opening battle, we marched to our work. Our brigade — the 
third — and one brigade of the first division were ordered to assault Battery 
Gregg, an advanced rebel fort which commanded theii' line directly in front of 
Petersburg. At the order, the line advanced steadily under a terrific fire 
of musketry and artillery. When within about a hundred yards of the fort, 
an order was given for the men to lie down ; and crawling upon their hands 
and knees, through the storm of grape and canister hurled against our ranks, 
the advance continued. At a signal, our men regained their feet, and with a 
rush the obstructions were passed, and the ditch gained. The water was 
waist-deep, and for a moment we were apparently foiled. The stars and 
stripes were planted almost side by side of the rebel rag. The fort was held 
with all the energy of despairing men ; and the rebel shouts of " Never sur- 
render ! never surrender ! " were distinctly heard above the roar of conflict. 


For twenty-seven minutes, our men hung upon tbe works. To advance seemed 
impossible ; retreat was equally so. One more rush, and with a deafening 
cheer the parapet was gained ; and, after a short hand-to-hand struggle, the fort 
and its garrison were captured. Not a man escaped. Capt. Goodrich of the 
Thirty- fourth, with a few men, turned the captured guns upon the nearest 
fort, and returned them their own shells. Our loss was slight when the 
length of time, and severity of the engagement, is considered ; being four 
killed and thirty-six wounded. Arms were now stacked, intrenchments 
thrown up, and we held what we had gained. 

April 3, the regiment joined in the pursuit of the rebels, now 
iu full retreat. On the morning of the 9th, encountered the 
enemy under Gen. Gordon, who were endeavoring to gain the 
Lynchburg Railroad ; and compelled them to fall back on their 
main line. In the afternoon, intelligence of Gen. Lee's surrender 
was received. On the 12th, the regiment broke camp, and started 
for Richmond, and on the 25th, passing through the city to the 
north side, encamped. 

On the 16th of June, such of the original members of the 
Thirty-fourth as were present with the command were mustered 
out of the service of the United States, and, at early dawn next 
day, took up their line of march for home. The men were hospita- 
bly entertained at Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. Arriv- 
ing at Readville, Mass., the public property, without delay, was 
turned over to Government officers ; and on the Gth of July, hav- 
ing completed within twenty-five days the period of their enlist- 
ment, the men received their final pay and discharge. 


This regiment was mustered into the service of the United 
States at Camp Stanton, Lynnfield, Ang. 21, 1862 ; and left the 
State for the seat of war, Aug. 22, under the command of Col. 
Edward A. Wild. The regiment was especially fortunate in its 
officers, both field and staff. 

These were as follow : — 

Colonel Edward A. Wild. 

Lieutenant - Colonel .... Sumner Carrutb. 

Major ...... Sidney Willard. 

Surgeon ...... Francis M. Lincoln. 

Assistant Surgeon .... George N. Munsell. 

Chaplain Henry F. H. Miller. 


111 his report of this regiment for the year 1862, Col. Wild 
says that it left the State very imperfectly fitted out, owing 
to the urgency of the demand for fresh troops at Washington. It 
was armed with Enfield rifles of a very poor quality, and danger- 
ous to handle. 

Arriving at Washington Aug. 24, the regiment, by order of 
Brig. -Gen. Casey, crossed the Potomac, and encamped beyond 
Arlington Heights. Aug. 30 it was assigned to the command of 
Brig.-Gen. Van Volkenberg, and Sept. 6 it was transferred to 
that of Major-Gen. Burnside, and by him assigned to the brigade 
of Gen. Ferrero in connection with the Twenty-first Massachu- 
setts. Continued short marches and bivouacs until the battle at 
South Mountain, Sept. 14. Col. Wild writes. — 

AVe entered the fight at about half-past four, p.m. It lasted till after 
dark. Were first ordered to clear the rebel sharpshooters from an extensive 
tract of forest, and a very rough ground indeed. This was done. After- 
wards resisted an unexpected attack upon the position held by our brigade, 
made suddenly in the dusk. At that time I received a wound — losing the 
left arm at the shoulder — from which I am still suffering. The remainder, 
therefore, of this account must of necessity be incomplete. In this battle, the 
first ordeal of the Thirty-fifth, their behavior was excellent. Considering 
their total inexperience, their very brief period of mutual acquaintance, the 
nature of the battle-ground, their want of confidence in their weapons, and 
especially their utter want of drill, it was very remarkable that they should 
have held together so well as they did. The lack of drill was severely felt, 
as we had had no opportunity at all for battalion drill, and that of companies 
had been quite limited. They were ready to do any thing they were ordered, if 
they only knew how to do it. 

Sept. 17 came the battle of Antietam. Here the regiment bore a con-spicu- 
ous part. They entered the fight under Lieut. -Col. Sumner Carruth, who was 
soon shot through the neck, and obliged to retire. The major being absent 
upon special duty, the command devolved upon Capt. William S. King, of 
Company K, who noljly sustained his part, until seven wounds forced him also 
to withdraw, which he did, bearing oif the colors to a place of safety; for by 
that time the whole color-guard were disabled. At the decisive moment of this 
great battle, it became necessary to take and hold the bridge over Antietam 
Creek and its approaches. Our regiment supported the Fifty-first New- York ; 
made a charge over the bridge ; drove the enemy from the top of the rising 
ground, and liliewise from the second, never stopping till themselves occupied 
the crest of the second hill, — which position they held for some time, though 
subjected to slaughtering cross-fires, with a st;;i!liness that veterans might be 
proud of, until ordered to retire a little to ;; more .sheltered spot. Their 
behavior was admiraUe throughout. 


la the two battles, South-Mountain and Antietam, our loss was severe. We 
had two captains killed (Bartlett of Newburyport, and Niles of Randolph), 
and four wounded; of lieutenants, one killed (Williams of Salem), and ten 
wounded ; of enlisted men, two hundred and fifty killed and wounded. Thus, 
of those present, we had two-thirds of the officers, and very nearly one-third 
of the men, disabled. 

After encamping for some weeks at Pleasant Valley, on the Upper Potomac, 
the whole army of M'Clellan crossed at and near Harper's Ferry, and marched 
southward into Virginia, our regiment among the rest taking their share of 
the fatigues and dangers. On Burnside taking the chief command, the route 
was changed for an easterly one. 

Nov. 15, we were on the Upper Rappahannock. Lieut. -Col. Carruth, who 
had then recovered from his wound and resumed command of the regiment, 
crossed the river, taking with him the? adjutant, Nathaniel Wales, for the pur- 
pose of visiting our wagons, engaged in taking in forage. On the way back, they 
stopped at a house to take dinner, when they were surprised and captured by 
a party of rebels, who had been lying in ambush in the hope of cutting off 
our wagons. 

Major Sidney Willard then took command ; and some days after, while on 
the march, our regiment in the rear was guarding the wagon-train, when they 
were attacked by a strong force of rebels with artillery, who evidently hoped 
to cut off the supply-train. We held our ground, protected the wagons, and 
ultimately drove oif the enemy. In this aftair, the Thirty-fifth Regiment, who 
bore the brunt, were under artillery-fire nearly four hours, and again behaved 
well, both officers and men. This being the major's first experience in 
action, his conduct was highly creditable, both for coolness and for good 

Dec. 13 occurred the great battle at Fredericksburg, On this bloody day, 
our regiment fully acted up to its high reputation so early acquired. They 
were among the most advanced troops in position, and exposed to a deadly fire 
at short range ; yet they held their ground after their ammunition was all ex- 
pended, and did not retreat until their whole brigade was relieved by fresh 
troops, when they retired in good order, under the lead of Capt. Andrews of 
Company A ; Major Sidney Willard having been mortally wounded during 
the heat of the conflict, while cheering on the men with the utmost gallantry. 
Lieut. Hill of Dedham was also killed while at the head of Company K. 
Our loss in killed and wounded was about sixty. 

On the withdrawal of the whole army across the Rappahannock, the Thirty- 
fifth was the last regiment but one to leave Fredericksburg. 

The regiment remained encamped at Falmouth until Feb. 9, 
when it was ordered to report at Newport News, which it 
reached on the 14th, and encamped. While here, Lieut.-Col. 
Carruth and Adjutant Wales, having been exchanged, returned 
to the regiment. 


March 26, leaving Newport News, the regiment proceeded to 
Kentucky, via Baltimore, Pittsburg, and Cincinnati, and, on the 
4th of April, encamped near Mount Sterling. About this time, 
Lieut.-Col. Carruth was promoted to the colonelcy, Col. Wild 
having been appointed brigadier-general. 

The regiment was employed in this State in various duties until 
the 3d of June, when it proceeded under orders to Vicksburg, via 
Cairo and the Mississippi River. From Vicksburg it advanced 
on board transports up the Yazoo River to Haiue's Bluif, where 
it disembarked, and encamped at Milldale, Miss., four miles 

On the 29th, the Thirty-fifth resumed its march. On the 6th 
of July, crossed the Black River ; and on the lOtli, in line of 
battle, became engaged as support of the Second Michigan, who 
were skirmishing. It was similarly engaged on the 12th and 13th, 
and, on the 14th, fell back to the extreme rear, to allow the men, 
who were much exhausted, to rest. 

On the 16th, the Thirty-fifth was again engaged as skirmishers 
or supports until it entered Jackson, the capital ; it being the first 
regiment to plant its colors inside the fortifications of that city. 
During these six days of skirmishing, the regiment took about a 
hundred and fifty prisoners. 

On the 23d, it again reached the camp at Milldale, terminating 
as tedious a march as ever regiment participated in. 

Aug. 6, embarking on board a transport, the Thirty-fifth re- 
turned to Covington, Ky., having been absent two months. Leav- 
ing here Aug. 18, the regiment was almost continually on the 
move until it reached Knoxville, Tenn., Oct. 19. From this date 
until the close of the year, it was actively engaged in field-duty in 
Knoxville and vicinity. 

In concluding his report of this regiment for the year 1863, 
the officer records, — 

Our experience during the past year has partaken largely of clanger and 
trial. Though our number is decimated by contact with the enemy and dis- 
ease, yet the remnant is in excellent spirits, able and wiUing to do a soldier's 
duty. It has been our fortune to face the enemy often, and as often has he 
felt our presence. The honor of Massachusetts is before us, and shall remain 
unsullied by any act of ours. Fully awake to the exigency for which we peril 
our lives, we press onward, always hoping for a speedy consummation of our 

It has been our great misfortune to lose efficient and vakiable officers. Our 
colonel, who commanded universal respect, fell under the severe ordeal of the 


Mississippi campaign ; others, by unremitting service, sharing every duty, have 
been oblio'ed to succumb. A few remain, whose iron constitutions seem proof 
against vicissitude. Retrospection brings its pleasant as well as disagreeable 
phases : short rations, long marches, sleepless nights, are, as it -^Fere, momen- 
tary pains. Many pleasant associations are often formed, which may last long 
after trials shall be forgotten. 

Early in 1864, the Thirty-fifth, with other regiments was 
ordered from Tennessee to the Army of the Potomac. 

March 21, tlie army corps left Knoxville, and arrived at 
Annapolis, Md., April 7. The Thirty-fifth was now made a part 
of the first brigade, first division. Ninth Corps ; and on the 
29th, after a laborious march via Washington and Warrenton 
Junction, it went into camp at Bealton Station, relieving a force 
of the Fifth Corps. Detached to guard the wagon-train of the 
division, tlie Thirty-fifth began its march from Bealton Station 
May 4 ; on the 5th, forded the Rapidan ; and, on the Gtli, was at 
the battle of tlie Wilderness. Says one of its officers, — 

This march, ending May 15 at the heights behind Fredericksburg, the 
very ground we had contended for in 1862, and giving us opportunity to re- 
visit the historic fields of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville after having 
been favored spectators of the second day's fight at the Wilderness, and ob- 
servers of what transpired in the rear at the great battle of Spottsylvania, 
was perhaps the most instructive performed by us up to that time. 

On the 17th, the regiment rejoined the brigade, and, next day, 
participated in the second battle of Spottsylvania. It was also 
engaged in several of the succeeding battles of this campaign ; 
e.g.. North Anna, Shady Grove, Bethesda Church, and Cold 
Harbor. Crossed the James River June 15, and marched for 

From -June 21 to Aug. 15, encamped in the woods before 
Petersburg, within easy rifle-range of the enemy's works. Late 
in the evening of Aug. 15, the regiment, with the division under 
Gen. Jnlius White on the 19th, moved to the support of Gen. 
Warren on the Weldon Railroad. It here became engaged with 
the enemy just as the connection with Warren was effected. 

The operations at the Weldon Railroad occurred near the end 
of a drenching rain-storm, which converted roads into sloughs, 
level fields into beds of soft mud, and wooded ravines into wet 
swamps. The rations (issued four days in advance) with wiiich 
the men's haversacks were stuffed, were, in many instances, lost in 


the bushes, or ruined by mud and water. The fightmg was very 
severe, but the result most satisfactory. A slcetch like this sug- 
gests no conception of the discomforts and straits of such an 
expedition, unless to one who can summon his experience to the 
aid of liis imagination. 

Sept. 2, the first division having been broken up, the Thirty- 
fifth Regiment was assigned to the first brigade (Col. Curtin's), 
second division. About three hundred and seventy foreign sub- 
stitutes, with a few American recruits, were now added to the 
regiment ; so that it turned out more muskets than at any time 
since the battle at Antictam. On the 30th of September, at 
Poplar-spring Church, the division was suddenly attacked upon 
the right and rear, and driven from the field, the Thirty-fifth losing 
about a hundred and fifty prisoners. 

Oct. 27, the regiment took part in the Hatcher-run recon- 
noissance, and, on the 28tli, returned to Church Road. Nov. 27, 
the regiment encamped as support one-fourth of a mile in 
rear of Fort Sedgewick, within range of the enemy's picket- 
fire. Here a log-house camp was built under direction of the 
colonel ; and the men were better housed than at any time pre- 
vious during the service. 

March 7, 1865, the Thirty-fifth changed camp, relieving the 
Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, of the same brigade, in the riglit and 
more exposed section of Fort Sedgewick. On the 25th of March 
occurred the battle of Fort Stedman, a mile to the right. This 
was followed by a constant round of shelling, standing to arms, 
and turning out at midnight prepared to move ; very fatiguing, 
and costing the regiment some lives. 

April 2, at gray dawn, in a thick haze, all the troops of the 
Ninth Corps, excepting the garrisons of the forts, were led to the 
assault of Fort Mahone, and the hostile lines to the right and left 
of the Jerusalem Plank-road, The assault was successful: a 
portion of the enemy's works was captured and held. Artillery- 
men from Fort Sedgewick dashed into a captured fort with their 
accoutrements and primers ; and Col. Carruth immediately put 
his whole regiment to carrying ammunition for the battery and 
the infantry, which several of the company officers saw delivered 
at the new line. The men traversed the field several times 
while the contest still raged. Their bearing was witnessed by 
several officers who were impartial observers of the scene, and 
completely dispelled all doubts as to the courage and discipline 
of the foreigners. During the night, Petersburg was evacuated. 


April 3, the Thirty-fifth marched with the brigade through Pe- 
tersburg, band playing and colors flying. From the 4th to the 
10th, the regiment was on the march to Farmville, when it re- 
ceived the news of Lee's surrender. It left for Washington on 
the 20th, and on the 23d, with the Army of the Potomac, passed 
in review before the President. 

By orders from headquarters, foreigners and others whose 
terms of service would not expire before Oct. 1, 1865, were 
by their consent transferred with eleven officers to the Twenty- 
ninth Massachusetts Veteran Volunteers, June 9. The remain- 
der of the Thirty-fifth was mustered the same day for discharge. 
It left Washington for home on the 10th, was handsomely 
greeted and entertained at Providence on the 13th, and reached 
Readville, Mass., the same day, where the regiment staid until 
the 27th, when the men received their certificates of discharge. 



The Thirty-sixth recruited in Worcester County. — In Virginia. — Ordered to the South- 
west. — Movements in Kentucky and Tennessee. — In the Potomac Army. — The 
Return to Massachusetts. — The Thirty-seventh a Berkshire Regiment. — Marches to 
Virginia. — Efficient Services on the " Sacred Soil." — Gettysburg. — Petersburg. — 
Home. — Thirty-eighth Regiment leaves Lynnfield for Baltimore. — Clmnges in Com- 
mand. — Sails for New Orleans. — Port Hudson. — Death of Col. Redman. — Back to 
Virginia again. — Closing Scenes of Conflict. — Mustered out. 



AS recruited in Worcester County ; and left the State 
Sept. 2, 1862, under command of Col. Henry Bowman. 

Lieutenant - Colonel 



Assistant Surgeon 


John B. Norton. 
James H. Barker. 
James B. Prince. 
Thomas C. Lawton. 
Charles T. Canfield. 

Up to Oct. 29, the Thirty-sixth had not been engaged in any 
battle. On that day it left Lovettsville, Va., with the Army of the 
Potomac, and marched to Falmouth, arriving there on the 19th 
of November. One week of this time it was at Carter Bend. The 
supply-train having been cut off, two ears of corn per man was 
the daily portion received. 

The regiment remained in Falmouth on picket-duty until the 
12th of December, when it crossed the river. It was held ii\ 
reserve on the bank of the river daring the battle, and lost but 
two men, wounded by a shell. It recrosscd on the 15th, and re- 
mained in Falmouth until Feb. 10, when it left for Newport 
News, where the Ninth Corps was encamped. At the end of six 
weeks, the first division, to which the Thirty-sixth jjclonged, was 
ordered West, It proceeded to Lexington via Baltimore, Parkers- 
burg, and Cincinnati ; and reached its destination March 29. 

48 377 


After one week in camp here, by special order of Gen, Burn- 
side the regiment went to Cincinnati to guard tlie polls during 
the election of mayor. The regiment was then sent to Camp Dick 
Robinson, thirty miles from Lexington. For several weeks, the 
regiment was marching and camping at different points ; nothing 
of interest transpiring, except the occasional pursuit of guerillas. 

On the 1st of June, Col. Bowman was assigned to the command 
of a brigade, consisting of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, Forty- 
fifth Pennsylvania, and Seventeenth and Twenty-seventh Michigan. 
On the 4th he received orders to march, and on the 7th embarked 
at Cairo for Vicksburg; arriving at Snyder's Bluff, on the Yazoo, 
June 17. 

The campaign in Mississippi is officially described as follows : — 

The Nintli Corps took up a position near Milldale, ten miles in the rear of 
Vicksburg, in order to prevent Johnston from raising the siege. 

Vicksburg fell July 4 ; and on the 5th we moved upon Johnston, who re- 
treated to Jackson. The night of the 10th, we came up with his outposts, 
near Jackson, after marching sixty miles under a burning sun. The morning 
of the 11th, the first brigade advanced on the enemy. The Forty-fifth Penn- 
sylvania, and Companies A and F of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, being 
deployed as skirmishers in advance, drove him to his rifle-pits. Comjjany F 
lost two men killed and six wounded. Occupied a position within range of the 
enemy till the 17th, losing five more men wounded ; when the enemy evacuated 
Jackson. At noon of that day, the first division marched toward Canton, on 
the Mississippi Central Roads ; where we arrived the night of the 18th, and 
tore up five miles of railroad track. Then marched back to Snyder's Bluff, 
about seventy miles, where we arrived the 23d. 

This march was shamefully managed, and fatal in its conscqviences to 
many of our men. Without rations, under a Mississippi sun, they marched 
till some dropped dead in the ranks, and nearly all fell out exhausted. Ar- 
rived at Milldale, nearly half the first division went into hospital. July 27, 
Col. Bowman was discharged, and, the 30th, Lieut. -Col. Norton. The 5th 
of August, under command of Major Goodell, the regiment embarked on the 
" Hiawatha " for Cairo. 

The brigade arrived at Cincinnati on the 12th, crossed over to 
Covington, Ky., and went into barracks. As the effects of this 
Mississippi campaign, the regiment lost fifty men by death, and 
twice that number by discharge. 

When, on the 10th of September, the Thirty-sixth left Kentucky 
for Tennessee, it numbered a hundred and ninety-eight guns out 
of nearly eight hundred enlisted men. On the 22d of Septem- 
ber, the reo-iment had advanced as far as Morristown, Tenn. 


Thence it went to Knoxville, wliere it remained in camp until 
the 3d of Octoljer, when it was ordered to meet the rebels advan- 
cing from Virginia under Gen. Jones, who were fought and de- 
feated on the 10th, at Blue Springs. On the 11th, our troops 
pursued them twenty miles, and took many prisoners. After five 
days' rest, the regiment marched south thirty miles, where the 
rebels were threatening an attack. Here it went into camp ; and, 
while preparing for winter-quarters, it received orders to move, as 
Longstreet was approaching. 

The regiment marched to Hough's Ferry, where the rebels were 
crossing. Their skirmishers were driven in ; but, learning that 
another force was crossing at Kingston, it fell back to Lenoir's 
the next morning. Col. Morrison's brigade, to which it was 
attached, consisting of the Thirty-sixth Massachusetts, Forty- 
fifth Pennsylvania, Eighth Michigan, and Seventy-ninth New- 
York, was sent out on the Kingston Road to prevent the advance 
of the enemy from that direction. The Thirty-sixth was tlie 
regiment farthest advanced, and at dark the rebel advance was 
in plain sight. We remained in line all night : the other troops 
were withdrawn. Three times the enemy advanced, probably to 
ascertain if we were still there ; and as many times he received 
sufficient proof that we were, and fell back. About four o'clock 
on the morning of the loth, orders were received to withdraw 
the regiment, which was done with the loss of only one man. 
Finding the remainder of the troops en route for Knoxville, we 
fell into our place, and moved in that direction. Nine miles from 
Lenoir's, near Campbell's Station, another road from Kingston 
intersects the one from Loudon to Knoxville. Here the enemy 
commenced an attack on the left and rear of our column. The 
first brigade, having passed this place, formed line, facing the rear, 
and advanced on the enemy. As they were advancing in force 
through a wood on our left, we executed a left half-wheel, formed 
line against a fence, and, after half an hour's sharp firing, repulsed 
them. Just as we did so, a force appeared in our rear. We faced 
about, gave a volley which scattered it, and marched back a 
quarter of a mile to where our batteries were in position, and sup- 
ported Benjamin's and Roemer's batteries until dark. At that 
time, the enemy being repulsed, we again marched towards Knox- 
ville, which we reached about three o'clock next morning. 

The brigade occupied Fort Sanders, and the line on the east of 
it to the river, during the siege. All this while, the men suffered 
much from cold, hunger, want of clothing and of sleep. 


The official report says, — 

Quarter-rations only were issued. Many lacked blankets and shoes, and 
nearly all overcoats ; and one-third, and sometimes one-half, of the men were 
kept awake at night. The morning of the 7th, we moved in pursuit of the 
rebels. Followed them to Rutledge, thirty miles, and remained there till the 
15th, when Longstreet was reported to be strongly re-enforced, and advancing 
in this direction. We fell back to this place (Blane's Cross-roads), and 
awaited his attack ; but he has again fallen back. A sergeant and ten men 
were sent out to a mill while we were at llutledge, by order of the brigade 
commander ; and on our retreat they were captured, as was a messenger sent 
to warn them. 

We are in a state of utter destitution ; and, as we are so far from civiliza- 
tion, we can get nothing by requisition. One old wall-tent, without a fly, 
constitutes our camp-equipage ; and yesterday I received the pleasing intelli- 
gence, that we could get no more in East Tennessee. The men are still on 
very short rations. 

Dec. 27, tlie regiment clianged its camping-grounds to tlie woods, 
where it remained until Jan. 16, 1864 ; when it marched to 
Strawberry Plains, remaining until the 21st, suffering severely 
from want of sufficient clothing and proper food, — rations being- 
six spoonfnls of flour for seven days, and what corn could be 
picked up from under the feet of the mules and horses : the cloth- 
ing was all tattered and torn, and there was not enough even of 
this quality. 

The Thirty-sixth then retreated to Knoxville, and remained 
with the brigade, marching to different points, until the 21st of 
March ; when, passing over the Cumberland Mountains, it reached 
Nicholasville, Ky., April 1, and there took cars for Annapolis, 
reaching that point April 6. Here new clothing was drawn ; 
and the men were allowed, after the severe hardships of the 
winter, seventeen days for rest. On the 23d they set out to join 
the Army of the Potomac,, and reached Bealton May 4. The next 
day they crossed the Rapidan, and on the 6th were engaged in the 
battle of the Wilderness. In three several charges upon the enemy 
here, their loss was heavy. Thence they moved to Spottsylvania 
Court House, where they were again engaged, with heavy loss. 
Also, in the engagement of the Ninth Corps with the enemy at 
Bethesda Church, the Thirty-sixth suffered severely. It was 
engaged in frequent skirmishes until the 14th of June, when it 
reached the banks of the James near Harrison's Landing. Cross- 
ing the river, it arrived in front of the enemy's lines before Pe- 
tersburg on the evening of the 16th. Next morning, at daybreak. 


charged tlie enemy's works, and surprised him, capturing two can- 
non and four hundred and fifty prisoners ; a success in every 
particular. Here the regiment remained until the 19th of August, 
when it marched to the Weldon Railroad. It returned to Peters- 
burg on the 27th, moving thence to Poplar-grove Church, Ya. ; 
where, on the morning of the 30th, the Ninth Corps supported the 
Fiftli in a charge upon the rebel works, taking the first line of 
works. In the afternoon of the same day, the Ninth Corps, 
being on the left of the Fifth Corps, moved forward on the 
enemy's second line of works, where we were repulsed with con- 
siderable loss. 

Oct. 1, a new line was established at Pcgram Farm, Va. 
Here the Thirty-sixth remained encamped until the 29th of No- 
vember, when it was ordered to garrison Fort Rice. 

It remained at Fort Rice until April, doing picket-duty, and 
watching the movements of the enemy. 

In the assault upon the enemy's works on the morning of 
April 2, the regiment had one hundred men on the skirmish 
fine, and five in the pioneer corps, to cut away the obstructions in 
front of the assaulting column. The remainder of the regiment 
was held in reserve. Its loss was one enlisted man killed, and 
four enlisted men wounded. 

April 3, the enemy having during the night evacuated their 
lines around Petersburg, our troops were early in motion, and, 
passing through Petersburg, followed the enemy twelve miles. 

On the 5th, it was near Black and White Station, on the South- 
side Railroad ; and, on the 9th, was at Farmville, guarding prison- 
ers. Being relieved here, it re-formed its brigade at City Point, 
and left here by steamer for Alexandria on the 27th, and went 
into camp in front of Fort Lyons on the 28th. On the 8th of 
June, the regiment was mustered out, and left the same day for 
Readville, Mass., for pay and final discharge. 

During the last campaign, it averaged about three hundred men 
ready for duty. When mustered out, two hundred and thirty- 
three men present and absent, whose term of service did not ex- 
pire before the 1st of October, 1865, were transferred to the 
Fifty-sixth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers : of these, two 
hundred and three were re-enlisted veterans, formerly of the 
Twenty-first Regiment. 

On the twenty-first day of June, the regiment was assembled as 
a body for the last time, and received its pay and final discharge, 
and to-day exists only in memory. 



The Thirty-seventh Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers was com- 
posed almost exclusively of citizens of Berkshire County. It was 
recruited at Camp Briggs, Pittsfield ; and left the Commonwealth 
Sept. 7, 18G2. The following is its roll of officers : — 

Colonel ...... Oliver Edwards. 

Lieutenant -Colonel . . . . A. E. Goodrich. 

Major . . . . . . . G. L. 3Iontague. 

Surgeon ... . . Charles P. Crehore. 

Assistant Surgeon .... Thomas C. Lawton. 

The regiment was assigned to Gen. Briggs's brigade, and went 
into camp one mile south-east of Long Bridge, Ta., at Camp 
Chase, where it remained about two weeks. It went to Freder- 
ick, and thence to Bakersville, where the regiment reported to 
Major-Gen. Couch, who assigned it to the third brigade, Brig.-Gen. 
Devens commanding. It moved about in Maryland and Virginia, 
finally encamping at Warrington. 

Col. Edwards tells the following incident that occurred on its 
way to Wasliington : — 

Just after leaving Philadelpbia, our train came into collision with an extra 
train, carrying a provost-guard to Havre de Gi-ace. 

Three of the provost-guard were instantly killed, and fifteen wounded ; and 
Surgeon Crehore and Assistant Surgeon Lawton, of the Thirty-seventh Regi- 
ment, were untiring in their exertions to alleviate the sufferings of the wound- 
ed. Word was immediately sent back to Philadelphia for another train to 
come to our assistance, which was sent out ; but, unfortunately, they ran 
down upon the same track upon which our train stood. 

A private in Company D, hearing the relief-train coming down upon the same 
track, with great presence of mind seized the red light, and waved it as a sig- 
nal to the approaching train to stop. The engineer, seeing the signal, reversed 
the engine in time to prevent the full effects of the collision. The private con- 
tinued waving the red light till the train was close upon him, and then threw 
himself flat upon the roof of the car, and escaped unhurt. Several of Com- 
pany D were slightly bruised, but none seriously injured. 

Omitting minute and unimportant particulars, we give substan- 
tially the report of the Thirty-seventh by one of its officers : — 

The regiment left its camp at New Baltimore, Nov. 13, 1862, and moved, 
via Stafford Court House and White-oak Church, to the Piappahannock at 


Fi-anklin's Crossing, below Fredericksburg ; at which point it crossed to the 
south bank late in the day of Dec. 11, the Thirty-seventh being the advance 
regiment upon the lower of the two bridges there. 

Alone our brigade covered the bridges all the next day, standing to anus 
through the entire night. On the afternoon of the 13th (the day of the gen- 
eral engagement), we took position on the extreme left, and were under a 
very severe shell-fire, with, however, but little loss. On the 14th, we were in 
reserve ; on the 15th, again took position in front, and, during the night, cov- 
ered the retreat of our army to the north bank of the river, our brigade being 
the last to recross, as it had been the first to cross. The behavior of officers 
and men of the regiment in this, the first time they ever were under fire, 
was all that we could wish, and was all that could be expected from even 
Massachusetts men. 

We remained in camp near Falmouth till Jan. 17, 1863; when the mo- 
notony of our camp-life was relieved by the " mud campaign," in the miseries 
of which we had our full share. Jan. 20, we returned to our old camp at 

March 0, finding sickness increasing to an alarming extent, I laid out a 
new camp, and the regiment constructed a hundred and sixty log-houses, every 
house alike, — twelve feet long, seven feet wide, five feet high on the sides, 
and nine feet in the centre, with a fire-place to each, and a floor of pine poles. 
This camp was built by the men in one week, with but three axes to a company, 
and from standing wood. The favorable results hoped for from this new camp 
were more than realized; and, beyond the Sixth Corps, the "model camp," 
and the appearance and discipline of the Thirty-seventh, were acknowledged as 
second to none. 

On the 28th of April, the passage of the Rappahannock was again forced ; 
and we manoeuvred upon the north bank of the river till the night of IMay 2, 
when we crossed at Franklin's Crossing, and, marching by night, at early 
dawn of May 3 took position in front of the historic Fredericksburg Heights, 
better known, perhaps, as Mary's Hill. In the forenoon, a gallant and suc- 
cessful assaidt was made upon this strong position ; the Thirty-seventh being 
one of the supports of the charging column, and following close upon its heels. 
We took one of the enemy's redoubts and a number of prisoners, with but little 
loss. Moving immediately forward on the Chancellorsville Road, the advance 
division met the enemy re-enforced and strongly posted at Salem Heights. Re- 
newing the attack, the first line of battle was severely repulsed, and thrown 
back in great disorder upon the second line, formed by our brigade, in which 
were three Massachusetts regiments. Nobly did they sustain upon that field 
the honor of the Old Bay State. Not a man flinched or foltered : freely they 
exposed their breasts to the leaden storm, and against that line a complete 
division of the rebels was thrown in vain ; and they who swarmed from the 
wood in assaulting columns, flushed with victory, and yelling like demons, 
were thrown back into its sheltering cover, bafiled, discomfited, defeated. 

At the beginning of their assault, the Thirty-scventli was in column by wing 


upon the extreme left of our line of battle, tlie right wing supporting in part 
two batteries. The enemy had come within fifty yards of the guns. At this 
point, by order of Major-Gen. Brooks, I sent Lieut. -Col. Montague with the 
left wing to check the assaulting column of the rebels, which, overlapping our 
line of battle, was endangering our left flank. Crossing a ravine, and mov- 
ing by the flank under cover of a brush fence, they came within fifteen paces 
of the enemy's right without being perceived, and poured into them several 
deadly volleys, which threw them back in confusion to the shelter of the 
woods. The right wing having joined the left, and the Thirty-sixth New- York 
Volunteers being added to the command, we held the enemy at bay on the 
extreme left of the front line during that night and the next day (May 4), 
during which nearly the whole of Lee's army was engaged by the Sixth 
Corps alone. After dark upon the evening of the 4th, we fell back to Banks's 
Ford, and, before daylight of the 5th, safely recrossed the river. 

May 6, we returned to our old camp at Falmouth. June 6, we marched 
to Franklin's Crossing, and crossed over to the south bank June 10. There 
we remained threatening the enemy till the 13th, when we recrossed the river, 
and took up our line of march, whose northern limit was Gettysburg. Our 
corps protected the rear, crossing the Potomac at Edward's Ferry, June 27, 

At four o'clock, p.m., on July 2, 1863, we reached the battle-field of Get- 
tysburg, after a forced march of thirty-four miles; marching from nine o'clock, 
P.M., July 1, without a halt even long enough to make coffee. Almost 
immediately upon our arrival, we were ordered on the double-quick to the 
support of our left, then hotly engaged in repelling the attack of Longstreet's 
corps. The next day, we were kept moving much of the time at double- 
quick from point to point of the line of battle. The heat was intense, 
and about twenty men fell in the ranks from sun-stroke. 

About three o'clock, p.m., while marching from the right to the left centre, 
we passed through the most terrific shell-fire I ever witnessed ; in the first two 
minutes, losing twenty-three men killed and wounded. The steadiness of the 
men, exhibited in this, the closest test of the soldier, when he is obliged to 
receive blows, with no chance to give, justly entitles them, outside of any thing 
else, to the proud name of veterans. With no quickened step, with no con- 
fusion, straight through that feu d^enfer they marched with a coolness, a 
steadiness, that deserve the highest meed of praise. 

July 4, we took position in the centre, on the front line. The rain fell in 
such torrents as to prevent an assault on our part. The next day, the enemy 
had disappeared from our front ; and, with the Sixth Corps, we followed, fight- 
ing their rear-guard every few miles. 

On the 7th of July, direct pursuit was given up ; and, when the Army of 
the Potomac reached Williamsport, Gen. Lee, with the body of his forces, 
had recrossed the river. On the 19th, the Sixth Corps crossed the Potomac, 
advanced by way of Manassas Gap, and took a position in line of battle on 
the Sulphur-spring Koad, near Warrenton, Va. 


July 30, the Thii-ty-scventh was detailed by Gen. Sedgewiek to proceed to 
New York on duty connected with the draft. 

Arrived at New York Aug. 2, and were ordered to Fort HamiUon. The night 
before the first drafting was to take place, the Thirty-seventh was ordered 
to the city, and bivouacked on Washington Parade-gi-ound, with the exception 
of two companies, which were stationed in the building where the drawing was 
to take place. After a tour of this duty of three days, we were relieved by the 
arrival of other regiments from the Army of the Potomac, and ordered back 
to Fort Hamilton. 

Oct. 14, the regiment was ordered to report to Gen. Halleck 
at Washington. On the 16th, it reported to Gen. Sedgewiek ; and 
on the 17th joined its old brigade at Chantilly, and, following up 
the retreat of Gen. Lee, reached Warrenton on the 20th. 

Nov. 7. the Thirty-seventh was at the battle of Rappahannock 
Station, though not closely engaged. On the 26th, it crossed the 
Rapidan at Jacob's Ford, and took position in line of battle near 
Robinson's Tavern. On the 29th, it made a flank movement 
upon the enemy's right. Dec. 2, the army fell back to the north 
bank of the Rapidan to camp near Brandy Station. Here the 
regiment remained until Feb. 29, when it marched to its former 
camp near Madison Court House. March 24, it was transferred to 
the fourth brigade, second division. Sixth Corps. 

On the 4th of May, the Thirty-seventh left its encampment; there 
being twenty-nine officers and five hundred and eighty enlisted men 
present for duty. It crossed the Rapidan on the following day, 
and participated in the first day's battle of the Wilderness. 
Records an officer, — 

Although not heavily engaged, we were exposed a part of the time to a 
severe musketry-fire, losing Capt. J. L. Hayden and eleven men wounded. 
Resting upon the battle-field during the night, the battle was renewed at an 
early hour upon the 6th ; and no regiment displayed gi-eater gallantry than 
did the Thirty-seventh on the 6th of 3Iay. It was on the right of the Gor- 
donsville Plank-road that we lay, in the third or fourth fine of battle, as a 
support to the lines in front. The front lines at last gave way, passing over 
the regiment in a complete rout. The enemy, flushed with an apparent suc- 
cess, pressed hard on. The order was given for the Thirty-seventh to ad- 
vance. At the word, every man moved forward under a witliering fire, and 
hurled the enemy's lines back, one upon another, for a distance of one-fourth 
of a mile, and held the position until the line in rear had time to re-form. It 
was at this point that the late Gen. Wadsworth, while complimenting and 
thanking Col. Edwards for the heroic conduct of the regiment, was i)icrced 
by a Minic ball. Being here exposed to a terrific musketry-fire from the 



front and both flanks, it was ordered to fall back ; which movement it exe- 
cuted without confusion. Our loss in officers in this engagement were Capt. 
R. P. Lincoln, First Lieutenant J. C. Chalmers, both wounded; twenty-nine 
men killed, ninety-nine wounded, and eight missing in action. During the 
night, we encamped with the second division near the headquarters of the 
army, joining the remainder of the Sixth Corps upon the extreme right of ■ 
the line. 

From the 7th to the 12th, the regiment occupied various posi- 
tions in the line of battle. On the 12th, the second division, of 
which this regiment was a part, supported an attack made by the 
Second Corps. The enemy were completely surprised, and their 
works successfully carried. Then ensued a hand-to-hand struggle 
for their possession. The fighting continued from sunrise until 
midnight, when the enemy relinquished the field. 

A battle-flag taken from the enemy is one of the proofs of the 
valor of the Thirty-seventh in this bloody strife. 

The position in front of Spottsylvania was evacuated on the 21st, 
and Cold Harbor reached on the 1st of June. While here, the 
regiment was exposed more or less every day in line of battle. 

Leaving Cold Harbor June 12, Lieut.-Col. Montague in com- 
mand, the regiment crossed the James, and arrived in front of 
Petersburg on the 17th, and on the 29th marched to Ream's Sta- 
tion. After destroying several miles of railroad, it returned to its 
old station July 2. 

On the 9th of July, the Sixth Corps marched to City Pohit, and 
embarked for Washington ; the regiment numbering at this time 
seventeen officers, and three hundred and eight men. Arriving 
in Washington on the 12th, it participated in the engagement at 
Fort Stevens, losing two wounded in the Thirty-seventh proper, 
one killed, and four wounded in the attachments. On the 14th, 
it was armed with the Spencer repeating-rifle. 

On the 21st of August, wliile the regiment was acting as sup- 
port for picket-line, it was attacked, and became engaged in a 
brisk skirmish during a greater part of the day, losing seventeen 
men in killed and wounded. 

On the 16th of September, the veterans and recruits of the Sev- 
enth and Tenth Massachusetts Volunteers were consolidated with 
this regiment by virtue of Special Orders, No. 302, War Depart- 
ment, making a gain to the effective strength of the regiment of 
seventy-tlu-ee men. On the 19th, tlie regiment, numbering two 
hundred and ninety-six guns, crossed the Opequan River, and 
became engaged with the enemy about noon, the battle lasting 


until dark, when the enemy was driven through "Winchester. 
The regiment received much praise in the army for its services 
during this engagement. The capture of the colors of Stone- 
wall Jackson's old regiment adds to its glory, and attests its 
faithful services. 

During the evening, the regiment was detailed as provost-guard 
of Winchester, and hivouacked for the night in the court-house 
yard. The next day, quarters were assigned to it in adjacent 
buildings, where it remained doing provost and guard duty until 
Dec. 13 ; when the regiment was ordered to report to Major-Gen. 
Halleck at Washington, and join the Sixth Corps in front of 

The regiment remained in camp, with two interruptions, from 
January until April, 1865. The first was on the 5th of February, 
when the first division of the Sixth Corps was ordered to cross 
Hatcher's Run to re-enforce the Sixth Corps, where it held the 
line of pits that covered the crossing of the run ; and, on the 7th, 
was in reserve of the Fifth Corps in the attempt of that corps to 
capture Dal)b's Mills. 

The second occasion was the 25th of March, when Fort Sted- 
man was attacked, the opening of the eventful campaign of 1865. 
On hearing of the capture of the fort by the enemy, the division 
to which the Thirty-seventh belonged was put under way for the 
rescue, and had marched four miles, when it was announced that 
the Ninth Corps had retaken the works, and had driven back the 
enemy within liis own lines. 

On the night of the 1st of April, the Sixth Corps made an 
assault on the enemy's lines below Petersburg. The brigades 
were formed in column of attack, preceded by a band of pioneers 
and a heavy skirmish line. 

Capt. Robinson of the Thirty-seventh- charged at the head of his 
skirmishers through the abatis, and was borne back wounded ; 
but the colors of his regiment were the first in the division to 
wave over the rebel works. From the fort, the regiment pushed 
on towards the left until it met the troops of the other brigade, 
and then forward to the South-side Railroad. The Thirty-seventh 
alone of the Sixth Corps entered Petersburg next morning, and 
Col. Edwards received the surrender of the place. Four days of 
marching and countermarching brought the regiment to Amelia 
Court House, April 6. 

For an account of the battle of this day, which resulted in the 


capture of six generals, several thousand prisoners, and several 
cannon, we quote from the official report: — 

At noon we had made a march of twenty-five miles, double-quicking nearly 
eight miles of the way ; and were confronting the enemy, with a deep stream 
between us. Our brigade was on the extreme right of the line, and the 
Thirty-seventh occupied the left of the brigade. Rushing like an avalanche 
across Saylor's Creek when the water was up to our arm-pits, we dislodged 
the enemy from the opposite bank, and drove them over the crest of the hill. 

Beyond the stream, for a quarter of a mile, we advanced through a thick 
growth of underbrush, fighting as we went. The firing waxed hotter and 
hotter, until suddenly we found, to our dismay, that the regiment on our right 
had given way, and the brigade on our left had broken the connection, and 
halted some distance back. We were lost to our friends. Our nearest 
neio-hbor was our foe. The rebels came pouring down upon us, and within 
a few seconds had attacked and enveloped both flanks of the regiment. A 
hand-to-hand conflict ensued. Many men were wounded with the bayonet, 
and pistol-shots were freely exchanged. 

Meanwhile the Spencer rifle was working the havoc for which it was in- 
tended. All down the front of our regiment, the gaps that our fire opened 
in the enemy's ranks were fearful. They had started to attack us massed in 
heavy columns : scattered fragments only reached us. They came, throwing 
down their guns, raising their hands, and imploring the cessation of the fire. 
After the battle, more than seventy corpses were counted on the ground in 
our immediate front ; and, when we consider that the proportion of the slain 
to t